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The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat is formed in vivo in liver and kidney by esterolysis of the antihypertensive drug enalapril. To gain insight into the renal elimination of enalaprilat, we carried out multiple-indicator dilution experiments in the isolated perfused rat kidney. Kidneys were perfused single pass with an amino acid-supplemented Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 20% bovine red blood cells and 4% bovine serum albumin, at a flow rate of 0.11 +/- 0.02 (SD) ml.s-1 x g-1. A bolus of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells (vascular red blood cell indicator), 125I-labeled albumin (vascular plasma indicator), L-[14C]glucose (interstitial space indicator), and [3H]-enalaprilat was injected into the renal artery, and timed samples of venous blood (up to 1 min) and urine (up to 10 min) were collected. The data were analyzed using a variable-transit-time, space-distributed model with modifications accounting for glomerular filtration and the observed 14% protein binding of enalaprilat; the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from L-glucose clearance was 9.0 +/- 2.9% of total plasma flow. The ratio of renal clearance of unbound enalaprilat to GFR was 1.56 +/- 0.29, indicating both glomerular filtration and net tubular secretion of enalaprilat. Unidirectional influx from plasma to tubular cells exceeded tubular secretion by a factor of 2.2 +/- 0.5. Thus only about one-half of the enalaprilat taken up by the tubular cells was excreted into urine, with the remainder refluxing into the capillary blood stream, indicating bidirectional permeation of enalaprilat across the basolateral tubular membrane.
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We show consistent evidence, both in vivo and in vitro, that enalapril does not affect MMPs and TIMPs levels in hypertensive patients.
Frequently reported adverse inflammatory skin and airway reactions have been reported in subjects being medicated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors. Intradermally evoked wheal and flare reactions to ovalbumin, capsaicin and bradykinin, in ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs, was previously demonstrated to be enhanced by pretreatment with the ACE-inhibitor MK 422 (the active parent diacid of enalapril). In vitro results from this study demonstrate that the ACE-inhibitor MK 422 degranulated guinea pig lung and skin mast cells as well as human basophils, and enhanced allergen-evoked histamine release. Local capsaicin pretreatment in vivo of guinea pig skin decreased spontaneous and allergen-triggered release of histamine in vitro from skin mast cells. No clear enhancing effect of MK 422 was seen on the allergen-triggered histamine release in vitro from capsaicin pretreated skin, and the spontaneous release was unaffected by the ACE-inhibitor. The allergen-triggered wheal and flare reaction in ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs was potentiated by MK 422 and the late phase reaction of the inflammatory response was especially augmented. Capsaicin pretreatment of the guinea pigs abolished this late phase reaction as well as the inflammatory enhancing effect of MK 422. Our in vitro results from capsaicin pretreated skin indicate that the reduced inflammatory response in vivo in capsaicin pretreated skin is due not only to capsaicin induced depletion of neuropeptides from sensory nerves, but also to secondary degranulation of mast cells by one or more of these peptides.
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The ST segment was analysed and the activity of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CKMB), cardiac troponin T (TnT), and the BB isoenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase (GPBB) were measured before the start of infusion (baseline), after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), at the end of surgery, 5 h after CPB, and on the morning of the first and third postoperative days.
In the control period, rapid pacing induced a significant 14% reduction (P<.01) in right atrial ERP and an 8% decrease (P<.01) in left atrial ERP as compared to baseline values. In the enalaprilat period, rapid pacing significantly reduced ERP by 15% in the right chamber (P<.01) and 7% in the left chamber (P<.01). There was no significant difference in the extent or time course of ERP shortening between the control and enalaprilat periods. The number of unintentionally induced atrial fibrillation episodes did not differ significantly between the two periods.
A bioequivalence study of two oral formulations of 20/12.5 mg tablets of enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide was carried out in 20 healthy male volunteers according to a single dose, two-sequence, crossover randomized design. One washout period of nine days was observed between the two periods. Multiple samples were collected over 96 hours post-dosing. Bioavailability was evaluated on the basis of plasma concentrations of enalapril and its main active metabolite, enalaprilat and hydrochlorothiazide. Plasma samples were assayed for enalapril, enalaprilat and hydrochlorothiazide using a selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS). The pharmacokinetic parameter values of Cmax and tmax were obtained directly from plasma data, k(e) was estimated by log-linear regression, and AUC was calculated by trapezoidal rule. Different statistical tests were performed on the basis of untransformed and log-transformed data and the overall residual variance from ANOVA. Assuming the accepted tolerance intervals, a beta-error of 20% and 90% confidence intervals (alpha = 0.10), all the generally accepted tests (Schuirmann test and Wilcoxon-Tukey and Hauschke nonparametric tests) showed that the formulations can be considered as bioequivalent with respect to the extent of absorption, given by the AUC(0-infinity) and with respect to rate of absorption as assessed by Cmax and tmax.
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PAN rats developed severe proteinuria that was significantly improved by enalapril treatment. In non-treated PAN rats GBM GAGs were reduced, whereas in the enalapril-treated group GBM GAGs were significantly increased to control levels. Enalapril did not affect glomerular sialic acid. Furthermore, in cultured podocytes and mesangial cells PAN decreased de novo GAG synthesis, an effect which was significantly ameliorated by enalaprilat treatment.
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The effect of competing elimination pathways on the metabolic and excretory clearance estimates was examined with tracer concentrations of [(3)H]enalapril, which was both metabolized and excreted by the rat kidney. Perturbation was achieved with use of the carboxylesterase inhibitor paraoxon, which inhibited [(3)H]enalapril metabolism to [(3)H]enalaprilat in rat renal S9 fraction. At 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 10 microM paraoxon, esterolysis of enalapril was inhibited by 76 +/- 7, 93 +/- 5, 96 +/- 5, and 93 +/- 6%, respectively. The lowest concentration (0.1 microM) of paraoxon was chosen for single-pass isolated perfused kidney (IPK) studies because viability was least compromised, and the sodium and glucose reabsorptive functions of the IPK remained constant. After an equilibration period (15-20 min at constant pressure, 90-100 mm Hg), perfusion of the rat kidney with [(3)H]enalapril was carried out under constant flow (8 ml/min) for 30 min in the absence and presence of paraoxon (0.1 microM). The metabolic (from 1.83 +/- 0.52 to 1.48 +/- 0.47 ml/min/g) and total renal (from 1.87 +/- 0.46 to 1. 57 +/- 0.41 ml/min/g) clearances of [(3)H]enalapril in the IPKs were decreased significantly (p <.05) in the presence of paraoxon when compared with controls. Concomitantly, the urinary clearance (from 0. 04 +/- 0.07 to 0.09 +/- 0.09 ml/min/g) and the fractional excretion (from 0.23 +/- 0.18 to 0.52 +/- 0.25) of [(3)H]enalapril doubled (p <.05). The study illustrates that a reduction in cellular metabolism of the kidney brings forth a rise in the estimate of clearance of its complimentary pathway, estimate of the excretory (urinary) clearance.
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Furosemide-131I-hippuran renography with ACE inhibition is highly predictive in identifying patients with RVH.
Temporary thoracic aortic occlusion can result in renal insufficiency with or without adjuncts to avoid distal hypoperfusion. In a canine model of thoracic aortic occlusion, left atrial to left femoral bypass was compared with blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. Renin-angiotensin system blockade with the converting enzyme inhibitor, MK422, resulted in restoration of baseline renal blood flow and glomerular filtration 30 minutes after cross-clamp release. Left atrial to left femoral bypass resulted in significant reduction in both renal blood flow and glomerular filtration 30 minutes after cross-clamp release. Stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system plays a significant role in the altered renal hemodynamics and glomerular filtration rates after thoracic aortic occlusion.
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The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalaprilat can exist in solution as cis and trans conformers which interconvert around the amide bond at room temperature. A HPLC with UV detection was performed to study the influence of various chromatographic operational conditions on both rotamers separation and elution of enalaprilat as a single peak. In addition nuclear overhauser enhancement difference was used for the identification of the conformers. The isomer ratio integrated from the obtained 1H NMR result were 71.5:28.5 and 76:24 at 298 and 279 K, respectively where the trans was the major form.
It is now established that all of the components necessary for the local formation of angiotensin II (ANG II) coexist in the kidney and can alter local ANG II production rate. However, data on ANG II concentrations in different compartments within the kidney are limited. Recently, proximal tubule fluid ANG II concentrations in the nanomolar range were reported. Using an ANG II radioimmunoassay procedure with enhanced sensitivity, we performed experiments to explore proximal tubular fluid ANG II levels further and to determine the source of the ANG II. Total free-flow proximal tubular fluid samples (n = 11) had an average ANG II concentration of 13 +/- 2 nM. These concentrations were similar (10 +/- 2 nM) in samples collected into pipettes containing the inhibitors enalaprilat and EDTA (n = 17). Fluid collected from blocked proximal tubules that were perfused with artificial tubular fluid showed similar ANG II concentrations both in the presence (22 +/- 3 nM) and absence (22 +/- 4 nM) of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, enalaprilat, in the perfusate. Plasma ANG II concentrations were much lower and averaged 155 +/- 26 pM. Isotonic saline expansion lowered plasma ANG II levels to 30 +/- 5 pM (P < 0.01) but did not significantly decrease intraluminal ANG II (8 +/- 1 nM). These data provide further evidence that intratubular ANG II concentrations are in the nanomolar range and are regulated independently of the plasma ANG II levels. The data obtained from perfused tubules indicate that the proximal tubule adds substantial amounts of ANG II or a precursor into the tubular lumen.
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The chemical stability of enalapril maleate in tablet dosage forms consisting of different formulation excipients has been studied in this work. The influence of various parameters such as heat, moisture, light and the drug-matrix was investigated. The degradation of enalapril maleate has been followed by using an HPLC method, which was demonstrated to be specific, stability indicating, accurate and precise. The degradation kinetics of enalalpril maleate in phosphate buffer solutions of pH values in the range of 2.2-10.5 were observed to be psuedo first order throughout the whole pH range studied. Enalapril maleate alone showed high stability for temperature under dry and humid conditions, however it became unstable when mixed with the drug-matrix in its tablet formulations and exposed to the same conditions. The pathway of degradation of enalapril maleate was found to be pH dependent. The extent of degradation of two different enalapril maleate tablet formulations (product A of a basic drug-matrix and product B of an acidic drug-matrix) has been investigated. The degree of degradation of the product with acidic matrix was significantly less than that of the basic matrix under same temperature and humidity conditions. In fact, diketopiperazine and enalaprilat degradants were mainly associated with the degradation of the product with the acidic matrix and that with the basic matrix, respectively. Dry enalapril maleate powder showed some photolysis, which was more significant with daylight (3.3%) compared with that under UV light (0.2%). Although the product with the acidic matrix showed some photolysis but the effect was not pronounced and the % recovery of enalapril was almost complete and within the acceptable experimental errors. However, the product with the basic matrix showed almost no response for photolysis.
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The prescribing and usage patterns of two antihypertensive agents, terazosin (Hytrin) and enalapril maleate (Vasotec) were analyzed and compared over a 6-month study period, using data from the PDS Alpha Data Base. The study analyzed several variables for both physician prescribing patterns and patient responses. Overall, the two agents performed equally well during the study period, with 6-month retention rates (% of patients who continued to take the same medication) of approximately 60%. Although both drugs are judged to be good candidates for first-line antihypertensive therapy, it was observed during the study that family practitioners write considerably more prescriptions for terazosin than enalapril, while internists write more enalapril prescriptions. We concluded that these differences in prescribing and usage patterns were largely attributable to the manufacturers' marketing strategies and to how various physicians perceive the two agents, rather than to actual clinical differences between them.
To assess effects of enalapril and Accupro on clinical status left ventricular remodeling and systolic function in patients with heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy.
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In previous studies it has not been possible to determine net intrarenal formation of angiotensin II (ANG II) from arteriovenous ANG II concentrations because of the high intrarenal ANG II degradation rates (DR). This study was designed to determine ANG II-DR and to estimate net intrarenal ANG II formation during normal and enhanced renin secretion rate (RSR). In anesthetized dogs, plasma renin activity and ANG II were measured in arterial and renal venous blood by radioimmunoassay during four periods: control, renal arterial constriction (RAC), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (MK 422), and MK 422 plus systemic arterial ANG II infusion. ANG II-DR was determined in each dog from the arterial-renal venous ANG II concentration difference during the period of ANG II infusion in the presence of ACE inhibition; this value was used to estimate net ANG II formation by predicting the amount of arterially delivered ANG II that escaped degradation. The average percent ANG II-DR calculated during ANG II infusion (range of 0.05 to 0.20 microgram/min) was 89 +/- 2%. In response to RAC, RSR increased from 11 +/- 3 to 24 +/- 5 ng ANG I X h-1 X min-1 X g-1. Arterial ANG II (67 +/- 11 pg/ml) and renal venous ANG II (29 +/- 6 pg/ml) increased to 133 +/- 18 and 61 +/- 10 pg/ml, respectively. Net intrarenal ANG II formation increased from 44 +/- 11 to 83 +/- 13 pg X min-1 X g-1 after renal arterial constriction. There was a significant relationship between the change in RSR and the change in ANG II formation rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The interactions between the ACE inhibitor enalaprilat and the calcium antagonists diltiazem, cinnarizine, felodipine and verapamil were studied in anesthetized rats for effects on blood pressure and in isolated perfused rat tail arteries for effects at alpha1-adrenoceptors.
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Eight borderline hypertensive ADPKD patients with (near) normal renal function and seven matched healthy control subjects were investigated at three levels of daily dietary sodium intake: 150, 50 and 450 mmol. In the 450-mmol sodium intake period we studied the effects of renally formed dopamine by infusing its precursor DOPA (DOPAi.v., 7 micrograms kg-1 min-1). In the 50-mmol sodium intake period we studied the influence of the RAAS by administering enalaprilate (42 micrograms kg-1), followed by angiotensin II (12 ng kg-1 min-1) intravenously. GFR and ERPF were measured by continuous infusion of inulin and PAH.
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We examined the effects of the AT1-receptor antagonist Losartan (DuP 753, 0.2-3.2 mg/kg) on coronary arteries in vivo in 11 dogs, using a combination of intravascular two-dimensional and Doppler ultrasound. In six dogs, a 30-MHz, 4.3F ultrasound imaging catheter was placed in the midsegment of the circumflex coronary artery to measure cross-sectional area (CSA), and a 0.018-in. Doppler wire was placed alongside to measure coronary flow velocity. At peak effect (1.6 mg/kg), Losartan increased mean coronary CSA from 7.9 +/- 0.5 to 9.5 +/- 0.8 mm2 and average peak velocity (APV) from 32 +/- 10 to 56 +/- 18 cm/sec, resulting in an increase in coronary blood flow from 74 +/- 19 to 151 +/- 36 mL/min. The maximal effect of the ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (5 mg) was an increase in CSA from 7.7 +/- 0.7 to 8.4 +/- 0.8 mm2 and an increase in APV from 36 +/- 10 to 53 +/- 20 cm/sec, with an increase in coronary blood flow from 82 +/- 25 to 122 +/- 41 mL/min. Relative to maximal hyperemia with adenosine (6 mg i.c.), the magnitude of flow increase from baseline was 0.37 with the AT1-receptor antagonist and 0.19 with the ACE inhibitor (p < 0.05). These effects were seen without changes in heart rate or systemic arterial pressure. In an additional five dogs, the ultrasound imaging catheter was introduced directly over a 0.014-in. Doppler wire, and the effects of indomethacin, propranolol, and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) on the vasodilator effect of Losartan (1.6 mg/kg) were examined. Indomethacin and propranolol had no effect on Losartan-induced vasodilation, suggesting that it was not mediated via prostaglandins or beta-adrenoceptors. However, Losartan-induced epicardial vasodilation was partially inhibited by L-NAME, suggesting an action partly dependent on endothelial release of nitric oxide.
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In the area remote from a myocardial infarction, the activation of PKC could be detected for the first time as early as 2.5 min after LAD ligation. This newly characterized activation in the non-infarcted area can be prevented by ACEI via an angiotensin-AT1-receptor-dependent mechanism. It is supposed that this newly characterized activation process of PKC plays an important role in the signal transduction in the remote myocardium in acute myocardial infarction as a trigger for the late development of hypertrophy and heart failure.
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To evaluate the hormonal, blood pressure, and peritoneal transport effects of intraperitoneal enalaprilat and oral enalapril.
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This study shows that acute local ACE inhibition restores bradykinin-induced relaxation in smokers to values found in nonsmokers. This observation suggests that increased vascular metabolism of bradykinin exists in veins of smokers and that the vascular renin-angiotensin system may play a key role in smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction.
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Thirty acyanotic infants requiring CPB.
The adverse reactions in combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and Ang II receptor blockers (ARBs) were severer than that in monotherapy for patients with nephropathy. The effect of candesartan on pharmacokinetics of enalaprilat in nephrotic rats was investigated to make references for the clinical therapy in patients with nephropathy to avoid related adverse effects.
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Prospective, randomized, double-blind study.
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We examined whether performing renal venous renin studies under stringent conditions might predict BP improvement. Patients with at least 60% RAS who underwent renal venous renin measurements in 2008-2013 were identified. Renal venous renin lateralization ratios (RVRRs) were calculated by dividing venous renin from the stenotic kidney with contralateral levels before and after stimulation with enalaprilat or captopril. Benefit was defined as BP less than 140/90 mmHg without medication, 10% decreased mean BP without increased daily defined doses (DDDs) or decreased DDD without a significant increase of mean BP.
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The effect of captopril, MK-421 and MK-422 on fibrinolysis was investigated in vitro with 3 assay methods. Incorporation of captopril, but not MK-421 and MK-422, into fibrin clots resulted in a reduction of fibrinolysis by purified human plasmin. The concentrations of captopril required to demonstrate this effect far exceeded the therapeutic doses. Pre-mixing plasmin with captopril did not lead to a decreased lysis of fibrin plates. Furthermore, none of these agents affected the lysis of 125I-fibrin plates by a mixture of human serum and streptokinase. Captopril and MK-421, and to a much lesser extent MK-422, inhibited the amidolysis of a fluorogenic synthetic substrate by human plasmin; the inhibition was ameliorated by increasing the substrate concentration. Apparently, the inhibition of fibrinolysis by high doses of captopril, and of amidolysis by captopril and MK-421, appears to lie in their effects on the substrate (fibrin and synthetic substrate) rather than on the enzyme (plasmin).
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Systemic blood pressure and plasma aldosterone responses to A2 were similar in men with or without a genetic disposition to primary arterial hypertension. However, our data demonstrate that men with a family history of hypertension have increased renovascular sensitivity to A2, and that chronic ACE inhibition normalizes their sensitivity.
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The aim of the present study was to assess the possible differences in hemodynamic and neurohumoral responses to local ACE inhibition in the human forearm of patients with essential hypertension with either quinaprilat or enalaprilat. Forearm vascular responses to infusion of quinaprilat or enalaprilat (0.5 microg/dL/min) into the brachial artery were studied in 12 male patients with essential hypertension. The experiments were performed in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion. Before and during ACE inhibition, the vasoconstrictor response to four cumulative doses of angiotensin I (Ang I) was studied. Forearm blood flow was assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. Local quinaprilat infusion induced a more rapid (even after 15 minutes; median vasodilation quinaprilat 29% vs. enalaprilat --1%, P < 0.02) and longer lasting forearm vasodilation as compared with enalaprilat. After 15 minutes of local ACE inhibition, the vasoconstrictor response to Ang I was completely blocked by both ACE inhibitors. We conclude that in patients with essential hypertension quinaprilat induces a more rapid and longer lasting vasodilatation than enalaprilat. These effects of quinaprilat are possibly related to its higher affinity for vascular ACE. On the other hand, the fact that these effects of quinaprilat were observed despite a similar degree of ACE inhibition as during enalaprilat may suggest that quinaprilat directly stimulates another vasodilatating mechanism.