Strategies for development of anti-parasite chemotherapy involve identification of active principles of plants, investigation of drugs already licensed for other pathologies, or validation of specific targets identified within key metabolic pathways.
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a regulator of cellular oxidative stress, has been associated with activation of NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, inflammation and lipid metabolism, suggesting it has a role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in diabetes. In this study we investigated whether TXNIP is involved in type 1 diabetes-associated NAFLD and whether antioxidants, quercetin and allopurinol, alleviate NAFLD by targeting TXNIP.
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MSD could inhibit XOD activities in serum and liver, decrease levels of serum uric acid, serum creatinine and BUN, and increased levels of urine uric acid, urine creatinine, FEUA dose-dependently through down-regulation of URAT1 and up-regulation of OAT1 protein expressions in the renal tissue of hyperuricemic mice. It also effectively reversed oxonate-induced alterations on renal MDA levels and SOD activities in this model.
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Twenty-six rasburicase-treated patients were matched with 104 allopurinol-treated patients. Reduction in plasma UA was 5.3 mg/dL greater for patients treated with rasburicase than for patients treated with allopurinol (P < .0001). Length of ICU stay was 2.5 days less for patients treated with rasburicase than for patients treated with allopurinol (P < .0001), and total LOS was 5 days less for patients treated with rasburicase than for patients treated with allopurinol (P = .02). Total costs per patient were $20,038 lower for patients treated with rasburicase than for patients treated with allopurinol (P < .02). Cost per percentage UA reduction was also lower for patients treated with rasburicase versus patients treated with allopurinol ($3899 vs. $16,894; P < .001).
At week 4 and 6, the protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4 as well as the mRNA transcription of TLR4 increased in the model group, when compared with the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, there was no statistical difference in the transcription level of TLR2 mRNA or TLR4 mRNA among the 3 CQL groups (P > 0.05) at week 4 and 6. Additionally, at week 6, the protein expression of TLR4 and TLR2 could be reduced by CQL (P < 0.05, P < 0.01).
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Proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to activate endothelial cells. To investigate the effect of cytokines on the interaction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cells were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) plus tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) for 24 hr and exposed to P. aeruginosa suspension for 1 hr. Light microscopy showed that activated cells internalized significantly more bacteria than control cells. To ascertain the effect of cytokines on the microbicidal activity of HUVEC, the concentrations of viable intracellular (IC) bacteria in control and activated cells were determined, at 1 and 5 hr postinfection, by the gentamicin exclusion assay. In control cells, no significant decrease in the concentration of bacteria was detected 5 hr postinfection. In contrast, in activated cells the concentration of viable bacteria at 5 hr was significantly lower. Concentrations of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide detected in supernatants of activated cells were significantly higher than in control cell supernatants. HUVEC anti-P. aeruginosa activity was insensitive to the antioxidants superoxide dismutase, dimethylthiourea and allopurinol as well as to the L-arginine analogues aminoguanidine and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), but was significantly inhibited by catalase. Our results indicate that HUVEC can be activated by IFN-gamma plus TNF-alpha to kill IC P. aeruginosa and suggest a role for reactive oxygen radicals, notably hydrogen peroxide, in HUVEC antibacterial activity.
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Twenty-three patients with characteristic hepatic fibrin-ring granulomas were studied. Q fever accounted for 10 cases (43%), visceral leishmaniasis for five cases (22%), boutonneuse fever for two cases (9%), and toxoplasmosis, Hodgkin's disease, and allopurinol hypersensitivity for one case each (4%). The etiology remained undetermined in three cases (13%). This report broadens the range of etiologies of hepatic fibrin-ring granulomas to include boutonneuse fever and toxoplasmosis in the differential diagnosis of ring granulomas, and it could serve as a guideline to the clinician and pathologist for the most frequent categories of disease associated with this morphologic pattern.
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To report our experience with hemospermia and its relation to hyperuricemia.
Using an in vitro model, we sought to decipher the relationship among allopurinol metabolism, HLA-B*58:01 phenotype and drug concentrations in stimulating drug-specific T cells.
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After a 6-hour storage, University of Wisconsin and C solutions provided better preservation than B and St. Thomas' Hospital solutions: diastolic pressures were lower; developed pressure and rate of pressure rise were higher. C solution was superior to University of Wisconsin solution only for rate of pressure rise. A solution was intermediary. A significant alteration of resting pressure and hemodynamic parameters was generally observed during the 6-hour storage. Nonsignificant changes of developed pressure and rate of pressure rise were only observed in C and B solutions: This is explained by systolic alteration after immediate reimplantation for the B group and good preservation for the C group. Resting pressure was unchanged over a 6-hour storage only for the C group, but this measure was not determined for University of Wisconsin. A correlation exists for various left ventricular volumes between resting pressure and postreperfusion hemodynamic data. Replacement of chloride by lactobionate (A versus St. Thomas' Hospital) may have improved resting and diastolic pressures by other mechanisms than limitation of net water gain during storage.
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It has now been firmly established that, not only ischemia/reperfusion, but also cold itself causes damage during kidney transplantation. Iron chelators or anti-oxidants applied during the cold plus rewarming phase are able to prevent this damage. At present, it is unknown if these measures act only during the cold, or whether application during the rewarming phase also prevents damage. We aimed to study this after cold normoxic and hypoxic conditions. LLC-PK1 cells were incubated at 4 degrees C in Krebs-Henseleit buffer for 6 or 24h, followed by 18 or 6h rewarming, respectively. Cold preservation was performed under both normoxic (95% air/5% CO2) and hypoxic (95% N2/5% CO2) conditions. The iron chelator 2,2'-DPD (100 microM), anti-oxidants BHT (20 microM) or sibilinin (200 microM), and xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol (100 microM) were added during either cold preservation plus rewarming, or rewarming alone. Cell damage was assessed by LDH release (n=3-9). Addition of 2,2'-DPD and BHT during cold hypoxia plus rewarming did, but during rewarming alone did not prevent cell damage. When added during rewarming after 6h cold normoxic incubation, BHT and 2,2'-DPD inhibited rewarming injury compared to control (p<0.05). Allopurinol did not prevent cell damage in any experimental set-up. Our data show that application of iron chelators or anti-oxidants during the rewarming phase protects cells after normoxic but not hypoxic incubation. Allopurinol had no effect. Since kidneys are hypoxic during transplantation, measures aimed at preventing cold-induced and rewarming injury should be taken during the cold.
TP metabolism is complex and many enzymes are involved. Among them, Thiopurine methyl transferase is the only one routinely measured by pheno- or genotyping. A decreased TPMT activity results in a potential overdosing of TP drugs leading to myelotoxicity, whereas an ultra-high activity leads to TP ineffectiveness and overproduction of methylated compounds responsible for hepatotoxicity. TPMT determination prior to TP treatment results in an individual adapted dose. Xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase (XOD), inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) and glutathion-S-transferase (GST) are other promising enzyme targets that might help to explain TP efficacy or toxicity. ITPA and GST polymorphisms might potentially be related to some TP side effects, while a XOD inhibition by allopurinol could avoid TP-related hepatotoxicity.
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Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare but life-threatening reaction to drugs such as carbamazepine and allopurinol. The condition is characterized by skin rashes, fever, hematological disturbances, lymphadenopathy, and organ failure, most probably hepatic dysfunction. To date, only a few cases of valproate-induced DRESS syndrome have been reported.
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Recent studies in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) on thiopurine therapy suggest that too low 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentrations (6-TGN) and too high methylmercaptopurine nucleotide concentrations (MMPN) can be reversed by a combination therapy of allopurinol and low-dose thiopurines. To date, however, optimal dosing has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimal allopurinol doses necessary to achieve adequate 6-TGN concentrations in combination with low-dose azathioprine.
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The increase in orotidine excretion following a 300 mg allopurinol dose has been used for carrier detection in ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT) deficiency. This test was evaluated, using three collection periods, in 23 healthy women, 4 obligate heterozygotes and 32 other women at risk of being carriers of OCT deficiency. Four methods for the analysis of orotidine and orotic acid were compared. Using the most reproducible method, the excretion of orotic acid in controls was found to be consistently higher than that of orotidine in all three periods. The distribution of both orotic acid and orotidine excretion of controls was skewed so that standard deviations (S.D.) were calculated after logarithmic transformation. All four obligate heterozygotes showed orotic acid and orotidine excretion in excess of 3 S.D. above the control mean and a further 7 women had one or more excretion values in excess of 3 S.D., while 16 gave a value of less than 2 S.D. for both metabolites. We conclude that the predictive value of the test is good, that both orotic acid and orotidine should be measured to reduce the risk of misclassification and that values greater than 2 S.D. for both in one or more periods should be used as the cut-off point to identify carriers.
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Twenty four rats were subjected to right kidney uninephrectomy were randomly distributed into the following three groups (n=8): Group A (sham-operated group); Group B (ischemic group) with 30 min of renal ischemia after surgery; and Group C (allopurinol + ischemia group) pretreated with allopurinol at 50 mg/kg for 14 days. At 72 h after renal reperfusion, the kidney was harvested to assess inflammation and apoptosis.
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To determine longterm urate-lowering efficacy and clinical benefits and safety of therapy with febuxostat or allopurinol in subjects with gout.
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Treatment of partially depolarised mouse diaphragm muscle in vitro with the Ca2(+)-channel agonist Bay K 8644 (1 microM) induces permeabilisation of the sarcolemma (visualised by penetration of procion yellow). Procion yellow staining was widespread (74% of fibres) after 2 h of treatment, but was negligible after 60 min, a time at which myofibre breakdown is well advanced and elevation of [Ca2+]i is minimal (Howl and Publicover 1989). Permeabilisation was inhibited in Ca2(+)-free saline, and was much less pronounced in polarised fibres. Inhibitors of free radical generation (particularly OH) afforded considerable protection to the muscle membrane against Bay K 8644-induced membrane permeabilisation. Inhibition of phospholipase A2 and lipoxygenase were also effective, but inhibition of xanthine oxidase (by allopurinol) had little effect. It is concluded that the initial effect of Bay K 8644 treatment is to increase Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels at the sarcolemma, and that this action subsequently induces membrane permeabilisation. Membrane damage probably occurs due to free radical generation and activation of phospholipase A2, both resulting from elevation of [Ca2+]i.
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Changes in arterial blood ketone body ratio (KBR) were investigated in 47 human liver transplantations. Of the 20 grafts preserved with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, 10 had a cold preservation period of less than 10 h (UWS group) and 10 of more than 10 h (UWL group). In 27 other cases, grafts were preserved with EuroCollins (EC) solution for less than 10 h (EC group). In the EC group, KBR increased over 0.7 within 6 h after reperfusion of the graft in 17 cases (63%) and within 24 h in 7 cases (26%). In the 3 other cases, KBR failed to recover, and these patients underwent retransplantation. In the UW group, KBR recovered within 6 h in 13 cases (65%) and within 24 h in 7 cases (35%). There were no significant differences between the UWS and UWL groups. It is shown that the mitochondrial function of liver grafts preserved with UW solution can be well maintained even after extended preservation periods of more than 10 h.
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Treatment of manifestations: Control of overproduction of uric acid with allopurinol reduces the risk for nephrolithiasis, urate nephropathy, gouty arthritis, and tophi but has no effect on behavioral and neurologic symptoms; treatment of renal stones may require lithotripsy or surgery. Baclofen or benzodiazepines for spasticity; physical, behavioral, psychiatric, protective equipment to reduce complications from self-injury and other deleterious behaviors. Prevention of secondary compliations: Adjustment of the dose of allopurinol is required to minimize the complication of nephrolithiasis; virtually any reduction of hyperuricemia will prevent urate nephropathy. Surveillance: Monitoring for early signs of self-injury; medical history, plasma uric acid concentration, urinary oxypurine excretion to monitor for signs of renal stones. Agents/circumstances to avoid: Probenecid and other uricosuric drugs designed to reduce the serum concentration of uric acid; periods of relative dehydration, which may increase risk for renal stones or urate nephropathy with resulting oliguria/anuria. Evaluation of relatives at risk: Prenatal testing or testing of at-risk males immediately after birth enables prompt initiation of allopurinol therapy; establishing the carrier status of at-risk female relatives through genetic testing may allow for early treatment that reduces their risk for gout in later years.
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The effects of hypothermic injury to the liver were investigated on an isolated perfusion circuit by comparing porcine livers with varying degrees of preservation injury.
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In a clinical setting, the effect of Eurocollins (EC) and University of Wisconsin solution (UW) on liver grafts were studied in the early reperfusion phase of liver transplantation. Blood samples were drawn before and after declamping of the portal vein in a group of 11 transplants with EC-perfused livers, and a group of 12 transplants with UW-perfused livers. Parenchymal damage was assessed by the LDH, AST, and ALT, and purine degradation by measuring the uric acid levels. Metabolic function was determined by the serum bile acids and the plasma amino acids, i.e. (valine + leucine + isoleucine)/(phenylalanine + tyrosine) ratio. Donor and pretransplant recipient parameters were almost identical. The cold ischemia time of both groups differed significantly. The results show the following: a significant difference between both the LDH and the uric acid levels in the two groups was revealed, with a smaller increase of the LDH levels and no increase of the uric acid levels in the UW group. Metabolic activity, as measured from the bile acids and the amino acid profile in the peripheral blood, was identical in both groups. We conclude that both EC-stored and UW-stored liver grafts show immediate metabolic function after reperfusion. The amount of metabolic function was equal in both groups, notwithstanding longer cold ischemia time in the UW group. In addition, more parenchymal damage occurred in the EC group.
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Freeze-tolerant fish survive sub-zero temperatures by non-colligatively lowering the freezing temperature of their body fluids using anti-freeze proteins (AFPs). We sought to evaluate and compare the effects of prolonged sub-zero cryopreservation of transplanted rat hearts using AFP I or AFP III.
The pressure at which pulmonary grafts are initially reperfused appears to be critical to their subsequent integrity. A protocol of controlled reperfusion may reduce reperfusion injury and improve graft function in clinical practice.
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Reperfusion injury with pulmonary edema continues to be a major complication after lung transplantation. Alveolar fluid homeostasis is regulated by Na+/K+-ATPase activity on the basolateral surface of alveolar epithelial cells. Intact Na+/K+-ATPase is essential to the resolution of pulmonary edema. We characterized the effects of cold ischemia and reperfusion on expression of Na+/K+-ATPase mRNA and protein.
Low-dose febuxostat is a promising alternative to allopurinol or benzbromarone for the treatment of hyperuricemia in kidney transplant recipients. The long-term urate-lowering efficacy and safety of febuxostat with regard to renal function in kidney transplant recipients with hyperuricemia requires further investigation.