Oseltamivir for treatment or prophylaxis during 11 influenza outbreaks in 1999/2000.
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Amantadine (AMA), an antiparkinsonian drug, (20 mg/Kg, ip) or 3-cyclopentyl adamantanamine (AdCP), an AMA derivative synthesized recently, (20 mg/Kg, ip) induced an anti-immobility effect-comparable to those of imipramine (IMI), an antidepressive drug, (30 mg/Kg, ip) - in the forced swim test (FST), on adult (4 months) Balb-C mice. In contrast, on aged (10 months) Balb-C mice, only AdCP (20 or 40 mg/Kg, ip) was active in the FST. It is suggested that the inactivity of AMA or IMI on the aged Balb-C mice could be the consequence of their NMDA (i.e., N-methyl-D-aspartic acid sensitive) receptors failure. This NMDA receptors dysfunction could render non significant the antagonism of the mice immobility in the FST, induced by AMA or IMI, which could result (in part for IMI) from the anti-NMDA effect of these drugs. In contrast AdCP, which may principally act by glycinergic A (strychnine sensitive) effect, inhibiting the release of the brain monoamines and glutamate, conserved its activity in the FST on aged mice. In conclusion, it seems that the neurochemical profile of the drugs studied in the FST, could be useful for understanding their anti-immobility effect and for a rational approach of their possible clinical use as antidepressant.
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Ionizable cyclodextrins have attracted increasing attention in host-guest chemistry and pharmaceutical industry, mainly due to the introduction of favorable electrostatic interactions. The ionizable cyclodextrins could not only enhance its own solubility but also induce oppositely charged guests to form more stable complex. However, the aggregation induced by charged cyclodextrins has rarely been reported. In this work, guided by the concept of molecular-induced aggregation, a series of carboxyl modified cyclodextrins were synthesized via "click" and hydrolysis reaction. Then, UV-vis spectrum was used to investigate the aggregating behaviors induced by these cyclodextrins towards the cationic guest molecules. The results showed that only the hepta-carboxyl-β-cyclodextrin could induce the guest molecules to self-assemble into supramolecular spherical nanoparticles. Meanwhile, it could form stable inclusion complex with amantadine, a drug for anti-Parkinson and antiviral. The assembly behaviors were investigated by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, transmission electron microscope and NMR spectroscopy. The supramolecular nanoparticles induced by hepta-carboxyl-β-CD and its inclusion with amantadine could be used to encapsulate the model drug and achieve its controlled releasing behaviors.
Age (p < 0.0001), Functional Activities Questionnaire (p = 0.035), Beers List (p = 0.0477) and medications for treating cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's (p = 0.0019) were associated with hazard of fall in the univariate model. In the final multivariate model, after adjusting for covariates, Alzheimer's medication use (p = 0.0005) was associated with hazard of fall. Medication was changed by the clinician after an adverse fall event in 9% of the falls. About 7% of the falls were reported as serious adverse events and 6% were reported to be severe.
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Vascular dementia is the second cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. It is a broad term which includes dementia due to: single or multiple infarcts related to large vessel disease, subcortical ischemic pathology linked to small vessel disease, hemorrhages, and hypoperfusion. Furthermore, vascular and Alzheimer lesions often coexist leading to a mixed dementia. The diagnosis should be considered in the presence of dementia, clinical or neuroradiological signs of cerebrovascular disease and a plausible link between the two. Newly identified preventive strategies and encouraging results of recent trials using cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine suggest therapeutic potential.
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Many peripheral diseases are associated with a decline in cognitive function. In this regard, there have been reports of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and an otherwise unexplained memory impairment.
After a patient is diagnosed with Parkinson disease (PD), there are many therapeutic options available. This article provides examples of prototypical patients encountered in clinical practice and illustrates the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment options for the motor symptoms of PD.
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We included trials with random allocation, that were double blinded, with a parallel or crossover design. The control intervention was a placebo or an analgesic drug for neuropathic pain from any cause.
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This study compared the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and urinary excretion of platinum in rats after single oral doses of LA-12 and satraplatin.
In search for novel strategies in colon cancer treatment, we investigated the unique ability of platinum(IV) complex LA-12 to efficiently enhance the killing effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), and compared it with the sensitizing action of cisplatin. We provide the first evidence that LA-12 primes human colon cancer cells for TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity by p53-independent activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The cooperative action of LA-12 and TRAIL was associated with stimulation of Bax/Bak activation, drop of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-9 activation, and a shift of the balance among Bcl-2 family proteins in favor of the pro-apoptotic members. In contrast to cisplatin, LA-12 was a potent inducer of ERK-mediated Noxa and BimL protein upregulation, and more effectively enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the absence of Bax. The cooperative action of LA-12 and TRAIL was augmented following the siRNA-mediated silencing of Mcl-1 in both Bax proficient/deficient cells. We newly demonstrated that LA-12 induced ERK-mediated c-Myc upregulation, and proved that c-Myc silencing inhibited the mitochondrial activation and apoptosis in colon cancer cells treated with LA-12 and TRAIL. The LA-12-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis was demonstrated in several colon cancer cell lines, further underscoring the general relevance of our findings. The selective action of LA-12 was documented by preferential priming of cancer but not normal colon cancer cells to TRAIL killing effects. Our work highlights the promising potential of LA-12 over cisplatin to enhance the colon cancer cell sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and provides new mechanistic insights into their cooperative action.
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High resolution 1H-NMR spectroscopy has been used to study the infection of chicken embryo fibroblasts by influenza virus. Marked changes in the NMR spectrum occur when infectious influenza virus is introduced into the fibroblasts and these changes appear to depend upon the presence of active neuraminidase (EC 18.104.22.168). A crude preparation of neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae is able to effect similar changes. Only minor spectral changes are observed in the absence of culture medium or when the viral genome material is inactivated by beta-propiolactone. Similarly, little change is seen in the NMR spectrum when amantadine, which is thought to inhibit uncoating of the virus inside the cell, or actinomycin D, which inhibits cellular nucleic acid metabolism, are incubated with fibroblasts prior to the addition of virus. The results suggest that neuraminidase, in co-operation with a factor in the infectious process, initiates a cellular event which can be monitored by NMR. The nature of this cellular mechanism is unknown, but further studies are under way to determine its importance in viral infection.
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Occult HBV genomes were found in the serum of four of 53 (7.5%) patients, unrelated to anti-HBc status. No significant differences in biochemical, virological, or histological markers, age, duration of infection, were observed in patients with or without HBV DNA. There was an inverse correlation in the evolution of HBV DNA and HCV RNA levels. Direct sequencing showed that S gene of occult HBV presented mutations in the "a" determinant while no specific mutation in the core region of HCV was observed. None of the four patients co-infected with HBV and HCV were responders to anti-HCV therapy.
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The analysis of 1558 clinical samples revealed influenza virus A(H1N1v) RNA in 339 patients with influenza and 163 fatal cases,which was made in May to December 2009. Data on the antigenic properties of more than 250 of pandemic virus strains isolated at the Research Institute of Influenza and the molecular genetic characteristics of 31 strains are presented. All the test isolates were found to have the S203 substitution in hemagglutinin, which was characteristic of one of 5 minor genome A(H1N1v) virus variants found in the United States and Mexico in 2009. All the test strains contain the S31N substitution in the M2 protein, which determines viral resistance to adamantine, and have no H275Y substitution in neuraminidase, which determines oseltamivir resistance. The substitution of amino acid residue of Asp to Gly at position 222 of HA was found in 8 (73%) of 11 isolates from postmortem lung and trachea samples and in 2 (10%) of 20 isolates from nasopharyngeal swabs. The determination of the pathogenic role of this substitution calls for further investigations.
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Twenty-four subjects (mean age 71.6) with mild AD dementia (mean Mini Mental State Examination 21.7, Global Clinical Dementia Rating 1.0) on stable donepezil dosing participated in two task-related fMRI sessions consisting of a face-name paired associative encoding memory paradigm 24 weeks apart during a randomized placebo-controlled pharmaco-fMRI drug study. Regression analysis was used to identify regions where the change in fMRI activity for Novel > Repeated stimulus contrast was associated with the change scores on postscan memory tests and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT).
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To determine whether memantine as a treatment for glaucoma prevents neuron shrinkage in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the major target for retinal ganglion cells.
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Influenza A viruses of subtype H3N2 were primarily isolated in CACO-2 and then passaged in parallel in CACO-2 and MDCK cells. Structural properties of passaged virus variants were compared and analyzed for evolutionary relationships.
Treatment with memantine was well tolerated and reduced agitation/aggression, irritability, and appetite eating disturbances in patients who were agitated at baseline and delazed its emergence in those who were free of agitation at baseline.
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This trial evaluated the efficacy of amantadine, propranolol and their combination in cocaine dependent patients with severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms.
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of drugs acting on the central nervous system for agitation and/or aggression, secondary to ABI, in participants over 10 years of age. Studies using lower levels of evidence (i.e. case series studies, single case studies and controlled group comparison studies), were collated in an appendix.
The pharmacological effects of 6 weeks administration of amantadine was evaluated in the mouse. Motor stimulation induced by amphetamine or the amantadine analog memantine was reduced while that of apomorphine was enhanced by the long-term amantadine treatment. This was accompanied by an increase in the binding of spiroperidol to putative striatal dopamine receptors, without a change in amantadine-induced inhibition of dopamine uptake in the striatum. The possible significance of changes in pre- and postsynaptic dopamine mechanisms is discussed in relation to the anti-parkinson activity of the drug.
Early during treatment at TW8, quality of life was not different between patients in the control and the amantadine group. At TW24, the control group but not the amantadine group, however, showed significant deterioration of the modalities depression, fatigue, and vigor compared with baseline. Especially, nonresponders in the amantadine group showed significantly lower deterioration of depression, anger, mind function, everyday life, and zest for life than those in the placebo group. After treatment, the beneficial effects of amantadine disappeared.
This study evaluated the acute effects of memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, on the subjective, physiological, and performance effects of alcohol in moderate (10-30 drinks per week) alcohol drinkers.
Donepezil was effective and well tolerated in moderate-to-severe AD patients who discontinued memantine monotherapy, including those with previous exposure to ChE inhibitors.
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A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease treated with amantadine showed considerable initial improvement, followed by a period of almost five years during which the patient remained in a relatively stable condition until he died accidentally. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically.
Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are prescribed to slow the progression dementia. Although the efficacy of these drugs has been demonstrated, their effectiveness, from the perspective of patients and caregivers, has been questioned. Little is known about whether the demand for cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are sensitive to out-of-pocket cost. Using the 2006 implementation of Medicare Part D as a natural experiment, this study examines the impact of changes in drug coverage on use of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine by comparing use before and after Medicare Part D implementation among older adults who did and did not experience a change in coverage.