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Data was extracted from the clinic records and patients' records. The diagnosis of PR was made clinically based on the typical history, identification of the herald patch and characteristic 'Christmas tree' distribution of the exanthematic rash.
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Various radiotracers based on uracil nucleosides (e.g. [124I]2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil, [124I]FIAU) and acycloguanosine derivatives (e.g. [18F]9-[(3-fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy) methyl] guanine, [18F]FHPG) have been proposed for the non-invasive imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter gene expression. However, these radiotracers have been evaluated in different in vitro and in vivo models, precluding a direct comparison. Therefore, we directly compared [18F]FHPG and radioiodinated FIAU to assess their potential for PET imaging of transgene expression. The uptake of [125I]FIAU, [18F]FHPG and [3H]acyclovir was determined in vitro using four different HSV1-tk expressing cell lines and their respective negative controls. The in vitro tracer uptake was generally low in non-transduced parental cell lines. In HSV1-tk expressing cells, [3H]acyclovir showed approximately a twofold higher tracer accumulation, the [18F]FHPG uptake increased by about sixfold and the [125I]FIAU accumulation increased by about 28-fold after 120-min incubation of T1115 human glioblastoma cells. Similar results were found in the other cell lines. In addition, biodistribution and positron emission tomography (PET) studies with [18F]FHPG and [124/125I]FIAU were carried out in tumour-bearing BALB/c mice. Significantly higher specific accumulation of radioactivity was found for [125I]FIAU compared with [18F]FHPG. The ratio of specific tracer accumulation between [125I]FIAU and [18F]FHPG increased from 21 (30 min p.i.) to 119 (4 h p.i.). PET imaging, using [124I]FIAU, clearly visualised and delineated HSV1-tk expressing tumours, whereas only a negligible uptake of [18F]FHPG was observed. This study demonstrated that in vitro and in vivo, the radioiodinated uracil nucleoside FIAU has a significantly higher specific accumulation than the acycloguanosine derivative [18F]FHPG. This suggests that [124I]FIAU should be the preferred reporter probe for PET imaging of HSV1-tk gene expression. Thus, further attempts to develop suitable PET tracers for the assessment of HSV1-tk gene expression should also focus on 18F-labelled uracil derivatives.
In vitro characterization provided direct evidence that the pro-drug was actively metabolized in liver cancer cells by telomerase to release the active form of acyclovir. Alterations in cell cycle and apoptosis were observed following in vitro treatment with ACV-TP-T. In the transgenic and orthotopic mouse models, treatment with ACV-TP-T reduced tumour growth, increased apoptosis, and reduced the proliferation of tumour cells.
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An accurate, simple, reproducible, and sensitive liquid chromatographic method is developed and validated to quantitate acyclovir (ACV) in cross-linked chitosan microspheres produced by spray drying. The analysis is carried out using a reversed-phase C18 column with UV-vis detection at 254 nm. The mobile phase is diluted with pure water and acetonitrile (95:5 v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. The parameters used in the validation process are: linearity, range, quantitation limit, detection limit, accuracy, specificity precision, and ruggedness. The retention time of acyclovir is approximately 3.5 min with symmetrical peaks. The linearity in the range of 1-10 microg/mL presents a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The chitosan and the tripolyphosphate in the formulation do not interfere with the analysis, and the recovery is quantitative. Results are satisfactory, and the method proves to be suitable to quantitate ACV in cross-linked chitosan microspheres.
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A375 tumors showed apoptosis at the ultrastructural level after transduction with the trans-complementing vector system that was not seen with injection of either vector alone. Apoptotic DNA fragments could be co-localized to sites of infection with the adenoviral vectors. A significant survival benefit was achieved for the trans-complementing vector treated animals compared to animals treated with either vector alone. Interestingly, the administration of GCV did not further increase animal survival over treatment with the trans-complementing system of viruses alone, and long-term survival was only seen in the trans-complementing vector treatment group. Intraperitoneal administration of a pseudo-wild-type vector Ad.dl327 resulted in significant hepatotoxicity, while intraperitoneal administration of the trans-complementing vectors resulted in only mild liver abnormalities.
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Because systemic exposure of oral ganciclovir is enhanced in AIDS patients with diarrhea and wasting syndrome, oral ganciclovir therapy may benefit these patients.
Retinal and vitreal levels of both drugs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours after a single intravitreal injection of 196 microg and 800 microg of ganciclovir and 960 microg of foscarnet to three groups of 24 pigmented rabbits. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was used.
Aciclovir (800 mg) can be given in HIV-infected patients who develop non-complicated varicella-zoster virus infection. Intravenous aciclovir should be reserved for severe disseminated and/or neurological forms and for highly immunodepressed patients (for example those with a CD4 count below 200/mm3). These findings should be confirmed by prospective studies.
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Because of the serious disease sequelae associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infections, awareness and control measures used to control outbreaks are important issues for all horse populations.
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An economic model was designed to simulate long-term costs and outcomes of prolonged prophylaxis with valganciclovir (200 vs. 100 days) in a cohort of 10,000 high-risk renal transplant patients over 5 and 10 years. The first year of the model was based on the results of the Improved Protection Against CMV in Transplant trial and the extension to the long-term periods (5 and 10 years); and quality of life data were based on evidence retrieved through a systematic literature search. This analysis was conducted from the US healthcare payer perspective.
Hospitalization data and medical resource utilization data were prospectively collected alongside two randomized trials. In the first trial, the patients were randomized to 3-month prophylaxis with either oral ganciclovir (1 g t.i.d., n = 36) or valacyclovir (2 g q.i.d., n = 35), and to the control group (n = 12) managed by deferred therapy. In the second trial, the patients were randomly assigned to 3-month valacyclovir prophylaxis (n = 34) or preemptive therapy with valganciclovir (900 mg b.i.d. for a minimum of 14 days, n = 36) for significant CMV DNAemia. The cost analysis involved all real costs directly related to CMV during the first year after renal transplantation.
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Permanent punctal occlusion by thermal cautery and the use of topical cyclosporine independently reduced recurrences of stromal HSK.
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Participants took the first drug for 28 days followed by 28 days of washout before taking the second drug for 28 days. Throughout treatment, the participants collected genital swabs 4 times daily for testing by HSV polymerase chain reaction assays.
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A 73-year-old woman underwent vitrectomy and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) of the right eye and cataract surgery with IVTA of the left eye, for bilateral diabetic macular edema. The patient presented with visual loss in both eyes three-months postoperatively. The fundoscopic examination revealed white-yellow, necrotic peripheral lesions in the superotemporal quadrant of both eyes. Although bilateral acute retinal necrosis was suspected, azotemia resulting from diabetic nephropathy limited the use of acyclovir. Antiviral treatment was not started. A sample of the aqueous humor for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was obtained. One week later, the PCR results indicated the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV). Since the retinal lesions did not progress and did not threaten the macula, the patient was followed without treatment for CMV. The retinal lesions progressively regressed and completely resolved in both eyes by six months of follow-up. Patients with IVTA-induced CMV retinitis may not require systemic treatment with ganciclovir.
This study identifies ATM as a potential target for the treatment of HK. ATM inhibition by KU-55933 reduces epithelial infection and stromal disease severity without producing appreciable toxicity. These findings warrant further investigations into the DNA damage response as an area for therapeutic intervention in herpetic ocular diseases.
EA of Jiaji (EX-B 2) in combination with focus-encircled needling is effective in facilitating the crust formation and pain relief in the treatment of herpes zoster, and the effect of acupuncture is superior to that of medication.
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Long-term acyclovir (ACV) prophylaxis, recommended to prevent recurrent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ocular disorders, may pose a risk for ACV-refractory disease due to ACV resistance. We determined the effect of ACV prophylaxis on the prevalence of corneal ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1 and clinical consequences thereof in patients with recurrent HSV-1 keratitis (rHK).
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Current treatment trends vary widely, including single agents or combinations of oral, intravenous, and intravitreal agents. Differing strategies did not affect outcomes. The final visual acuity in ARN was generally poor. Retinal detachment was common and could neither be predicted nor prevented. Development of ARN in the unaffected fellow eye occurred rarely. Long-term oral antiviral treatment strategies varied with unclear relative efficacy.
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Herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-TK/GCV) therapy was performed in five cases of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. In the last study, the authors demonstrated response of the HSV-TK/GCV therapy against tumor progression (Adachi N, et al.: No Shinkei Geka). The aim of this study is to estimate the biosafety of in vivo HSV-TK gene transfer and GCV administration in five cases. Six parameters were analyzed sequentially up to the 6th month after the vector producer cells (VPCs) inoculation as follows; i) clinical symptom, ii) vital sign, iii) peripheral blood cell count, iv) blood biochemical analysis, v) serological test, vi) molecular biological test in peripheral leukocytes. In addition, ten systemic organs extracted from the two subjects in whom death occurred were also analyzed biologically. One case suffered from transient deterioration of left hemiparesis on the 34th day, which could be considered a probably-related but not adverse event. Serological tests detected anti-VPC antibody at the 1st month in one case and anti-vector antibody at the 1st and 4th month in another. The other examinations revealed no abnormal findings at all. These data indicate that the HSV-TK/GCV therapy might be a satisfactorily safe approach against glioblastoma multiforme.
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To determine whether the frequency of HSV recurrences decreases over time.
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To explore the potential for molecular immunotherapies in the treatment of malignant gliomas, we evaluated the efficacy of subcutaneous tumor cell vaccines in the treatment of intracranial 9L tumors, using 9L gliosarcoma cell lines stably transduced with the murine interleukin-4 cDNA (9L-IL4), the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase cDNA (9L-Tk) or both (9L-IL4-Tk). The expression of multiple genes from a single transcript was achieved by incorporating internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) cassettes in the retroviral constructs. Subcutaneous immunization of rats with nonirradiated 9L-IL4 cells or 9L-IL4-Tk cells followed by treatment with ganciclovir (GCV) completely protected the animals from a subsequent intracranial challenge with wild-type 9L cells. In contrast, only 50% of animals immunized with 9L-Tk cells and 0% of 9L-neo immunized animals rejected the same challenge with wild-type 9L. More importantly, treatment of established (day 3) intracranial 9L tumors with genetically engineered tumor cells resulted in long-term survival (> 100 days) for 25-43% of 9L-IL4-Tk immunized animals and for 27% of nonirradiated 9L-IL4 immunized animals. In striking contrast, no 9L-Tk, 9L-neo or irradiated 9L-IL4 immunized animals survived for more than 33 days. As a marker of a cellular immune response, splenocytes from nonirradiated 9L-IL4, 9L-Tk or 9L-IL4-Tk immunized animals produced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in greater amounts than those from 9L-neo immunized or Hank's balanced salts solution (HBSS) treated animals when stimulated with wild-type 9L in vitro. Our findings support the use of tumor cell vaccines expressing the IL-4 and HSVtk genes for the treatment of malignant gliomas.