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Zofran (Ondansetron)

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Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dexamethasone, Scopolamine, Anzemet


Also known as:  Ondansetron.


Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Generic Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations (e.g., chemotherapy).

Zofran is also known as Ondansetron, Vomiof, Danzetron, Ondaz.

Generic name of Generic Zofran is Ondansetron.

Brand name of Generic Zofran is Zofran.


Take each dose with a full glass of water.

Take Generic Zofran with food or an antacid to lessen stomach discomfort.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Zofran and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at temperature between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zofran are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Zofran if you are allergic to Generic Zofran components.

Be careful with Generic Zofran if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Generic Zofran should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 4 months old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.

zofran generic lawsuit

Ondansetron, a 5HT3 receptor antagonist, was significantly superior to placebo in preventing emesis associated with acute gastroenteritis, in paediatric patients. Therefore, serotonin, acting through 5HT3 receptors, may play a role in this form of emesis.

zofran po dose

Between 2% and 23% of children with gastroenteritis (International Classification of Diseases code A08.X or A09) received prescriptions for antiemetic medications (United States, 23%; 95% CI, 15-31; Germany, 17%; 95% CI, 15-20; France, 17%; 95% CI, 14-19; Spain, 15%; 95% CI, 10-19; Italy, 11%; 95% CI, 7-16; Canada, 3%; 95% CI, 0-16; United Kingdom, 2%; 95% CI, 1-2). The antihistamines dimenhydrinate and diphenhydramine were most frequently used in Germany and Canada, whereas promethazine was prescribed preferentially in the United States. In France, Spain, and Italy, the dopamine receptor antagonist domperidone was preferred as antiemetic treatment. Ondansetron was used in a minor proportion of antiemetic prescriptions (Germany, Canada, Spain, and Italy, 0%; United States, 3%; United Kingdom, 6%).

pediatric zofran dosage

Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the following interventions intravenously: ondansetron 4 mg (Group 1), promethazine 25 mg (Group 2), ondansetron 2 mg plus promethazine 12.5 mg (Group 3, combination), or placebo (Group 4).

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We evaluated whether the anxiolytic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the rat ultrasonic vocalization (USV) test are preferentially mediated by (indirect) activation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B/1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptors. The SSRIs, paroxetine (ED50 in mg/kg, IP: 6.9), citalopram (6.5), fluvoxamine (11.7) and fluoxetine (> 30), dose dependently reduced shock-induced USV. The effects of paroxetine (3.0 mg/kg, IP) were not blocked by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100635 (3.0 mg/kg, IP), the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR 127935 (30 mg/kg, IP), the nonselective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, ritanserin (3.0 mg/kg, IP) and ketanserin (1.0 mg/kg, IP), the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (0.1 mg/kg, IP), or the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, GR 125487D (3.0 mg/kg, SC). In contrast, the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL 100,907 (0.1 mg/kg, IP), completely prevented the paroxetine-induced reduction of USV. Under similar conditions, WAY-100635 blocked the anxiolytic-like effects of the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT [(+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, 1.0 mg/kg, IP], and ritanserin, ketanserin, and MDL 100,907 blocked the anxiolytic-like effects of the mixed 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, DOI [1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane, 3.0 mg/kg, IP]. WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg, IP) in combination with ritanserin (3.0 mg/kg, IP), but not ondansetron (0.1 mg/kg, IP), GR 125487D (3.0 mg/kg, SC), or GR 127935 (30 mg/kg, IP), attenuated the USV reducing effects of paroxetine. Although the results suggest that selective stimulation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors produces a decrease of USV, we postulate that only 5-HT2A receptors play a pivotal role in the effects of SSRIs in this model of anxiety.

zofran daily dose

The treatment of choice for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) applied via a mask during sleep. However, this is not tolerated by all individuals and its role in mild OSA is not proven. Drug therapy has been proposed as an alternative to CPAP in some patients with mild to moderate sleep apnoea and could be of value in patients intolerant of CPAP. A number of mechanisms have been proposed by which drugs could reduce the severity of OSA. These include an increase in tone in the upper airway dilator muscles, an increase in ventilatory drive, a reduction in the proportion of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an increase in cholinergic tone during sleep, an increase in arousal threshold, a reduction in airway resistance and a reduction in surface tension in the upper airway.

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Ondansetron had no effect on duodenal pH and on the acid-induced increase of proximal gastric volume (increase of 80 ± 20 vs 83 ± 15 mL after ondansetron and placebo; effect of acid <0.001, between treatments ns). After ondansetron, the overall perception score during duodenal acidification and gastric distension was significantly decreased compared with placebo (P=0.01). There was no effect of ondansetron on the individual dyspeptic symptoms.

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Based on this pilot study, we believe that the high likelihood that metopimazine is an effective adjunct to ondansetron monotherapy suggests that this combination therapy is worthy of further study in children receiving emetogenic chemotherapy.

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A total of 90 eligible patients were included in the study. There were 30 patients in Group O, 30 patients in Group D, and 30 patients in Group OD. Intraoperative nausea in Group D was more than the other two groups. Postoperative nausea in group OD was lesser than the other two groups. Intraoperative vomiting in Group OD was lesser than the other two groups. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups in postoperative vomiting (P > 0.05).

zofran dose infants

Under controlled conditions, both droperidol and ondansetron either alone or in combination induced significant marked QTc interval prolongation. However, the combination of both drugs did not significantly increase QTc prolongation compared with that induced by droperidol alone.

zofran oral dose

A previously healthy 22-month-old, 11.5-kg female presented to the hospital after ingesting approximately 20 rosary peas (A. precatorius) sold as a "peace bracelet". Her primary manifestations were episodes of forceful emesis that included food particles progressing to clear gastric fluid. The patient was tachycardic (HR = 134 bpm) but had brisk capillary refill and normal blood pressure (96/60 mmHg). Laboratory testing revealed elevated blood urea nitrogen (16 mg/dL) and serum creatinine (0.4 mg/dL). In the emergency department, the patient was resuscitated with 40 mL/kg normal saline via peripheral IV and received ondansetron (0.15 mg/kg IV) to control retching. The patient was discharged well 24 h after the ingestion.

zofran medication uses

Oral antiemetics are seldom taken by patients (women, children or those having tumors of the buccal area, mouth or esophagus), who find it difficult to swallow. In addition to anatomical reasons, the side effects of cytostatics require medication. Fast dissolving ondansetron is a new preparation, which instantaneously disintegrates and disperses in the saliva. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the antiemetic effectivity of the product Zofran Zydis. Thirty six patients treated with cisplatin (50 mg/m2) in 55 chemotherapy courses were given 2x8 mg fast dissolving ondansetron in a prospective non randomised study. 75% complete response and 11% major response rates were found. Authors conclude that fast dissolving ondansetron is a new and effective preparation that enriches the panel of available supporting drugs.

zofran zydis dosage

The excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor antagonists, 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), which preferentially block non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (non-NMDA) subtypes of EAA receptors, effectively inhibit cisplatin-induced emesis in ferrets. A high dose of cisplatin (10 mg/kg i.v.) was used which induced emesis in all saline-treated control ferrets. At 10 mg/kg i.v., NBQX totally prevented cisplatin-induced emesis in 5 of 6 ferrets and CNQX totally prevented emesis in 3 of 5 ferrets. By comparison, each of the 5-HT3 inhibitors, zacopride and ondansetron, at 1.0 mg/kg i.v. (a dose considered in the high therapeutic range for controlling emesis by these compounds), totally prevented emesis in 2 of 5 ferrets. It is concluded that non-NMDA antagonists effectively inhibit cisplatin-induced emesis. They are potential antiemetic compounds, alone or in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists or other more conventional drugs of choice.

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Ten 5-HT3 over-expressing (5-HT3 OE) and 18 B6SJL wild-type (WT) mice were trained to discriminate 1.5 g/kg ethanol from saline in daily 15 min, milk reinforced operant sessions. After training, ethanol substitution and response-rate suppression dose response curves were determined for ethanol, midazolam, dizocilpine, cocaine, mCPP, MD-354, YC-30 and MDL-72222. Antagonism tests combining ethanol with MDL-72222 and ondansetron were also conducted.

medicine zofran

Intravenous scopolamine (0.3 mg), with a comparable efficacy as ondansetron 4 mg, can effectively decrease the incidence of PONV after CS.

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The effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists tropisetron (ICS 205-930) and ondansetron on memory and performance impairments induced by scopolamine were tested in a passive avoidance procedure and in the Morris water maze task. Pretreatment with ondansetron (0.01 and 1 microgram/kg i.p.) but not with tropisetron (1, 10, and 30 micrograms/kg i.p.) reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the step-through passive avoidance task. When the effects of these 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on cognition were assessed in the Morris water maze, ondansetron (0.01, 1, and 10 micrograms/kg i.p.) did not antagonize scopolamine-induced spatial navigation deficits. On the contrary, pretreatment with tropisetron (10 and 30 micrograms/kg, and to some extent also with 1 microgram/kg i.p.) counteracted the learning and memory impairment due to scopolamine treatment. The findings suggest that it could be worthwhile to investigate whether or not different subtypes of the 5-HT3 receptor may underlie the different effects on cognition displayed by compounds that belong to the same pharmacological class.

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The dose of ondansetron that the FDA has concerns about is 32 mg i.v. (or several doses that are equivalent to this), which is only used in preventing nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. This suggests that ondansetron may be safe in lower doses used to prevent nausea and vomiting in radiation treatment or postoperatively. However, as there is a report that a lower dose of ondansetron prolonged the QT interval in healthy volunteers, this needs to be clarified by the FDA. More research needs to be undertaken on the relationship between QT prolongation and torsades in order that the FDA can produce clear-cut evidence of proarrhythmic risk when introducing warnings for this.

zofran pediatric dose

University outpatient surgery center.

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A total of 587 patients were enrolled, and 585 were assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle (195 patients in each arm). The rate of complete protection from acute vomiting and nausea, respectively, was not significantly different among the three groups (arm A, 84.6% and 66.7%; arm B, 83.6% and 56.9%; arm C, 89.2% and 61.0%), nor was the rate of complete protection from delayed vomiting and nausea, respectively (arm A, 81.0% and 46.7%; arm B, 81.3% and 45.1%; arm C, 79.8% and 46.1%). The incidence of delayed vomiting and nausea was strictly dependent on the presence of acute vomiting and nausea. Adverse events were mild and not significantly different among the three groups.

dosage zofran

The objective of the present study was to determine whether ondansetron, a specific serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3), relieves cholestatic pruritus in patients resistant to conventional antipruritic therapy (antihistamines and cholestyramine). In a placebo-controlled study the acute effect of an intravenous injection of ondansetron (4 mg, 8 mg) or placebo (NaCl solution) was tested in 10 patients (41-66 years of age; 4 men, 6 women) with cholestatic itch. A successful treatment was assessed when the intensity of itch was reduced by 50% or more within 2 h after injection of ondansetron. Intensity of itch was determined by the patients on a visual rating scale from 0 to 10. Ondansetron reduced or abolished pruritus within 30-60 min after injection. A 50% reduction of the intensity of itch was observed up to 6 h after injection of 8 mg. The effect was reproducible in the same patient. In conclusion ondansetron is effective in the treatment of cholestatic itch. Serotonin may participate in the generation and/or sensation of cholestatic pruritus.

zofran generic name

In this placebo controlled, double blind multicentre study, the efficacy and safety of a single i.v. bolus dose of ondansetron 4 mg were evaluated in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), which remains one of the most unpleasant side effects experienced by patients postoperatively. The study population included patients having general anesthesia and undergoing major gynecological or elective abdominal surgery by laparoscopy. Thirty three percent of placebo-treated patients had at least one emetic episode over 24 hrs compared with 21% in the ondansetron group (p = 0.03). Forty two percent of placebo-treated patients experienced nausea in the 24 hours post-recovery period, compared to 27% of patients treated with ondansetron 4 mg (p = 0.01). Several factors appeared to be associated with an increased risk of developing PONV, namely gender (female), type of surgery (gynecological), experience of previous PONV and duration of anesthesia; the use of propofol was not a significant factor. Ondansetron was well tolerated, with no side effect being reported as a significant problem.

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There were 13,347 patient visits eligible for inclusion, of which 8330 (62.4%) were seen by 2 PEPs, and 5017 (37.6%) were seen by 9 EPs. There was a difference in mean patient age (6.9 vs 7.1 years, P = 0.01), whereas sex (53.6% vs 53.9% male, P = 0.72), race (P = 0.13), acuity (mean Emergency Severity Index 3.35 vs 3.33, P = 0.99), and mode of arrival (10.6% vs 12.3% emergency medical services transport, P = 0.06) were not significantly different. Overall admission rates were similar (17.1% PEP vs 17.5% EP, P = 0.50), as were critical care admissions (2.9% PEP vs 2.7% EP of total admissions, P = 0.40). Turnaround times were significantly different (146.0 ± 2.5 minutes PEP vs 149.7 ± 3.2 minutes EP, P = 0.04). Ordering rates of Chem 7, urinalyses, chest radiographs, and ondansetron were lower by PEPs.

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zofran 40 mg 2017-02-12

Statistical Package buy zofran for Social Sciences version 13.0 statistical analysis software.

zofran generic image 2015-08-15

Sevoflurane prolongs the QTc interval and its combination with ondansetron further increased this effect in children. However, the dispersion of ventricular repolarization was not significantly affected, and there were no adverse events such as ventricular arrhythmia in this study. The combination of sevoflurane and ondansetron may be clinically safe, but careful ECG monitoring buy zofran is still advisable.

zofran 2mg dosage 2015-03-10

Five hundred outpatient surgical patients (53 male and 447 female), receiving general endotracheal anesthesia, were studied at ten centers. Patients were stratified by gender and received, in a randomized, double-blind manner, 1, buy zofran 4, or 8 mg ondansetron or placebo in response to nausea and/or vomiting postoperatively. Episodes of vomiting, nausea scores, adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory values were evaluated before and during the 24 h after study drug administration.

zofran po dose 2015-11-15

Pain resulting from peripheral nerve injury, characterised by ongoing pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia arises from peripheral and central processes. Here, we studied the potential role of central facilitations in nerve injury by investigating the effect of blocking the excitatory 5HT3 receptor with ondansetron. 5HT3 receptors play a pronociceptive role in the spinal cord and ondansetron has previously been shown to produce antinociception in behavioural studies. We investigated the effects of spinally administered ondansetron (10, 50 and 100 microg) on the responses of deep dorsal horn neurones, evoked by peripheral electrical stimuli and a range of natural (mechanical punctate and heat) stimuli, 2 weeks after nerve injury induced through tight ligation of L5/6 spinal nerves (SNL). Comparisons were made between SNL rats and a sham-operated group. Ondansetron produced little effect on the electrically evoked responses (Abeta-, Adelta- and C-fibre-evoked responses, postdischarge); however, responses to mechanical punctate stimuli (von Frey filaments 1-75 g) were markedly reduced in both SNL and control groups. Furthermore, the drug effect was significantly enhanced after SNL (p<0.05). In particular, the lowest dose (10 microg) now became effective after buy zofran SNL. Ondansetron produced less marked effects on thermal responses. Our results demonstrate that neuropathic pain states are associated with an enhanced descending facilitatory control of mechanical responses of spinal neurones, mediated through the activation of spinal 5HT3 receptors. These excitatory influences are likely to contribute to the development and maintenance of central sensitisation in the spinal cord, and furthermore, to the behavioural manifestation of tactile allodynia.

dosage zofran children 2015-12-19

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are distressing and frequent adverse events of anesthesia and surgery, with a relatively high incidence following thyroidectomy. These symptoms predispose to aspiration of gastric contents, increased intraocular pressure, psychological distress, and delayed recovery and discharge times. Numerous antiemetics have been studied for the prevention and treatment of PONV following thyroidectomy. These drugs include butyrophenones (e.g., droperidol), benzamides (e.g., metoclopramide), antihistamines (e.g., dimenhydrinate), corticosteroids (e.g., dexamethasone), propofol, oxygen, and serotonon receptor antagonists (e.g., ondansetron). Most of published trials indicate improved prophylaxis against PONV by avoiding risk factors and/or by buy zofran using effective antiemetic therapy in patients scheduled for thyroid surgery. Traditional antiemetics (droperidol, metoclopramide, and alizapride), non-traditional antiemetics (propofol and dexamethasone), and serotonin receptor antagonists (ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron, dolasetron, and ramosetron) have been studied for the prevention of PONV. Serotonin receptor antagonists are more effective than traditional antiemetics. Combination antiemetic therapy with granisetron plus droperidol or granisetron plus dexamethasone is highly effective in preventing PONV. The benefits and risks of different therapies are needed to prevent PONV following thyroid surgery.

zofran 10 mg 2015-07-17

Forty previously healthy patients presenting with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled. The mean age was 4.86±1.37 years. Serum level at 4 h had a median of 26.23 ng buy zofran /ml, range (8.3-52 ng/ml). Palatability of the drug had a mean of 3.23 (of 5) ± 0.80, based on score from visual analog scale.

zofran normal dose 2017-07-12

Use of fosaprepitant in combination with other antiemetics may provide a flexible option for administration of antiemetics to patients buy zofran receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

zofran yellow pill 2017-02-05

A prospective, randomized, double-blind, 382 female patients received either ondansetron 4 mg or metoclopramide 10 mg intravenous administration immediately before the induction of anesthesia. A standard general anesthetic technique was employed throughout. Nausea, vomiting, and safety assessments buy zofran were performed continuously during the 24 h postoperative period.

medication zofran 2016-11-09

It was concluded that ondansetron was most effective buy zofran in preventing occurrence of PONV while metoclopramide was least effective. Propofol was effective only in 50% of patients, thus not recommended for routine use.

zofran dose iv 2017-10-08

The objective of present study was to enhance bioadhesive potential of xyloglucan by thiolation. Thiolation of xyloglucan was achieved with esterification with thioglycolic acid. Thiolated xyloglucan was characterized by NMR, DSC, and XRD analysis. Thiolated xyloglucan was determined to possess 4mmol of thiol groups/g of polymer by Ellman's method. Comparative evaluation of mucoadhesive property of ondansetron containing in situ gel system of xyloglucan and thiolated xyloglucan using sheep nasal buy zofran mucosa revealed higher ex vivo bioadhesion time of thiolated xyloglucan as compared to xyloglucan. Improved mucoadhesive property of thiolated xyloglucan over the xyloglucan can be attributed to the formation of disulfide bond between mucus and thiolated xyloglucan. Ex vivo permeation study conducted using sheep nasal showed improved drug permeation in formulation based on thiolated xyloglucan. In conclusion, thiolation of xyloglucan improves its bioadhesion and drug permeation without affecting the resultant gel properties.

zofran odt generic 2016-10-02

MD-354 (m-chlorophenylguanidine) is a 5-HT3/alpha2B-adrenoceptor buy zofran ligand. Both receptors play a role in antinociception. In the mouse tail-flick assay, subcutaneously administered MD-354 was inactive as an analgesic. However, a combination of an inactive dose of clonidine (0.25 mg/kg) with an inactive dose of MD-354 (6 mg/kg) produced a substantial antinociceptive effect (maximal possible effect=66%). Considering the 5-HT3 receptor partial agonist properties of MD-354, the analgesia enhancing effect of MD-354 on clonidine might be associated, at least in part, with its 5-HT3 receptor agonist or antagonist activity. Combinations of an inactive dose of clonidine (0.25 mg/kg) with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (tropisetron, zacopride and ondansetron) were examined. Saline-like doses of tropisetron, zacopride and ondansetron significantly enhanced the antinociceptive effect of clonidine (combinations: maximal possible effect=86%, 82% and 79% respectively), suggesting that MD-354 may enhance the analgesic actions of clonidine, at least in part, through a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist mechanism.

zofran im dose 2016-05-29

Ondansetron was administered to 952 patients of 20,054 patients transported during this time period (5%); of these 472 had at least some of the outcome measures documented. There were minimal differences in the two cohorts; 198 patients had paired before and after quantitative "nausea scales" documented: 7.6 +/- 2.4 and 4.6 +/- 3.1, respectively (Delta = 2.9, 95% CI: 2.5-3.4); 447 patients had a qualitative change in nausea level documented: 0.4% "a lot worse," 1.3% "a little worse," 34% "unchanged," 40% "a little better," and 25% "a lot better"; 187 patients had all three measures documented with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.63 between the change in the quantitative scale and the qualitative scale (95% CI: 0.14-0.20, R(2) 0.39). In 462 patients, vomiting decreased from 60% to 30% (Wilcoxon signed ranks test p < 0.001). The Pearson correlation coefficients for the change in vomiting incidence buy zofran with the qualitative and quantitative "nausea scales" were poor: 0.012 (95% CI: -0.015 to 0.039, R(2) 0.00014) and 0.051 (95% CI: -0.032 to 0.118, R(2) 0.00026), respectively. There were no reported adverse events.

zofran renal dosing 2017-09-14

Further studies are needed to specify the "anti-emetic" effects of subhypnotic propofol in antineoplastic chemotherapy. Especially a comparison with a standard drug for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, such as ondansetron, will have to be conducted. The results of this study showed that a dose of propofol of 1.0 mg/kgxh after an initial bolus buy zofran of 0.1 mg/kg is a useful reference dose.

zofran 50 mg 2016-07-29

Modified radical mastectomy is associated with a relatively high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This study was undertaken to evaluate the comparative profile and efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron to prevent PONV after modified radical mastectomy. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, sixty female patients received ondansetron 4 mg, granisetron 1 mg or saline intravenously just before induction of anaesthesia (n = 20 for each group). A standardized general anaesthetic technique was employed. The incidence of PONV and adverse events were recorded for the first 24h postoperatively. The incidence of PONV was 25% with ondansetron, 20% with granisetron and 70% with saline (P < 0.05, Chi-square test buy zofran with Yates' correction factor). The incidence of adverse events was comparable among the groups. Ondansetron and granisetron are both effective for reducing the incidence of PONV in female patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy.

zofran medication pregnancy 2015-07-23

A taste associated with emetic drugs produces conditioned disgust reactions in rats (predominantly gaping), unlike nonemetic drugs that can still produce conditioned taste avoidance but not conditioned disgust. That difference suggests nausea is a prerequisite for learning disgust reactions to Lasix Recommended Dosage tastes. Depletion of forebrain serotonin (5-HT) by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) lesions of the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus prevents LiCl-induced conditioned disgust reactions (Limebeer et al., 2004). Here we demonstrate that partial depletion of 5-HT in the insular cortex (IC) prevents LiCl-induced conditioned disgust reactions. Furthermore, a double dissociation occurred in the partial regulation of disgust and taste avoidance by selective 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism/agonism in the posterior (granular) region of the IC and the anterior (dorsal agranular) region of the IC, respectively. Intracranial administration of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, ondansetron (OND), to the posterior IC impaired the establishment of LiCl-induced conditioned gaping reactions, but not LiCl-induced conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). Likewise, posterior IC administration of the 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG) enhanced the establishment of LiCl-induced conditioned gaping and produced conditioned gaping on its own (which was prevented by intracranially administered OND), with no effect on CTA. On the other hand, anterior IC administration of OND partially reduced the establishment of LiCl-induced CTA, and mCPBG produced a weak CTA, both without effect on gaping. These results suggest that activation of 5-HT(3) receptors in the posterior IC is important for the production of nausea-induced conditioned disgust reactions, while activation of 5-HT(3) receptors in the anterior IC are involved in the production of CTA.

zofran gel 2016-01-01

To review the efficacy and safety of aprepitant in combination with ondansetron and dexamethasone (triple therapy) in children and adolescents Nolvadex Tablets on moderate to highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

zofran adult dose 2016-01-02

Significantly more patients who received ondansetron experienced neither vomiting nor retching (emesis) compared to those receiving placebo over a 15 day treatment period (60% vs. 35%, p = 0.027). The difference, with 95% confidence limits, was estimated at 25 (4.45%). Furthermore, there was a trend Allegra 018 Dosage in favour of ondansetron in the control of nausea. Ondansetron was well tolerated, with 25 patients (59%) reporting at least 1 adverse event compared to 18 patients (45%) receiving placebo (p = 0.191).

zofran mg pregnancy 2015-10-15

All antiemetic trials in patients receiving chemotherapy that were published from January 2000 to July 2004 were evaluated. Standard prophylactic antiemetic therapy was derived from contemporary antiemetic guidelines published by oncology professional organizations and expert panels. The number of patients and studies in which patients received standard and substandard antiemetic therapy was determined for both the acute and delayed phases of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Separate determinations were made for severely and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. The annual percentage of studies in which substandard antiemetic prophylaxis was given and the Zovirax 1000 Mg percentage of patients who received substandard prophylaxis also were determined.

zofran drug test 2017-03-21

Protein analysis identified the most abundant FSPs as being of human origin and probably derived from pancreatic juice. Functional assays showed increased faecal protease (FP) and amylase in patients with IBS-D compared with HV. Those with higher amylase had significantly higher FP and greater anxiety. FP activity correlated negatively with whole gut transit in patients with IBS-D (Spearman r=-0.32, p=0.005) and HV (r=-0.55, p=0.014). Colon cleansing caused a significant rise in FP activity in HV from a baseline of median (IQR) 253 (140-426) to 1031 (435-2296), levels similar to those seen in patients with IBS-D. FSP activity correlated positively with Elavil 5 Mg days/week with urgency.

zofran odt dose 2017-07-14

The use of aprepitant-containing regimens is associated with an improvement in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) compared with non-aprepitant regimens. For cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the incremental cost per QALY gained is HKD 239,644 (1 USD approximates HKD 7.8) when ondansetron is administered on day 1 only. The incremental cost per QALY is HKD 440,950 when ondansetron is used on day 1 to 4. For anthracycline and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, the aprepitant-containing regimen is associated with incremental cost of HKD 195,442 per QALY gained. Similar results were obtained when other 5HT3 receptor antagonists are used. The use of aprepitant was associated with higher cost of drug but lower costs of emesis-related management. With the cost-effectiveness threshold set at the World Health Organization endorsed criteria of Naprosyn 100 Mg three times gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (three times GDP per capita in Hong Kong in 2011 is HKD 798,078), the current analyses showed that the aprepitant-containing regimen was cost-effective.

zofran max dosage 2017-12-13

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder mainly characterized by altered bowel habits and visceral pain. In this study, we investigated the role of tachykinin NK1 receptors in the visceral pain response (abdominal muscle contraction) caused by colorectal distention in rabbits previously subjected to colonic irritation, using the selective tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists TAK-637 [(aR,9R)-7-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-8,9,10,11-tetrahydro-9-methyl-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7H-[1,4] diazocino[2,1-g][1,7]naphthyridine-6,13-dione] and (+/-)-CP-99,994 (+/-)-(2S,3S)-3-(2-methoxybenzylamino)-2-phenylpiperidine. Intracolorectal administration of 0.8% acetic acid solution enhanced the nociceptive response to colorectal distention, producing a significant increase in the number of abdominal muscle contractions. Under these conditions, intraduodenal TAK-637 (0.1-3 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the number of distention-induced abdominal contractions, and a significant inhibitory effect was observed with doses of 0.3 to 3 mg/kg. Another tachykinin NK1 antagonist, (+/-)-CP-99,994, also reduced the number of abdominal contractions. In contrast, the enantiomer of TAK-637 (which has very weak tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonistic activity), trimebutine maleate, ondansetron, and atropine sulfate did not inhibit the abdominal response. The main metabolite of TAK-637, which has more potent tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonistic activity but permeates the central nervous system less well than TAK-637, produced less inhibition of the viscerosensory response. When given intrathecally, TAK-637 and (+/-)-CP-99,994 markedly reduced the number of abdominal contractions. These results suggest that tachykinin NK1 receptors play an important role in mediating visceral pain and that TAK-637 inhibits the viscerosensory response to colorectal distention by antagonizing tachykinin NK1 receptors, mainly in the spinal cord. They also suggest that TAK-637 may be useful in treating functional bowel disorders such as IBS.

zofran common dosage 2015-10-19

To review the characteristics of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists and their potential role in the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

zofran dose pediatric 2017-05-08

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occur frequently after laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The combination of haloperidol, dexamethasone, and ondansetron may reduce these undesirable events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intensity of nausea and pain, the number of vomiting episodes, and morphine consumption in postoperative (PO) obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).