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A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted by analyzing the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. A total of 37,929 subjects with chronic liver disease who started statin therapy were identified during the period of January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009. Outcome was defined as hospitalization due to liver injury.
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature that is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and right ventricular dysfunction.
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Statins are used to lower total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels among patients with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there are no studies of statin efficacy among T1DM patients. T1DM patients have higher gut cholesterol absorption than synthesis; hence cholesterol absorption inhibitors such as ezetimibe may also be effective in T1DM. Here, we compare the effects of simvastatin and ezetimibe among subjects with T1DM and T2DM.
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Fifty-one SAH patients with acute simvastatin treatment and 51 SAH patients without simvastatin treatment were recruited for analysis. At 3 months, there were no differences in MoCA scores (MoCA: 21+/-6 vs. 21+/-5, p=0.772). MoCA-assessed cognitive impairment (MoCA<26) was not different (75% vs. 80%, OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.3 to 1.8, p=0.477). There were also no differences in DID, delayed cerebral infarction, favorable mRS outcome, and MMSE scores, and MMSE-assessed cognitive impairment between both groups.
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In this paper, we present a methodology to identify common host responses elicited by multiple pathogens. First, we identified host responses perturbed by each pathogen using a gene set enrichment analysis of publicly available genome-wide transcriptional datasets. Then, we used biclustering to identify groups of host pathways and biological processes that were perturbed only by a subset of the analyzed pathogens. Finally, we tested the enrichment of each bicluster in human genes that are known drug targets, on the basis of which we elicited putative HOBS targets for specific groups of bacterial pathogens. We identified 84 up-regulated and three down-regulated statistically significant biclusters. Each bicluster contained a group of pathogens that commonly dysregulated a group of biological processes. We validated our approach by checking whether these biclusters correspond to known hallmarks of bacterial infection. Indeed, these biclusters contained biological process such as inflammation, activation of dendritic cells, pro- and anti- apoptotic responses and other innate immune responses. Next, we identified biclusters containing pathogens that infected the same tissue. After a literature-based analysis of the drug targets contained in these biclusters, we suggested new uses of the drugs Anakinra, Etanercept, and Infliximab for gastrointestinal pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Helicobacter pylori kx2 strain, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and the drug Simvastatin for hematopoietic pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis.
As previously reported, there were significant reductions in the primary outcome in the glycemia and dyslipidemia trials, but no significant effect in the blood pressure trial. Results were similar for retinopathy progression by 1, 2, and 4 or more steps on the person scale and for ≥ 2 steps on the eye scale. In the subgroup of patients with mild retinopathy at baseline, effect estimates were large (odds ratios, ∼0.30; P < 0.001), but did not reach nominal significance for participants with no retinopathy or for those with moderate to severe retinopathy at baseline.
Our data are in keeping with the hypothesis that simvastatin might be used as an additional means to preserve renal function in microalbuminuric hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetic patients.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin, a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, on inflammation and glomerulosclerosis in Adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, ADR nephrosis, and simvastatin-treated ADR nephrosis groups. ADR nephropathy was induced by a single-tail intravenous injection of ADR (6.5 mg/kg). Anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin were studied by evaluating the expression of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), and transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). In addition, renal function, serum lipid levels, and histopathology were compared between groups. Simvastatin significantly decreases IL-1beta and TGF-beta1 expression and NF-kappaB activation, accompanied by significant attenuation of glomerulosclerosis and renal function at 12 weeks after ADR injection, and these changes occurred in the absence of lowering of serum lipids. These results suggest that overexpression of inflammation in the renal region may contribute to development of glomerulosclerosis in ADR-induced-nephropathy rats, and simvastatin treatment prevented glomerulosclerosis independent of the lipid-lowering effects. The beneficial effect of simvastatin might be mediated by the effect of anti-inflammatory action through a reduction of NF-kappaB activation, and IL-1beta and TGF-beta expression.
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This study showed that the polymorphisms in UGT1A1, but not SLCO1B1, were associated with serum bilirubin levels in Chinese patients. Statins increased bilirubin levels and this effect was independent of the polymorphisms in UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1.
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Lipid-lowering therapy is effective in reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in people with PAD. It may also improve local symptoms. Until further evidence on the relative effectiveness of different lipid-lowering agents is available, use of a statin in people with PAD and a blood cholesterol level >/=3.5 mmol/litre is most indicated.
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It is suggested the mechanism of anti-atherosclerosis of Zhikeping have close relationship with the function of its anti-oxidizing and anti-adhesiveness that can protect aortic endothelial cell.
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A total of 416 statin-treated (207 atorvastatin- and 209 simvastatin-treated) adults with primary hypercholesterolemia were included in the study. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and on 6 months of treatment. CYP3A4*22 allele was analyzed with TaqMan assay.
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WQBP and simvastatin can interfere in early atherosclerosis of ApoE-mice, attenuate and stabilize plaque in some extent. The mechanisms may include adjusting blood lipid, decreasing macrophage number and increasing the quantities of vessel smooth muscle cells.
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To investigate the impact of statin therapy on slowing AS progression.
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A proactive and voluntary statin switch program to promote the use of a lower cost generic alternative can be successfully implemented in a fee-for-service health system setting with benefits to patients, providers, and payers.
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The hamsters were randomized into 7 groups: no treatment, 16 mg/day/kg BW simvastatin, 23, 58, 263 mg/day/kg BW gamma-tocotrienol, and 39 or 263 mg/day/kg BW for the mixture of tocotrienols. Plasma lipid levels were measured after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment.
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Previous work has shown that rifampicin, a potent inducer of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and transporters, decreased the plasma concentrations of simvastatin acid by more than 90%. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin.
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: In order to be selected, trials needed to be randomized, doubled blinded, and of sufficient duration( probably years rather than weeks or months) to ascertain the preventive potential of statin therapy.
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We conducted a cross-sectional study of 323,426 men aged ≥65 years who had a screening PSA test in 2003 at a Veterans Affairs facility. The primary predictor was the use of statin medications at the time of index screening PSA test. The main outcome was the screening PSA value. Poisson regressions were performed to calculate adjusted relative risks for having an abnormal screening PSA result according to statin usage.
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Simvastatin significantly improved endothelium-dependent dilation, but reduced adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity in hypercholesterolemic patients independent of dose and the extent of apolipoprotein B reduction.
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Statins are lipid-lowering drugs widely used in the management of vascular diseases. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that statins improve endothelial function by both cholesterol-lowering-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We have previously shown that endothelial dysfunction induced by risk factors and proinflammatory cytokines is associated with down-regulation of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a key enzyme modulating extracellular matrix maturation and vascular integrity. Our aim was to analyse whether statins could normalize LOX expression impaired by proatherogenic risk factors.
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The most recent guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program recommend more aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals: <100 mg/dL for patients at moderate or high risk of cardiovascular disease, and <70 mg/dL for patients at very high risk. These lower goals are more likely to be achieved using the more powerful statins--atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin. Although statins are widely used, extensively studied, and known to have an excellent safety profile, the perception of many health care providers and patients is that safety concerns about the more efficacious statins, especially at high doses, limit their use. However, clinical data consistently support the view that adverse events are uncommon even when intensive therapy is used to reach aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals. Overall, the more potent statins have similar safety profiles. The benefits of aggressive statin treatment in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events appear to far outweigh any potential risks of adverse events.
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The purpose of this study was to assess if simvastatin has an anti-inflammatory activity in patients with hypercholesterolemia.
Hypocholesterolemic apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) knockout mice were administered high dose simvastatin twice daily for 3 days.
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Cerebrovascular dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) is multifaceted and not limited to the amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology. It encompasses structural alterations in the vessel wall, degenerating capillaries (string vessels), vascular fibrosis and calcification, features recapitulated in transgenic mice that overexpress transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF mice). We recently found that simvastatin rescued Aβ-mediated cerebrovascular and cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model of AD. However, whether simvastatin can counteract Aβ-independent deficits remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of simvastatin in aged TGF mice on cerebrovascular reactivity and structure, and on cognitive performance. Simvastatin restored baseline levels of nitric oxide (NO), NO-, and KATP channel-mediated dilations and endothelin-1-induced contractions. Simvastatin significantly reduced vasculopathy with arteriogenic remodeling and string vessel pathology in TGF mice. In contrast, simvastatin did not lessen gliosis, and the cerebrovascular levels of pro-fibrotic proteins and calcification markers remained elevated after treatment. The TGF mice displayed subtle cognitive decline that was not affected by simvastatin. Our results show potent benefits of simvastatin on endothelial- and smooth muscle cell-mediated vasomotor responses, endothelial NO synthesis and in preserving capillary integrity. We conclude that simvastatin could be indicated in the treatment of cerebrovascular dysfunction associated with VaD and AD.
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Understanding the potential for cytochrome P450-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is a critical step in the drug discovery process. DDIs of CYP3A4 are of particular importance because of the number of marketed drugs that are cleared by this enzyme. In response to studies that suggested the presence of several binding regions within the CYP3A4 active site, multiple probe substrates are often used for in vitro CYP3A4 DDI studies, including midazolam (the clinical standard), felodipine/nifedipine, and testosterone. However, the design of clinical CYP3A4 DDI studies may be confounded for cases such as 1-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-N-[5-(7-methoxyquinolin-4-yloxy)pyridin-2-yl]-5-methyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide (AMG 458), with which testosterone is predicted to exhibit a clinically relevant DDI whereas midazolam and felodipine/nifedipine are not. To develop an appropriate path forward for such clinical DDI studies, the inhibition potency of 20 known inhibitors of CYP3A4 were measured in vitro using 8 clinically relevant CYP3A4 probe substrates and testosterone. Hierarchical clustering suggested four probe substrate clusters: testosterone; felodipine; midazolam, buspirone, quinidine, and sildenafil; and simvastatin, budesonide, and fluticasone. The in vivo sensitivities of six clinically relevant CYP3A4 probe substrates (buspirone, cyclosporine, nifedipine, quinidine, sildenafil, and simvastatin) were determined in relation to midazolam from literature DDI data. Buspirone, sildenafil, and simvastatin exhibited similar or greater sensitivity than midazolam to CYP3A4 inhibition in vivo. Finally, Simcyp was used to predict the in vivo magnitude of CYP3A4 DDIs caused by AMG 458 using midazolam, sildenafil, simvastatin, and testosterone as probe substrates.
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Human drug interaction studies in vivo are conducted when in vitro and/or animal interactions suggest clinical relevance. Studies in vitro have indicated that the new, entirely synthetic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor fluvastatin affects the metabolism of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and the oral hypoglycemic tolbutamide. Diclofenac and tolbutamide are both model substrates of the CYP2C isozymes, suggesting that this enzyme could be involved in the underlying mechanism of interaction. The concomitant use of lipid-lowering drugs with oral hypoglycemic agents has been recommended in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Therefore, 2 studies were initiated to explore potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between fluvastatin, simvastatin, or placebo and the oral hypoglycemic agents tolbutamide (study I) and glyburide (study II), each in 16 healthy subjects. These compounds were selected because of a demonstrated in vitro interaction with tolbutamide and widespread clinical use of glyburide. A further study (study III) was conducted to investigate the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between fluvastatin and glyburide under therapeutic conditions in 32 patients with NIDDM. Single and multiple coadministration of fluvastatin 40 mg or simvastatin 20 mg increased the mean maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve of glyburide by about 20%. The pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide were influenced to only a minor extent. Fluvastatin concentration-time profiles were unaffected by tolbutamide or glyburide coadministration. However, the pharmacokinetic interactions between fluvastatin or simvastatin and tolbutamide and glyburide were not associated with clinically relevant changes in blood glucose and insulin concentrations and, therefore, are not considered to be relevant in therapeutic practice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)