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Intestinal cholesterol absorption is specifically inhibited by the 2-azetidinone cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe. Photoreactive ezetimibe analogues specifically label a 145-kDa protein in the brush border membrane of enterocytes from rabbit small intestine identified as aminopeptidase N (CD13). In zebrafish and mouse small intestinal cytosol, a heterocomplex of M(r) 52 kDa between annexin II and caveolin 1 was suggested as a target of ezetimibe. In contrast, in the cytosol and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from rabbit small intestine of control animals or rabbits treated with the nonabsorbable cholesterol absorption inhibitor AVE 5530, both annexin II and caveolin 1 were exclusively present as monomers without any heterocomplex formation. Upon immunoprecipitation with annexin II a 52-kDa band was observed after immunostaining with annexin II antibodies, whereas no staining of a 52-kDa band occurred with anti-caveolin 1 antibodies. Vice versa, a 52-kDa band obtained by immunoprecipitation with caveolin 1 antibodies did not stain with annexin II-antibodies. The intensity of the 52-kDa band was dependent on the amount of antibody and was also observed with anti-actin or anti-APN antibodies suggesting that the 52-kDa band is a biochemical artefact. After incubation of cytosol or BBMV with radioactively labelled ezetimibe analogues, no significant amounts of the ezetimibe analogues could be detected in the immunoprecipitate with caveolin-1 or annexin II antibodies. Photoaffinity labelling of rabbit small intestinal BBMV with ezetimibe analogues did not result in labelling of proteins being immunoreactive with annexin II, caveolin 1 or a 52-kDa heterocomplex. These findings indicate that the rabbit small intestine does not contain an annexin II/caveolin 1 heterocomplex as a target for ezetimibe.
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During a 3-year follow-up in 3,414 patients with established CV disease and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, combined niacin + low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapy did not reduce CV events compared with LDL-C-lowering therapy alone.
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Although the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) trial reported negative results in delaying AS progression in low-risk patients, the potential benefits of statins in those with multiple risk factors and their value in preventing future coronary events call for further investigation of different categories of AS patients.
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In this paper, we propose a class of multivariate random effects models allowing for the inclusion of study-level covariates to carry out meta-analyses. As existing algorithms for computing maximum likelihood estimates often converge poorly or may not converge at all when the random effects are multi-dimensional, we develop an efficient expectation-maximization algorithm for fitting multi-dimensional random effects regression models. In addition, we also develop a new methodology for carrying out variable selection with study-level covariates. We examine the performance of the proposed methodology via a simulation study. We apply the proposed methodology to analyze metadata from 26 studies involving statins as a monotherapy and in combination with ezetimibe. In particular, we compare the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering efficacy of monotherapy and combination therapy on two patient populations (naïve and non-naïve patients to statin monotherapy at baseline), controlling for aggregate covariates. The proposed methodology is quite general and can be applied in any meta-analysis setting for a wide range of scientific applications and therefore offers new analytic methods of clinical importance.
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Despite the availability of statins, many patients do not achieve lipid targets. Combination therapy with lipid-lowering agents that act via a complementary pathway may allow additional patients to achieve recommended cholesterol goals.
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Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is highly expressed in the small intestine across mammalian species and is the target of ezetimibe, a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor. In humans, NPC1L1 is also expressed in the liver. We found that transgenic overexpression of NPC1L1 in the wild-type mouse liver inhibits biliary cholesterol secretion and raises blood cholesterol, which can be reversed by ezetimibe treatment. Unfortunately, the high expression of endogenous NPC1L1 in the intestine hampered a definitive establishment of the role of hepatic NPC1L1 in cholesterol metabolism and ezetimibe action in the liver because intestinal NPC1L1 dramatically influences cholesterol homeostasis and is a target of ezetimibe. To circumvent this obstacle, we crossed liver-specific NPC1L1 transgenic mice to NPC1L1 knockout (L1-KO) mice and created a mouse line expressing no endogenous NPC1L1, but human NPC1L1 in liver only (L1(LivOnly) mice). Compared to L1-KO mice, L1(LivOnly) mice on a 0.2% cholesterol diet showed significantly increased hepatic and plasma cholesterol, and despite a 90% reduction in biliary cholesterol excretion, their fecal cholesterol excretion remained completely unaltered. Remarkably, 4days of ezetimibe treatment significantly restored biliary cholesterol secretion in L1(LivOnly) mice. These findings demonstrated a direct role of hepatic NPC1L1 in regulating biliary cholesterol excretion and hepatic/blood cholesterol levels, and unequivocally established hepatic NPC1L1 as a target of ezetimibe.
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Sitagliptin is a new oral glucose-lowering medication that acts via the incretin hormone system. The most common side-effects are headache and pharyngitis, and few serious adverse events were observed during clinical trials. Dose adjustment is recommended in renal insufficiency, but long-term safety experience is limited.
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Goal attainment of guideline-recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is suboptimal. Little is known about how patient factors influence physicians' treatment decision-making in hypercholesterolemia. We examined physicians' treatment recommendations in high-risk patients whose LDL-C remained uncontrolled despite statin monotherapy.
Nineteen variables were associated with ezetimibe prescriptions, the most important ones being total cholesterol, level of education, unstable angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Ezetimibe was more frequently prescribed together with simvastatin and pravastatin than with other statins, and frequently together with aspirin or beta blockers, respectively. After adjustment for baseline lipid values and covariates, the probability of target level achievement appears to be substantially higher for patients on ezetimibe than for those without ezetimibe.
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The recent IMPROVE-IT trial clearly showed that lowering serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations via inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption through ezetimibe effectively lowered the number of new cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. This supports the use of other (dietary) interventions that lower serum LDL-C concentrations via comparable mechanisms such as described for plant sterol and stanol ester enriched functional foods. Therefore it is tempting to suggest that these compounds may have the same effects on CVD outcome, as described for ezetimibe in the IMPROVE-IT trial. This has however not been proven so far. A possible advantage of plant sterol and stanol ester enriched foods over ezetimibe-a typical single-target drug-is that these dietary compounds act on multiple targets, since they not only lower serum LDL-C concentrations, but also lower serum triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations in subjects with elevated serum TAG concentrations. In addition, they might influence the functioning of our immune system via a changed activity of the regulatory T-cells. This combination of effects makes these compounds highly attractive to decrease CVD risk.
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After announcement of the results of the ENHANCE trial, nearly 2% of all continuously enrolled adult beneficiaries within a large US pharmacy benefit manager used ezetimibe, although ezetimibe initiations declined and discontinuations increased.
The current preventions of malaria are protection against mosquito bites and taking chemoprophylactic anti-malarial drugs. However, drug therapies are usually associated with adverse events and emergency of drug-resistant malaria parasites. Previous study showed that host plasma alpha-tocopherol deficiency enhanced resistance against malaria infection in mice. Here, we report a new prevention strategy against malaria by using anti-hyperlipidemia drugs, ezetimibe, berberine, cholestyramine, and probucol to modify the host plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration. The drugs were mixed with diet and fed to C57BL/6J mice for 2 weeks. Although all drugs reduced plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration after 2 weeks of feeding, probucol-treated mice showed 90 % reduction and it was the lowest alpha-tocopherol concentration among the four drugs. Ezetimibe, berberine, and combination of ezetimibe and berberine pretreatment for 2 weeks were not effective against infection of Plasmodium yoelii XL17, a lethal strain, for survival and parasitemia in mice. Two-week pretreatment and 1-week treatment after infection of cholestyramine had also no effect on malaria infection. Survival rates of cholestyramine, ezetimibe, and/or berberine treated mice were 0-22 %. However, probucol caused significant decrease in parasitemia and increased in mice survival following 2-week pretreatment and 1-week treatment after infection. All control mice died while all probucol treated mice survived during the course of infection. Thus, probucol which reduced plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration was effective in enhancing the host to resist malaria infection in mice. Our finding indicates that plasma alpha-tocopherol reducing drugs like probucol might be a candidate for beneficial prevention strategy for travelers from malaria-free area.
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Lack of data in children, heterogeneity among reviewed studies, and the possibility of selective reporting of outcomes and adverse events.
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Individuals with CV disease and low baseline levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were randomized to simvastatin plus placebo or simvastatin, plus extended-release niacin ([ERN], 1,500 to 2,000 mg/day), with ezetimibe added as needed, in both groups, to maintain an on-treatment low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the range of 40 to 80 mg/dl. Hazard ratios (HRs) were used to evaluate the relationship between levels of apoA-1, apoB, and Lp(a), and CV events in each treatment group.
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This retrospective study used pharmacy and medical claims and laboratory result data from a national managed care dataset to evaluate patients who were newly prescribed simvastatin plus ezetimibe, simvastatin plus niacin, and lovastatin plus niacin either as SPC or MPC. Patients were considered adherent to therapy if they had a proportion of days covered (PDC) ≥ 0.80.
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The relative risk (RR) of major vascular events (a composite of cardiovascular death, acute MI or other acute coronary syndrome, coronary revascularization, or stroke) associated with the absolute reduction in LDL-C level; 5-year rate of major coronary events (coronary death or MI) associated with achieved LDL-C level.
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Apheresis treatment and assessment of cardiovascular status was performed at local hospitals but coordinated by the Lipid Clinic that has followed all patients since diagnosis. Quality of life was evaluated by a validated questionnaire.
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In patients with initially asymptomatic AS participating in the SEAS study, overweight and obesity did not influence AS progression or rate of AS-related or ischemic CV events but were both associated with increased mortality.
In the light of the most recent and stricter dyslipidemia treatment guidelines, the need for combination hypolipidemic therapy is increasing. Ezetimibe plus simvastatin is available as a fixed dose therapy offering an efficient hypolipidemic treatment choice. Based on the positive results of the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial, the use of this drug combination is expected to increase in the next years.
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Ezetimibe is a cholesterol absorption inhibitor that significantly lowers low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and favourably affects triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol blood levels in monotherapy and in combination with statins. Hepatic and extrahepatic (peripheral) cholesterol synthesis are well-known sources of cholesterol found in LDL-C. However, the emergence of ezetimibe has highlighted intestinal cholesterol absorption as an additional, important source of cholesterol in LDL-C, and has better illuminated how genetic factors, dietary content, pharmaceutical agents, and nuclear receptor activation (such as liver X receptors) all influence the relative contribution of these important cholesterol sources to LDL-C. In fact, investigations into ezetimibe have sometimes challenged existing scientific dogma, has prompted reconsideration of older data, and has helped create 'new' paradigms in cholesterol metabolism. Thus, ezetimibe's efficacy, excellent tolerability, and safety has not only expanded potential treatment options for dyslipidaemic patients, but also has promoted exploration of new frontiers of lipid research towards a better understanding of cholesterol metabolism.