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Zocor (Simvastatin)
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Zocor

Zocor is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Zocor is used to reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death due to coronary heart disease. It also reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke, blood vessel blockage, or chest pain caused by angina, it lows high cholesterol and triglycerides and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good") cholesterol levels. Zocor works by reducing the production of certain fatty substances in the body, including cholesterol.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Crestor, Zetia, Tricor, Pravachol, Mevacor, Lipitor

 

Also known as:  Simvastatin.

Description

Zocor is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.

Zocor is used to: reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death due to coronary heart disease; reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, blood vessel blockage, or chest pain caused by angina; low high cholesterol and triglycerides; increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good") cholesterol levels.

Zocor is also known as Imvastatin, Simlup, Simcardis, Ranzolont, Simvador.

Zocor works by reducing the production of certain fatty substances in the body, including cholesterol.

Generic name of Zocor is Simvastatin.

Brand name of Zocor is Zocor.

Dosage

Take Zocor orally.

Take Zocor with or without food.

Do not use grapefruit or grapefruit juice while taking Zocor. Eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice may increase the amount of Zocor in blood, what may increase the serious side effects.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Zocor suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Zocor and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zocor are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Zocor if you are allergic to Zocor components.

Be careful with Zocor if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby. Do not use it if you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Zocor if you suffer from low blood pressure, kidney problems, diabetes, serious infection, metabolism problems, hormonal problems.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Zocor.

While taking Zocor, you can make laboratory tests (blood cholesterol levels, liver function tests, creatine phosphokinase blood levels) to monitor the condition of your health.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Zocor suddenly.

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A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted by analyzing the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. A total of 37,929 subjects with chronic liver disease who started statin therapy were identified during the period of January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009. Outcome was defined as hospitalization due to liver injury.

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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature that is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and right ventricular dysfunction.

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Statins are used to lower total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels among patients with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there are no studies of statin efficacy among T1DM patients. T1DM patients have higher gut cholesterol absorption than synthesis; hence cholesterol absorption inhibitors such as ezetimibe may also be effective in T1DM. Here, we compare the effects of simvastatin and ezetimibe among subjects with T1DM and T2DM.

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Fifty-one SAH patients with acute simvastatin treatment and 51 SAH patients without simvastatin treatment were recruited for analysis. At 3 months, there were no differences in MoCA scores (MoCA: 21+/-6 vs. 21+/-5, p=0.772). MoCA-assessed cognitive impairment (MoCA<26) was not different (75% vs. 80%, OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.3 to 1.8, p=0.477). There were also no differences in DID, delayed cerebral infarction, favorable mRS outcome, and MMSE scores, and MMSE-assessed cognitive impairment between both groups.

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In this paper, we present a methodology to identify common host responses elicited by multiple pathogens. First, we identified host responses perturbed by each pathogen using a gene set enrichment analysis of publicly available genome-wide transcriptional datasets. Then, we used biclustering to identify groups of host pathways and biological processes that were perturbed only by a subset of the analyzed pathogens. Finally, we tested the enrichment of each bicluster in human genes that are known drug targets, on the basis of which we elicited putative HOBS targets for specific groups of bacterial pathogens. We identified 84 up-regulated and three down-regulated statistically significant biclusters. Each bicluster contained a group of pathogens that commonly dysregulated a group of biological processes. We validated our approach by checking whether these biclusters correspond to known hallmarks of bacterial infection. Indeed, these biclusters contained biological process such as inflammation, activation of dendritic cells, pro- and anti- apoptotic responses and other innate immune responses. Next, we identified biclusters containing pathogens that infected the same tissue. After a literature-based analysis of the drug targets contained in these biclusters, we suggested new uses of the drugs Anakinra, Etanercept, and Infliximab for gastrointestinal pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Helicobacter pylori kx2 strain, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and the drug Simvastatin for hematopoietic pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

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As previously reported, there were significant reductions in the primary outcome in the glycemia and dyslipidemia trials, but no significant effect in the blood pressure trial. Results were similar for retinopathy progression by 1, 2, and 4 or more steps on the person scale and for ≥ 2 steps on the eye scale. In the subgroup of patients with mild retinopathy at baseline, effect estimates were large (odds ratios, ∼0.30; P < 0.001), but did not reach nominal significance for participants with no retinopathy or for those with moderate to severe retinopathy at baseline.

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Our data are in keeping with the hypothesis that simvastatin might be used as an additional means to preserve renal function in microalbuminuric hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetic patients.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin, a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, on inflammation and glomerulosclerosis in Adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, ADR nephrosis, and simvastatin-treated ADR nephrosis groups. ADR nephropathy was induced by a single-tail intravenous injection of ADR (6.5 mg/kg). Anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin were studied by evaluating the expression of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), and transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). In addition, renal function, serum lipid levels, and histopathology were compared between groups. Simvastatin significantly decreases IL-1beta and TGF-beta1 expression and NF-kappaB activation, accompanied by significant attenuation of glomerulosclerosis and renal function at 12 weeks after ADR injection, and these changes occurred in the absence of lowering of serum lipids. These results suggest that overexpression of inflammation in the renal region may contribute to development of glomerulosclerosis in ADR-induced-nephropathy rats, and simvastatin treatment prevented glomerulosclerosis independent of the lipid-lowering effects. The beneficial effect of simvastatin might be mediated by the effect of anti-inflammatory action through a reduction of NF-kappaB activation, and IL-1beta and TGF-beta expression.

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This study showed that the polymorphisms in UGT1A1, but not SLCO1B1, were associated with serum bilirubin levels in Chinese patients. Statins increased bilirubin levels and this effect was independent of the polymorphisms in UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1.

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Lipid-lowering therapy is effective in reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in people with PAD. It may also improve local symptoms. Until further evidence on the relative effectiveness of different lipid-lowering agents is available, use of a statin in people with PAD and a blood cholesterol level >/=3.5 mmol/litre is most indicated.

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It is suggested the mechanism of anti-atherosclerosis of Zhikeping have close relationship with the function of its anti-oxidizing and anti-adhesiveness that can protect aortic endothelial cell.

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A total of 416 statin-treated (207 atorvastatin- and 209 simvastatin-treated) adults with primary hypercholesterolemia were included in the study. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and on 6 months of treatment. CYP3A4*22 allele was analyzed with TaqMan assay.

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WQBP and simvastatin can interfere in early atherosclerosis of ApoE-mice, attenuate and stabilize plaque in some extent. The mechanisms may include adjusting blood lipid, decreasing macrophage number and increasing the quantities of vessel smooth muscle cells.

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To investigate the impact of statin therapy on slowing AS progression.

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A proactive and voluntary statin switch program to promote the use of a lower cost generic alternative can be successfully implemented in a fee-for-service health system setting with benefits to patients, providers, and payers.

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The hamsters were randomized into 7 groups: no treatment, 16 mg/day/kg BW simvastatin, 23, 58, 263 mg/day/kg BW gamma-tocotrienol, and 39 or 263 mg/day/kg BW for the mixture of tocotrienols. Plasma lipid levels were measured after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment.

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Previous work has shown that rifampicin, a potent inducer of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and transporters, decreased the plasma concentrations of simvastatin acid by more than 90%. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin.

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: In order to be selected, trials needed to be randomized, doubled blinded, and of sufficient duration( probably years rather than weeks or months) to ascertain the preventive potential of statin therapy.

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We conducted a cross-sectional study of 323,426 men aged ≥65 years who had a screening PSA test in 2003 at a Veterans Affairs facility. The primary predictor was the use of statin medications at the time of index screening PSA test. The main outcome was the screening PSA value. Poisson regressions were performed to calculate adjusted relative risks for having an abnormal screening PSA result according to statin usage.

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Simvastatin significantly improved endothelium-dependent dilation, but reduced adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity in hypercholesterolemic patients independent of dose and the extent of apolipoprotein B reduction.

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Statins are lipid-lowering drugs widely used in the management of vascular diseases. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that statins improve endothelial function by both cholesterol-lowering-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We have previously shown that endothelial dysfunction induced by risk factors and proinflammatory cytokines is associated with down-regulation of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a key enzyme modulating extracellular matrix maturation and vascular integrity. Our aim was to analyse whether statins could normalize LOX expression impaired by proatherogenic risk factors.

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The most recent guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program recommend more aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals: <100 mg/dL for patients at moderate or high risk of cardiovascular disease, and <70 mg/dL for patients at very high risk. These lower goals are more likely to be achieved using the more powerful statins--atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin. Although statins are widely used, extensively studied, and known to have an excellent safety profile, the perception of many health care providers and patients is that safety concerns about the more efficacious statins, especially at high doses, limit their use. However, clinical data consistently support the view that adverse events are uncommon even when intensive therapy is used to reach aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals. Overall, the more potent statins have similar safety profiles. The benefits of aggressive statin treatment in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events appear to far outweigh any potential risks of adverse events.

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The purpose of this study was to assess if simvastatin has an anti-inflammatory activity in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

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Hypocholesterolemic apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) knockout mice were administered high dose simvastatin twice daily for 3 days.

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Cerebrovascular dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) is multifaceted and not limited to the amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology. It encompasses structural alterations in the vessel wall, degenerating capillaries (string vessels), vascular fibrosis and calcification, features recapitulated in transgenic mice that overexpress transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF mice). We recently found that simvastatin rescued Aβ-mediated cerebrovascular and cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model of AD. However, whether simvastatin can counteract Aβ-independent deficits remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of simvastatin in aged TGF mice on cerebrovascular reactivity and structure, and on cognitive performance. Simvastatin restored baseline levels of nitric oxide (NO), NO-, and KATP channel-mediated dilations and endothelin-1-induced contractions. Simvastatin significantly reduced vasculopathy with arteriogenic remodeling and string vessel pathology in TGF mice. In contrast, simvastatin did not lessen gliosis, and the cerebrovascular levels of pro-fibrotic proteins and calcification markers remained elevated after treatment. The TGF mice displayed subtle cognitive decline that was not affected by simvastatin. Our results show potent benefits of simvastatin on endothelial- and smooth muscle cell-mediated vasomotor responses, endothelial NO synthesis and in preserving capillary integrity. We conclude that simvastatin could be indicated in the treatment of cerebrovascular dysfunction associated with VaD and AD.

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Understanding the potential for cytochrome P450-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is a critical step in the drug discovery process. DDIs of CYP3A4 are of particular importance because of the number of marketed drugs that are cleared by this enzyme. In response to studies that suggested the presence of several binding regions within the CYP3A4 active site, multiple probe substrates are often used for in vitro CYP3A4 DDI studies, including midazolam (the clinical standard), felodipine/nifedipine, and testosterone. However, the design of clinical CYP3A4 DDI studies may be confounded for cases such as 1-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-N-[5-(7-methoxyquinolin-4-yloxy)pyridin-2-yl]-5-methyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide (AMG 458), with which testosterone is predicted to exhibit a clinically relevant DDI whereas midazolam and felodipine/nifedipine are not. To develop an appropriate path forward for such clinical DDI studies, the inhibition potency of 20 known inhibitors of CYP3A4 were measured in vitro using 8 clinically relevant CYP3A4 probe substrates and testosterone. Hierarchical clustering suggested four probe substrate clusters: testosterone; felodipine; midazolam, buspirone, quinidine, and sildenafil; and simvastatin, budesonide, and fluticasone. The in vivo sensitivities of six clinically relevant CYP3A4 probe substrates (buspirone, cyclosporine, nifedipine, quinidine, sildenafil, and simvastatin) were determined in relation to midazolam from literature DDI data. Buspirone, sildenafil, and simvastatin exhibited similar or greater sensitivity than midazolam to CYP3A4 inhibition in vivo. Finally, Simcyp was used to predict the in vivo magnitude of CYP3A4 DDIs caused by AMG 458 using midazolam, sildenafil, simvastatin, and testosterone as probe substrates.

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Human drug interaction studies in vivo are conducted when in vitro and/or animal interactions suggest clinical relevance. Studies in vitro have indicated that the new, entirely synthetic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor fluvastatin affects the metabolism of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and the oral hypoglycemic tolbutamide. Diclofenac and tolbutamide are both model substrates of the CYP2C isozymes, suggesting that this enzyme could be involved in the underlying mechanism of interaction. The concomitant use of lipid-lowering drugs with oral hypoglycemic agents has been recommended in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Therefore, 2 studies were initiated to explore potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between fluvastatin, simvastatin, or placebo and the oral hypoglycemic agents tolbutamide (study I) and glyburide (study II), each in 16 healthy subjects. These compounds were selected because of a demonstrated in vitro interaction with tolbutamide and widespread clinical use of glyburide. A further study (study III) was conducted to investigate the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between fluvastatin and glyburide under therapeutic conditions in 32 patients with NIDDM. Single and multiple coadministration of fluvastatin 40 mg or simvastatin 20 mg increased the mean maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve of glyburide by about 20%. The pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide were influenced to only a minor extent. Fluvastatin concentration-time profiles were unaffected by tolbutamide or glyburide coadministration. However, the pharmacokinetic interactions between fluvastatin or simvastatin and tolbutamide and glyburide were not associated with clinically relevant changes in blood glucose and insulin concentrations and, therefore, are not considered to be relevant in therapeutic practice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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zocor renal dosing 2016-08-20

BNU, LI17, HMGB1, TLR4 protein and HMGB1 mRNA in observation group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05); There was no statistical difference of Scr level between two groups (P> buy zocor 0.05). Histological observation showed glomerular lesions integral of observation group was obviously lower than that of control group.

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We examined the solubility of simvastatin in water in 0.01 mol·dm(-3), 0. buy zocor 02 mol·dm(-3), 0.04 mol·dm(-3), 0.09 mol·dm(-3), 0.18 mol·dm(-3), 0.36 mol·dm(-3), and 0.73 mol·dm(-3) arginine (ARG) solutions. The investigated drug is termed the solute, whereas ARG the cosolute. Phase solubility studies illustrated a higher extent of solubility enhancement for simvastatin. The aforementioned system was subjected to conductometric and volumetric measurements at temperatures (T) of 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, and 313.15 K to illustrate the thermodynamics involved and related solute-solvent interactions. The conductance values were used to evaluate the limiting molar conductance and association constants. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG (0), ΔH (0), ΔS (0), and E s) for the association process of the solute in the aqueous solutions of ARG were calculated. Limiting partial molar volumes and expansibilities were evaluated from the density values. These values are discussed in terms of the solute-solvent and solute-cosolute interactions. Further, these systems were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and (13)C, (1)H, and two-dimensional nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance to complement thermophysical explanation.

zocor 10 mg 2017-11-02

In cigarette smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, structural and functional derangements are characterized by parenchymal destruction and pulmonary hypertension. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase buy zocor inhibitors that have been used as lipid-lowering agents. These drugs also have additional pharmacologic properties, including antiinflammation, scavenging reactive oxygen species, restoring endothelial function, and antithrombogenesis, all of which can counteract the harmful effects of cigarette smoking.

zocor tab 10mg 2016-06-18

Statin treatment disrupts HMG-CoA reductase-mediated endogenous cholesterol synthesis and lowers plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. Although statin treatment can theoretically impair adrenal steroid hormone synthesis, thus far, no effect on glucocorticoid output has been described, as LDL-cholesterol levels usually remain within the physiological range. However, novel statin-based treatment regimens that dramatically decrease LDL-cholesterol levels are currently employed. Here, we assessed whether inhibition of cholesterol synthesis under these buy zocor relatively hypocholesterolemic conditions may alter adrenal glucocorticoid output.

zocor generic simvastatin 2016-12-29

In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of simvastatin administered in combination with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) following experimentally induced embolic stroke in rats. Effects on infarct volume, brain oedema and neurological deficits were examined. Focal ischaemic brain buy zocor injury was induced by emblazing a preformed clot into the middle cerebral artery in rats. Animals were administered simvastatin (40 mg/kg) at 1 hr after stroke, or BMSCs (3 × 10(6)) at 24 hr after stroke or a combination of these two treatments. Rats receiving a dose of simvastatin in combination with BMSC administration demonstrated a significant reduction in neurological deficits, a significant reduction in infarct volume and a significant decrease in brain oedema. Our data show that combining simvastatin administration with BMSCs has an additive effect on improving functional outcome in this thromboembolic stroke model.

zocor max dosage 2016-09-14

Cells isolated from critically ill patients showed a decreased spontaneous production of TNF-α and IL-10 compared to healthy controls (6.7 (0.2-12) vs 103 (64-257) pg/mL and (20 (13-58) vs 315 (105-510) pg/mL, respectively, p<0.05). Under LPS-stimulus, IL-10 production remains lower in patients compared to healthy control (451 (176-850) vs 1150 (874-1521) pg/mL, p<0.05) but TNF-α production was higher (641 (609-841) vs 406 (201-841) pg/mL, p<0.05). The simultaneous incubation with LPS and simvastatin caused decreased IL-10 production in cells buy zocor from patients compared to control (337 (135-626) vs 540 (345-871) pg/mL, p<0.05) and increased TNF-α release (711 (619-832) vs 324 (155-355) pg/mL, p<0.05). Comparison between subgroups showed that the results observed in TNF-α and IL-10 production by PBMC from critically ill patients was independent of AKI occurrence.

zocor oval pill 2016-09-12

Ezetimibe is a selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor with an excellent side-effect profile, able to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 15-25% from baseline in monotherapy and on top of statins and fibrates. Yet, it seems that ezetimibe produces quantitative rather than qualitative changes in LDL, with small net effects on atherogenic dyslipidaemia. This is supported by findings from the Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE) study on atherosclerosis progression, where the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia did not affect the mean change in carotid intima-media thickness, although a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol buy zocor levels was observed. The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study has further shown that combination treatment with simvastatin significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels in patients with aortic stenosis, but did not affect the primary end point of aortic valve and cardiovascular events, although a significant reduction in the risk of ischaemic events was reported. Formal cardiovascular outcome trials are underway and these will provide additional insights into the long-term effects of ezetimibe on clinical events as well as on atherogenic dyslipidaemia, beyond LDL cholesterol levels.

zocor cold medicine 2015-07-24

The minor alleles of the PPARA rs4253728 buy zocor and rs4823613 polymorphisms are associated with a better total and LDL-cholesterol-lowering response to simvastatin, possibly through influence on CYP3A4.

zocor mg 2016-02-19

Statins inhibit proliferation of various human cancer cell lines in vitro. As human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) possess neoplastic-like properties we have evaluated the role of various buy zocor statins on karyotypically normal hESCs (HES3 and BG01), abnormal hESCs (BG01V) and breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) to evaluate whether the mode of action of the statins was via a stemness pathway.

zocor user reviews 2016-06-28

In the prevention of coronary heart disease the aim to achieve the target cholesterol and triglyceride levels and the maximal risk reduction leads to the combination of lipid lowering agents. The importance of the combination is supported by the fact that in monotherapy use of the high dose of the drugs, the lipid lowering effect is modest and the side effects are more frequent. The combined therapy is expected to be used more frequently despite the fact, that the improperly applied combination could have serious unfavourable effects. The authors review the advantages and drawbacks of the fibrate-statin combination, which could be used in the most frequent lipid abnormality, the high cholesterol and high triglyceride level, when the combination of micronized fenofibrate and fluvastatin is buy zocor recommended. Beside the co-administration of other lipid lowering drugs (nicotine acid and resins), it is discussed the combination of statins and fibrates with a new, cholesterol absorption inhibitor, ezetimibe, a well tolerated drug with advantageous safety profile. Considering further metabolic risks the combination of lipid lowering drugs with glitazones, hormone replacement therapy, homocysteine reducing agents is as well highlighted.

zocor 100 mg 2015-03-03

Insulin resistance and subsequent insulin secretory defect are two main features of type 2 diabetes and associated metabolic disorders. The animal models of type 2 diabetes are very complex and are as heterogeneous as the disease. We have evaluated the effect of various antidiabetic and lipid lowering agents (fenofibrate, rosiglitazone, glimepiride, metformin and simvastatin) on the metabolic abnormalities induced by combining a high-fat diet and multiple low-dose streptozocin (MLDS) in mice. Male Swiss albino mice were orally treated with the above agents and fed with a diet containing high fat for 28 days. On day 15 the animals were injected intraperitoneally with low-dose streptozocin (40 mg kg(-1)), which was administered for five consecutive days. At the end of the 28-day treatment plasma metabolic parameters (glucose, triglyceride and immunoreactive insulin) were estimated. The antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic agents exhibited differential effects on these metabolic parameters. With the exception of fenofibrate all these agents reduced the plasma glucose levels, and the effects of metformin and rosiglitazone on glucose were found to be statistically significant. Although the effect of the test drugs on cholesterol was modest, a significant decrease in triglyceride levels was observed with sub-chronic treatment with these agents. Interestingly, glimepiride mildly elevated the insulin levels while the other antidiabetics and hypolipidaemics reduced the insulin levels, with metformin and rosiglitazone exhibiting statistically significant effects on insulin. To our knowledge this is the first report on the effect of various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor modulators and newer antidiabetics on the metabolic effects induced by the combined high- buy zocor fat diet and MLDS model of type 2 diabetes in Swiss albino mice. The results suggested the complexity of the hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia induced by the high-fat diet and MLDS mouse model, and their correction by various antidiabetics and antihyperlipidaemics may have involved diverse mechanisms.

zocor 60 mg 2016-06-23

Combination of SD and surface adsorption techniques has been attempted to overcome the limitations of spray drying technique for amorphization of low T(g) drugs. Based on powder characteristics, drug content, saturation solubility, and feasibility of processing into tablets; SD 1:2:2 was selected as the optimized formulation. During initial characterization, SEM, DSC, and XRPD analyses confirmed the presence of amorphous form in SD 1:2:2. IR spectroscopy revealed possibility of hydrogen bonding interaction between SIM and PVP in SDs. Also, there was dramatical improvement in rate and extent of in vitro drug release of SD 1:2: buy zocor 2. Insignificant decrease in dissolution was observed with no evidence of crystallinity during accelerated stability studies of SD 1:2:2. Moreover in vivo study in rats also justified the improvement in therapeutic efficacy of SD 1:2:2 over pure SIM.

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Statins have been buy zocor reported to protect against esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE). However, there are few data from adequately powered cohort studies of subjects with BE.

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A fenestrated phenotype is characteristic of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), but liver sinusoids become defenestrated during fibrosis and other liver diseases. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is a matrix glycoprotein with pro-fibrotic effects, buy zocor and the CD47-binding fragment of TSP1 also has anti-angiogenic effects in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that the CD47-binding fragment of TSP1 could induce defenestration in LSECs through the Rho-Rho kinase (ROCK)-myosin pathway.

zocor missed dose 2016-12-27

This prospective, open-label pilot study was conducted at Kashiwa Hospital, Jikei University School of Medicine, Kashiwa, Japan. Male and postmenopausal female patients aged ≥18 to 70 years with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol [TC], ≥220 mg/dL; triglycerides [TG], 150-400 mg/dL) who had not received lipid-lowering medications for at least 6 months before the study were enrolled. Patients received simvastatin 20 mg Antabuse Cost Uk PO QD for 4 weeks. Effectiveness was assessed using serum concentrations of TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TG, and lipid peroxide, measured at 0 (baseline) and 4 weeks. Target serum TC and LDL-C concentrations as outlined by the JAS were as follows: category A, TC <240 mg/dL and LDL-C <160 mg/dL; category B1 and B2, TC <220 mg/dL and LDL-C <140 mg/dL; and category C, TC <200 mg/dL and LDL-C <120 mg/dL. A subanalysis of the correlation between baseline high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and target achievement rates was conducted by baseline HDL-C concentration (<50 or ≥50 mg/dL). Tolerability was assessed using spontaneous reporting of adverse events and laboratory analysis, including liver function tests.

zocor 80mg tab 2016-08-24

Contrast media- (CM-) induced nephropathy is a serious complication of radiodiagnostic procedures. Available data suggests that the development of prophylaxis strategies is limited by poor understanding of pathophysiology of CM-induced nephropathy. Present study was designed to Casodex Drug Class determine the role of oxidative stress, myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of iohexol model of nephropathy and its modification with simvastatin (SSTN). Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. After 24 h of water deprivation, all the rats except in control and SSTN-only groups were injected (10 ml/kg) with 25% glycerol. After 30 min, SSTN (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was administered orally, daily for 4 days. Twenty-four hours after the glycerol injection, iohexol was infused (8 ml/kg) through femoral vein over a period of 2 min. All the animals were sacrificed on day 5 and blood and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological studies. The results showed that SSTN dose dependently attenuated CM-induced rise of creatinine, urea, and structural abnormalities suggesting its nephroprotective effect. A significant increase in oxidative stress (increased lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and decreased nitric oxide in CM group were reversed by SSTN. These findings support the use of SSTN to combat CM-induced nephrotoxicity.

medicine zocor 2016-03-04

Aim: To describe the rationale and design of a pilot study evaluating the integration Trental 300 Mg of pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing into pharmacist-delivered medication therapy management (MTM). Study rationale: Clinical delivery approaches of PGx testing involving pharmacists may overcome barriers of limited physician knowledge about and experience with testing. Study design: We will assess the addition of PGx testing to MTM services for cardiology patients taking three or more medications including simvastatin or clopidogrel. We will measure the impact of MTM plus PGx testing on drug/dose adjustment and clinical outcomes. Factors associated with delivery, such as time to prepare and conduct MTM and consult with physicians will be recorded. Additionally, patient interest and satisfaction will be measured. Anticipated results: We anticipate that PGx testing can be practically integrated into standard a MTM service, providing a viable delivery model for testing. Conclusion: Given the lack of evidence of an effective PGx delivery models, this study will provide preliminary evidence regarding a pharmacist-delivered approach.

zocor recommended dosage 2015-01-21

Eighty-eight patients with hyperlipidemia were treated with simvastatin 5mg daily. The plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and apo B were measured pre-treatment and at the end of the 4th, 8th and 12th post Coreg 80 Mg -treatment week. Polymorphisms of apoB at XbaI locus and apoE were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

zocor generic name 2015-02-06

The metabolic syndrome, which is a set of lipid and nonlipid risk factors of metabolic origin linked with insulin resistance, is believed to be associated with an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease, but few have studied this association in prospective long-term cardiovascular outcomes trials. Placebo data from the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) and the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS) were used post hoc to estimate the long-term relative risk of major coronary events (MCEs) associated with the metabolic syndrome, after excluding diabetes mellitus. In 4S and AFCAPS/TexCAPS, respectively, placebo-treated patients with the metabolic syndrome were 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 1.8) and 1.4 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.9) times more likely to have MCEs than those without it. Of the components of the metabolic syndrome, low high-density lipoprotein levels were associated with elevated risk of MCEs in both studies, whereas high triglycerides in 4S and elevated blood pressure and obesity in AFCAPS/TexCAPS were associated with significantly increased relative risk Cytoxan 500 Mg . Patients with the metabolic syndrome showed increased risk of MCEs irrespective of their Framingham-calculated 10-year risk score category (>20% vs

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Area at risk and the area Plavix Overdose of no-reflow were determined by myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) and by pathology in 45 mini-swine randomised into 5 groups: 10 control, 9 simvastatin, 9 glibenclamide, 9 simvastatin plus glibenclamide and 8 sham-operated. A myocardial infarction and reperfusion model was created by 3-h occlusion of the coronary artery followed by 4 weeks of reperfusion.

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The addition of tizanidine in a patient receiving long-term treatment with lisinopril was associated with severe hypotension and bradycardia.

zocor 5 mg 2016-04-20

High-dose short-term therapy with simvastatin may improve walking performance, ankle-brachial pressure indexes, and symptoms of claudication in hypercholesterolemic patients with peripheral vascular disease.

zocor 80 mg 2016-06-05

Lytic bone lesions are the main clinical manifestation of multiple myeloma. The intense variety in this cell microenvironment, composed mainly of fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, immune cells and mesenchymal cells, is influenced by the massive presence of neoplastic plasma cells. Studies with statins have reported their action in stimulating the formation and reducing bone resorption. The aim of this study was to verify the in vitro response of human osteoblasts exposed to the supernatant (liquid milieu) of multiple myeloma. The data obtained indicate that simvastatin has positive effects on the growth of osteoblasts and protection against the anti-proliferative effects of multiple myeloma supernatant.

zocor dosage elderly 2017-11-18

Drugs like statins may induce rhabdomyolysis. Simvastatin and lovastatin have a high hepatic metabolism and their potential toxicity could be increased by interactions with other drugs that reduce their metabolism.

zocor generic equivalent 2015-01-14

DBA/1j mice were used to establish CIA model. Murine peritoneal macrophages and macrophage cell line RAW264.7 were treated with different dilute concentrations of mice serum.

zocor pill identifier 2016-11-15

The aim of this study was to examine the suppressive effect of simvastatin on intramural coronary arterial lesions in cholesterol-fed rabbits. In one experiment, six groups of rabbits were fed laboratory chow alone or with added 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.5% or 1.0% cholesterol for 16 weeks. In another experiment, four groups of rabbits were fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet and treated with simvastatin at 1, 3, or 5 mg/kg/day or placebo. In each rabbit, the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC) were determined at 1-week intervals to calculate the integrated values. The lesion induction ratio was defined as the ratio of intramural coronary arteries 50-150 microm in diameter with arterial lipoidosis to the total number of arteries of the same diameter. In the two experiments, there were positive correlations between the lesion induction ratio and integrated TC (r=0.785, P<0.0001 and r=0.763, P<0.0001, respectively). The slopes of the regression lines for integrated TC obtained in the two experiments were similar, but the lesion induction ratio in the simvastatin-treated group was always lower, by about 14%, in comparison with that in the non-simvastatin-treated group. These findings suggest that simvastatin induces lesion reduction not only by reducing the levels of circulating cholesterol but also by directly suppressing the development of lipoidosis.

zocor dosage information 2015-05-30

Inflammation and disturbances of the hemostatic system may play a role in pathogenesis and complications of ischemic heart disease. More and more reports indicate that apart from their cholesterol-lowering effect statins also exert other beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. Taking this into consideration, the aim of the study was to assess the influence of simvastatin (20 mg per day) on a marker of inflammation - CRP and some parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis in 22 patients with ischaemic heart disease. Serum lipids, levels of hsCRP, thrombomodulin (TM), vWF, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), t-PA, plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP) and TAFI activity were assessed before and after one, three and six months simvastatin treatment. After one month therapy of simvastatin, there have been significant reduction of levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and these values have remained until the end of the study. No influence on the level of HDL-cholesterol has been observed. After 6 months of treatment significant decrease in the level of hsCRP and increase of the levels TM and vWF with reference to baselines results have been observed. After a 1-and 6-month therapy, the level of TAFI have been significantly increased. Other hemostatic parameters, i.e. levels of F1+2, TAT, t-PA, PAP and TAFI activity have not changed significantly. This prospective study has confirmed high efficacy of lipid-lowering effect and anti-inflammatory properties of simvastatin. Simvastatin influenced some hemo-static parameters, however, these effects were not, in majority, significant.

cutter pill zocor 2016-11-06

This article discusses the role of lipid management in diabetes.