Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Ondansetron.
Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.
Generic Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations (e.g., chemotherapy).
Zofran is also known as Ondansetron, Vomiof, Danzetron, Ondaz.
Generic name of Generic Zofran is Ondansetron.
Brand name of Generic Zofran is Zofran.
Take each dose with a full glass of water.
Take Generic Zofran with food or an antacid to lessen stomach discomfort.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Zofran and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at temperature between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Zofran are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Zofran if you are allergic to Generic Zofran components.
Be careful with Generic Zofran if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Generic Zofran should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 4 months old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.
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Ondansetron, a 5HT3 receptor antagonist, was significantly superior to placebo in preventing emesis associated with acute gastroenteritis, in paediatric patients. Therefore, serotonin, acting through 5HT3 receptors, may play a role in this form of emesis.
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Between 2% and 23% of children with gastroenteritis (International Classification of Diseases code A08.X or A09) received prescriptions for antiemetic medications (United States, 23%; 95% CI, 15-31; Germany, 17%; 95% CI, 15-20; France, 17%; 95% CI, 14-19; Spain, 15%; 95% CI, 10-19; Italy, 11%; 95% CI, 7-16; Canada, 3%; 95% CI, 0-16; United Kingdom, 2%; 95% CI, 1-2). The antihistamines dimenhydrinate and diphenhydramine were most frequently used in Germany and Canada, whereas promethazine was prescribed preferentially in the United States. In France, Spain, and Italy, the dopamine receptor antagonist domperidone was preferred as antiemetic treatment. Ondansetron was used in a minor proportion of antiemetic prescriptions (Germany, Canada, Spain, and Italy, 0%; United States, 3%; United Kingdom, 6%).
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Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the following interventions intravenously: ondansetron 4 mg (Group 1), promethazine 25 mg (Group 2), ondansetron 2 mg plus promethazine 12.5 mg (Group 3, combination), or placebo (Group 4).
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We evaluated whether the anxiolytic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the rat ultrasonic vocalization (USV) test are preferentially mediated by (indirect) activation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B/1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptors. The SSRIs, paroxetine (ED50 in mg/kg, IP: 6.9), citalopram (6.5), fluvoxamine (11.7) and fluoxetine (> 30), dose dependently reduced shock-induced USV. The effects of paroxetine (3.0 mg/kg, IP) were not blocked by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100635 (3.0 mg/kg, IP), the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR 127935 (30 mg/kg, IP), the nonselective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, ritanserin (3.0 mg/kg, IP) and ketanserin (1.0 mg/kg, IP), the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (0.1 mg/kg, IP), or the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, GR 125487D (3.0 mg/kg, SC). In contrast, the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL 100,907 (0.1 mg/kg, IP), completely prevented the paroxetine-induced reduction of USV. Under similar conditions, WAY-100635 blocked the anxiolytic-like effects of the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT [(+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, 1.0 mg/kg, IP], and ritanserin, ketanserin, and MDL 100,907 blocked the anxiolytic-like effects of the mixed 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, DOI [1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane, 3.0 mg/kg, IP]. WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg, IP) in combination with ritanserin (3.0 mg/kg, IP), but not ondansetron (0.1 mg/kg, IP), GR 125487D (3.0 mg/kg, SC), or GR 127935 (30 mg/kg, IP), attenuated the USV reducing effects of paroxetine. Although the results suggest that selective stimulation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors produces a decrease of USV, we postulate that only 5-HT2A receptors play a pivotal role in the effects of SSRIs in this model of anxiety.
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The treatment of choice for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) applied via a mask during sleep. However, this is not tolerated by all individuals and its role in mild OSA is not proven. Drug therapy has been proposed as an alternative to CPAP in some patients with mild to moderate sleep apnoea and could be of value in patients intolerant of CPAP. A number of mechanisms have been proposed by which drugs could reduce the severity of OSA. These include an increase in tone in the upper airway dilator muscles, an increase in ventilatory drive, a reduction in the proportion of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an increase in cholinergic tone during sleep, an increase in arousal threshold, a reduction in airway resistance and a reduction in surface tension in the upper airway.
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Ondansetron had no effect on duodenal pH and on the acid-induced increase of proximal gastric volume (increase of 80 ± 20 vs 83 ± 15 mL after ondansetron and placebo; effect of acid <0.001, between treatments ns). After ondansetron, the overall perception score during duodenal acidification and gastric distension was significantly decreased compared with placebo (P=0.01). There was no effect of ondansetron on the individual dyspeptic symptoms.
Based on this pilot study, we believe that the high likelihood that metopimazine is an effective adjunct to ondansetron monotherapy suggests that this combination therapy is worthy of further study in children receiving emetogenic chemotherapy.
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A total of 90 eligible patients were included in the study. There were 30 patients in Group O, 30 patients in Group D, and 30 patients in Group OD. Intraoperative nausea in Group D was more than the other two groups. Postoperative nausea in group OD was lesser than the other two groups. Intraoperative vomiting in Group OD was lesser than the other two groups. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups in postoperative vomiting (P > 0.05).
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Under controlled conditions, both droperidol and ondansetron either alone or in combination induced significant marked QTc interval prolongation. However, the combination of both drugs did not significantly increase QTc prolongation compared with that induced by droperidol alone.
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A previously healthy 22-month-old, 11.5-kg female presented to the hospital after ingesting approximately 20 rosary peas (A. precatorius) sold as a "peace bracelet". Her primary manifestations were episodes of forceful emesis that included food particles progressing to clear gastric fluid. The patient was tachycardic (HR = 134 bpm) but had brisk capillary refill and normal blood pressure (96/60 mmHg). Laboratory testing revealed elevated blood urea nitrogen (16 mg/dL) and serum creatinine (0.4 mg/dL). In the emergency department, the patient was resuscitated with 40 mL/kg normal saline via peripheral IV and received ondansetron (0.15 mg/kg IV) to control retching. The patient was discharged well 24 h after the ingestion.
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Oral antiemetics are seldom taken by patients (women, children or those having tumors of the buccal area, mouth or esophagus), who find it difficult to swallow. In addition to anatomical reasons, the side effects of cytostatics require medication. Fast dissolving ondansetron is a new preparation, which instantaneously disintegrates and disperses in the saliva. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the antiemetic effectivity of the product Zofran Zydis. Thirty six patients treated with cisplatin (50 mg/m2) in 55 chemotherapy courses were given 2x8 mg fast dissolving ondansetron in a prospective non randomised study. 75% complete response and 11% major response rates were found. Authors conclude that fast dissolving ondansetron is a new and effective preparation that enriches the panel of available supporting drugs.
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The excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor antagonists, 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), which preferentially block non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (non-NMDA) subtypes of EAA receptors, effectively inhibit cisplatin-induced emesis in ferrets. A high dose of cisplatin (10 mg/kg i.v.) was used which induced emesis in all saline-treated control ferrets. At 10 mg/kg i.v., NBQX totally prevented cisplatin-induced emesis in 5 of 6 ferrets and CNQX totally prevented emesis in 3 of 5 ferrets. By comparison, each of the 5-HT3 inhibitors, zacopride and ondansetron, at 1.0 mg/kg i.v. (a dose considered in the high therapeutic range for controlling emesis by these compounds), totally prevented emesis in 2 of 5 ferrets. It is concluded that non-NMDA antagonists effectively inhibit cisplatin-induced emesis. They are potential antiemetic compounds, alone or in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists or other more conventional drugs of choice.
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Ten 5-HT3 over-expressing (5-HT3 OE) and 18 B6SJL wild-type (WT) mice were trained to discriminate 1.5 g/kg ethanol from saline in daily 15 min, milk reinforced operant sessions. After training, ethanol substitution and response-rate suppression dose response curves were determined for ethanol, midazolam, dizocilpine, cocaine, mCPP, MD-354, YC-30 and MDL-72222. Antagonism tests combining ethanol with MDL-72222 and ondansetron were also conducted.
Intravenous scopolamine (0.3 mg), with a comparable efficacy as ondansetron 4 mg, can effectively decrease the incidence of PONV after CS.
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The effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists tropisetron (ICS 205-930) and ondansetron on memory and performance impairments induced by scopolamine were tested in a passive avoidance procedure and in the Morris water maze task. Pretreatment with ondansetron (0.01 and 1 microgram/kg i.p.) but not with tropisetron (1, 10, and 30 micrograms/kg i.p.) reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the step-through passive avoidance task. When the effects of these 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on cognition were assessed in the Morris water maze, ondansetron (0.01, 1, and 10 micrograms/kg i.p.) did not antagonize scopolamine-induced spatial navigation deficits. On the contrary, pretreatment with tropisetron (10 and 30 micrograms/kg, and to some extent also with 1 microgram/kg i.p.) counteracted the learning and memory impairment due to scopolamine treatment. The findings suggest that it could be worthwhile to investigate whether or not different subtypes of the 5-HT3 receptor may underlie the different effects on cognition displayed by compounds that belong to the same pharmacological class.
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The dose of ondansetron that the FDA has concerns about is 32 mg i.v. (or several doses that are equivalent to this), which is only used in preventing nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. This suggests that ondansetron may be safe in lower doses used to prevent nausea and vomiting in radiation treatment or postoperatively. However, as there is a report that a lower dose of ondansetron prolonged the QT interval in healthy volunteers, this needs to be clarified by the FDA. More research needs to be undertaken on the relationship between QT prolongation and torsades in order that the FDA can produce clear-cut evidence of proarrhythmic risk when introducing warnings for this.
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University outpatient surgery center.
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A total of 587 patients were enrolled, and 585 were assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle (195 patients in each arm). The rate of complete protection from acute vomiting and nausea, respectively, was not significantly different among the three groups (arm A, 84.6% and 66.7%; arm B, 83.6% and 56.9%; arm C, 89.2% and 61.0%), nor was the rate of complete protection from delayed vomiting and nausea, respectively (arm A, 81.0% and 46.7%; arm B, 81.3% and 45.1%; arm C, 79.8% and 46.1%). The incidence of delayed vomiting and nausea was strictly dependent on the presence of acute vomiting and nausea. Adverse events were mild and not significantly different among the three groups.
The objective of the present study was to determine whether ondansetron, a specific serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3), relieves cholestatic pruritus in patients resistant to conventional antipruritic therapy (antihistamines and cholestyramine). In a placebo-controlled study the acute effect of an intravenous injection of ondansetron (4 mg, 8 mg) or placebo (NaCl solution) was tested in 10 patients (41-66 years of age; 4 men, 6 women) with cholestatic itch. A successful treatment was assessed when the intensity of itch was reduced by 50% or more within 2 h after injection of ondansetron. Intensity of itch was determined by the patients on a visual rating scale from 0 to 10. Ondansetron reduced or abolished pruritus within 30-60 min after injection. A 50% reduction of the intensity of itch was observed up to 6 h after injection of 8 mg. The effect was reproducible in the same patient. In conclusion ondansetron is effective in the treatment of cholestatic itch. Serotonin may participate in the generation and/or sensation of cholestatic pruritus.
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In this placebo controlled, double blind multicentre study, the efficacy and safety of a single i.v. bolus dose of ondansetron 4 mg were evaluated in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), which remains one of the most unpleasant side effects experienced by patients postoperatively. The study population included patients having general anesthesia and undergoing major gynecological or elective abdominal surgery by laparoscopy. Thirty three percent of placebo-treated patients had at least one emetic episode over 24 hrs compared with 21% in the ondansetron group (p = 0.03). Forty two percent of placebo-treated patients experienced nausea in the 24 hours post-recovery period, compared to 27% of patients treated with ondansetron 4 mg (p = 0.01). Several factors appeared to be associated with an increased risk of developing PONV, namely gender (female), type of surgery (gynecological), experience of previous PONV and duration of anesthesia; the use of propofol was not a significant factor. Ondansetron was well tolerated, with no side effect being reported as a significant problem.
There were 13,347 patient visits eligible for inclusion, of which 8330 (62.4%) were seen by 2 PEPs, and 5017 (37.6%) were seen by 9 EPs. There was a difference in mean patient age (6.9 vs 7.1 years, P = 0.01), whereas sex (53.6% vs 53.9% male, P = 0.72), race (P = 0.13), acuity (mean Emergency Severity Index 3.35 vs 3.33, P = 0.99), and mode of arrival (10.6% vs 12.3% emergency medical services transport, P = 0.06) were not significantly different. Overall admission rates were similar (17.1% PEP vs 17.5% EP, P = 0.50), as were critical care admissions (2.9% PEP vs 2.7% EP of total admissions, P = 0.40). Turnaround times were significantly different (146.0 ± 2.5 minutes PEP vs 149.7 ± 3.2 minutes EP, P = 0.04). Ordering rates of Chem 7, urinalyses, chest radiographs, and ondansetron were lower by PEPs.
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