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The present study was undertaken to examine the protective effect of Triphala extract against paracetamol-induced hepato-renal injury in Swiss albino mice.
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Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the USA. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability to drive continued expansion of the population of malignant cells. Therefore, strategies that target CSCs could be effective against colon cancer and in reducing the risk of relapse and metastasis. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of triphala, a widely used formulation in Indian traditional medicine, on HCT116 colon cancer cells and human colon cancer stem cells (HCCSCs). The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and phytochemical composition (LC-MS-MS) of methanol extract of triphala (MET) were also measured. We observed that MET contains a variety of phenolics including naringin, quercetin, homoorientin, and isorhamnetin. MET suppressed proliferation independent of p53 status in HCT116 and in HCCSCs. MET also induced p53-independent apoptosis in HCCSCs as indicated by elevated levels of cleaved PARP. Western blotting data suggested that MET suppressed protein levels of c-Myc and cyclin D1, key proteins involved in proliferation, and induced apoptosis through elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, MET inhibited HCCSCs colony formation, a measure of CSCs self-renewal ability. Anticancer effects of triphala observed in our study warrant future studies to determine its efficacy in vivo.
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Short-term contact with 17% EDTA and 5% NaOCl can cause significant surface deterioration of ProTaper and iRaCe rotary NiTi files. AFM proves to be a suitable method for evaluating the instrument surface.
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Five groups (n = 6) of male albino mice were used in the study. Catalepsy was induced by ip administration of haloperidol (1mg/kg). The degree of catalepsy (cataleptic score) was measured as the time the animal maintained an imposed posture. We compared the anticataleptic efficacy of NR-ANX-C (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) with scopolamine (1 mg/kg). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in brain tissue was also estimated to correlate the levels of oxidative stress and degree of catalepsy in the animal.
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"Triphala", the Ayurvedic wonder is used traditionally for the treatment of different types of diseases since antiquity. The hydroalcoholic extracts of the three components of Triphala powder demonstrated varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant uropathogenic bacteria. Terminalia chebula fruit extract was active against all the test isolates followed by Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. There was a close association between antibacterial activity and total phenolic content of Triphala components.The test plant extracts were also found to be non-toxic on human erythrocyte membrane at recommended and even higher doses. The preliminary results of the present study may help in developing effective and safe antimicrobial agents from Triphala components for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.
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The antimicrobial action of triphala against mutans streptococci closely parallels that of chlorhexidine. It does not have the side effects commonly associated with chlorhexidine and is cost effective.
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The aqueous extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (T1), Terminalia chebula (T2) and Terminalia belerica (T3) and their equiproportional mixture triphala were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity. gamma-Radiation induced strand break formation in plasmid DNA (pBR322) was effectively inhibited by triphala and its constituents in the concentration range 25-200 microg/mL with a percentage inhibition of T1 (30%-83%), T2 (21%-71%), T3 (8%-58%) and triphala (17%-63%). They also inhibited radiation induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes effectively with IC(50) values less than 15 microg/mL. The extracts were found to possess the ability to scavenge free radicals such as DPPH and superoxide. As the phenolic compounds present in these extracts are mostly responsible for their radical scavenging activity, the total phenolic contents present in these extracts were determined and expressed in terms of gallic acid equivalents and were found to vary from 33% to 44%. These studies revealed that all three constituents of triphala are active and they exhibit slightly different activities under different conditions. T1 shows greater efficiency in lipid peroxidation and plasmid DNA assay, while T2 has greater radical scavenging activity. Thus their mixture, triphala, is expected to be more efficient due to the combined activity of the individual components.
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Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed solid malignancies among US men. We identified gallic acid (GA) as a major bioactive cytotoxic constituent of a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation - triphala (TPL). Both TPL and GA were evaluated on (AR)(+) LNCaP prostate cancer and normal epithelial cells.
The effect of 0, 5, 6.25, 10, 12.5, 20, 25, 40, 50 and 80 mg/kg b. wt. of aqueous extract of triphala (an Ayurvedic herbal medicine) administrered intraperitoneally was studied on the radiation-induced mortality in mice exposed to 10 Gy of gamma-radiation. Treatment of mice with different doses of triphala consecutively for five days before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the non-drug treated irradiated controls. The highest protection against GI (gastrointestinal) death was observed for 12.5 mg/kg triphala, where a highest number of survivors were reported up to 10 days post-irradiation. While 10 mg/kg triphala i.p. provided the best protection as evidenced by the highest number of survivors after 30 days post-irradiation in this group when compared with the other doses of triphala. Toxicity study showed that triphala was non-toxic up to a dose of 240 mg/kg, where no drug-induced mortality was observed. The LD50 dose i.p. of triphala was found to be 280 mg/kg b. wt. Our study demonstrates the ability of triphala as a good radioprotective agent and the optimum protective dose of triphala was 1/28 of its LD50 dose.
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Swiss albino mice (weight 20-25 g) were used in this study. The mice were divided into five groups of six animals each. The aqueous extract of Triphala was given orally at two different doses (100 and 300 mg/kg body weight) for seven consecutive days, followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) to induce hepato-renal toxicity. Serum levels of liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid were measured as indices of liver and renal injury. All the statistical analyses were performed with the help of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test as post hoc test. Results were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05.
To evaluate TG tablets to meet modern pharmaceutical approaches and also standardization processes.
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Triphala is an anti-oxidant-rich herbal formulation containing fruits of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and T. belerica in equal proportions. The preparation is frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat diseases such as anaemia, jaundice, constipation, asthma, fever and chronic ulcers. Anti-mutagenic effects of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from Triphala have been reported, thus indicating that the phenols present in the formulation might be responsible for its therapeutic efficacy. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography method for the separation and quantitative determination of the major antioxidant polyphenols from Triphala has been developed. The use of an RP18 column with an acidic mobile phase enabled the efficient separation of gallic acid, tannic acid, syringic acid and epicatechin along with ascorbic acid within a 20 min analysis. Validation of the method was performed in order to demonstrate its selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. In addition, optimisation of the complete extraction of phenolic compounds was also studied.
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Ayurvedic texts describe many formulations for different ailments. Triphala Guggulu (TG) is reputed for treating inflammatory conditions. These formulations have been considered complementary medicine or alternative to conventional medicines across the globe. These complex polyherbal formulations need science-based approach toward manufacturing process and chemical standardization.
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Triphala Curna, Triphatladi Kvatha Curna, Inji Rasayanam and Manibhadra Lehya of Indian System of Medicine were examined microscopically and the methods of identifying their ingredients were reported as one of the quality control standards.
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Ninety individuals with chronic generalized gingivitis were randomly assigned to three groups: 1) group I, placebo mouthwash; 2) group II, TRP mouthwash; and 3) group III, chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash. All individuals were instructed to rinse with their respective mouthwash twice daily. 1) Plaque index (PI); 2) gingival index (GI); 3) oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S); and 4) microbiologic colony counts were recorded at baseline and at 7, 30, and 60 days.
Triphala and Hi Ora presents an anti-plaque efficacy similar to that of chlorhexdine, and was more effective at inhibiting plaque formation than the Colgate Plax mouth wash.
Triphala and chlorhexidine yielded a significant reduction in plaque and gingival index scores as compared to negative control (P < 0.001). No significant difference was found between the scores obtained with triphala and chlorhexidine mouthwashes.
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The effectiveness of triphala in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was comparable to chlorhexidine, and can be used for short-term purposes without potential side-effects. It is a cost-effective alternative in reducing plaque and gingivitis.
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A controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial was designed. Thirty subjects underwent four consecutive experimental phases with four treatments: Triphala, Hi Ora, Chlorhexidine and Colgate Plax. On the day of study, the subjects discontinued all other oral hygiene habits and were randomly assigned for treatment with the experimental mouthwash. Each experimental phase was preceded by a 28-day washout period. Plaque formation was recorded after one undisturbed day.
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Various concentrations of the formulation and its individual components showed significantly less inhibitory activity (p<0.001) on individual isoforms when compared with the positive control. Assessment on the in vitro effect of 'triphala' on drug modulating enzymes has important implications for predicting the likelihood of herb-drug interactions if these are administered concomitantly.
Nearly 60-70% of the child Indian population suffers from dental caries. Mouth rinsing is the most cost effective method of preventing dental caries. 'Triphala' has been a classic Ayurveda remedy, probably the best known among all Ayurvedic compounds. This study was conducted on 1501 students in the age group of 8-12 years with the aim of determining the effect of Triphala mouthwash on prevention of dental caries (manifest caries) as well as incipient carious lesions, and also comparing the effect of Triphala and chlorhexidine mouthwashes. The incipient caries was recorded at 3, 6, 9 months intervals and manifest caries at 9 months interval. No significant increase in the DMFS scores was found at the end of 9 months. Also, there was no significant increase in the incipient caries score towards the conclusion of the study. It was concluded that there was no significant difference between the Triphala and the chlorhexidine mouthwashes.
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Infection is a major problem in the management of wounds. Even though the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents persists, drug resistance and toxicity hinder their way. Many plants with multi-potent pharmaceutical activities may offer better treatment options, and Triphala (dried fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Phyllanthus emblica) are potential formulations evaluated for healing activity on infected wound as it possesses numerous activities.
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Triphala extract showed prominent α-amylase inhibitory potential (48.66% at concentration 250 μg/ml). Percent α-glucosidase inhibition increased with increasing concentration of the extract (6.32-40.64%). Extract showed remarkable results for antiglycation potential. Triphala extract showed glycation inhibition by inhibiting fructosamine; fructosamine inhibition was found to be 37.74%, protein carbonyls were inhibited up to 15.23% whereas protein thiols were inhibited up to 84.81%.
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The effects of 10 mg/kg of triphala extract (TE) was studied on radiation-induced sickness and mortality in mice exposed to 7-12 Gray (Gy) of gamma-irradiation. Treatment of mice with triphala once daily for 5 consecutive days before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the non-drug double distilled water treated irradiated controls (DDW). Triphala provided protection against both gastrointestinal and hemopoetic death. However, animals of both the TE + irradiation and DDW + irradiation groups did not survive up to 30 days post-irradiation beyond 11 Gy irradiation. The LD50/30 was found to be 8.6 Gy for the DDW + irradiation group and 9.9 Gy for TE + irradiation group. The administration of triphala resulted in an increase in the radiation tolerance by 1.4 Gy, and the dose reduction factor was found to be 1.15. To understand the mechanism of action of triphala, the free radical scavenging activity of the drug was evaluated. Triphala was found to scavenge (.)OH, O(2) (.) 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS)(.+) and NO(.) radicals in a dose dependent manner.
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The triphala group showed a 17% and 44% reduction, while the chlorhexidine group showed 16% and 45% reduction at the end of 48 h and 7 days (P < 0.001). The reduction in CFUs/ml seen in triphala group closely paralleled that of chlorhexidine group.
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'Triphala' is one of the age-old, most commonly used polyherbal preparation from Ayurveda as Rasayana drug.
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Triphala, a mixture of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellirica, containing ingredients from plant origin, is often prone to microbial contamination. A high level of microbial contamination was observed in Triphala samples obtained from different sources. On gamma radiation processing, a sharp decline in log CFU was observed with increasing radiation dose and a complete decontamination at 5 kGy. Average D10 value for total aerobic and fungal counts were observed to be 0.55 +/- 0.073 kGy and 0.94 +/- 0.043 kGy, respectively. Water extracts of irradiated samples showed linearly increasing concentration of gallic acid (3.3 to 4.5 times), total phenolic contents (2.16 to 2.87 times), and antioxidant properties with increasing radiation dose up to 25 kGy. The increase could be attributed to easy release of active ingredients from their radiation degraded complex forms. Aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin could not be detected in the samples. Gamma-radiation dose up to 5 kGy could be safely used to hygienize Triphala.