This study was a review of laboratory data. The antibiotic susceptibility of typhoidal Salmonellae isolated from blood cultures submitted to the Aga Khan University Hospital's laboratory from all over Pakistan between January 2009 and December 2011 were reviewed.
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A six-month retrospective review of urine culture assay data from August 2009 to January 2010 from randomly selected 85 patients who suffered from both urinary tract infection and diabetes was conducted. Relevant information was retrieved and analyzed statistically using Microsoft® Excel 2002 software.
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Cefixime was used in the treatment of 59 patients, 44 of whom had sinusitis, 9 otitis media and 6 various ENT infections. The clinical and bacteriological effectiveness of the drug could be evaluated in 44 patients and its safety in all 59 patients. The most common responsible pathogens were Haemophilus influenzae, streptococci including Streptococcus pneumoniae and various Enterobacteriaceae. In more than 50 per cent of the cases, the clinical picture was one of acute exacerbation of a chronic infection. The patients received cefixime 200 mg b.d. for a mean duration of 12 days. Clinical cure was achieved in 80 per cent. Fourteen out of 44 patients underwent surgery. Minor abdominal discomfort was reported by 15 per cent of the patients, and one discontinued therapy because of side-effects. Cefixime was effective and well tolerated. It is suitable for the treatment of ENT infections in adults, such as those treated in this study.
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As a consequence of their successful use in prophylaxis and therapy, bacterial resistance mediated by beta-lactamases is now widely diffused among beta-lactam antibiotics. Several effective strategies have been suggested in order to overcome this problem. One interesting option is offered by the development of a series of new beta-lactam compounds that possess a very high intrinsic stability to the hydrolytic action of the most common beta-lactamases. Among these molecules the oral third generation cephalosporins represent a significant breakthrough. Cefetamet pivoxil, because of its broad coverage of most gram-negative and gram-positive community acquired pathogens, rightly belongs to these new agents. The activity of cefetamet has been confirmed in a survey in Italy involving 4191 isolates. on this collection of strains cefetamet emerged as the most active in vitro compound, followed by cefixime, with all other comparative agents (cefuroxime, cefaclor, cephalexin, cefradoxil, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin-sulbactam, doxycycline, erythromycin and clindamycin) displaying lower eradication rates. According to the data gathered in the Italian survey, cefetamet can be considered the only compound, among those taken into consideration, that might be selected as the drug of choice in the empiric therapy of respiratory and urinary community-acquired infections. In fact, the prevalence of resistance to cefetamet in the most prevalent pathogens occurring in this setting is, at present, sufficiently low to render therapeutic failures, based on this parameter, highly improbable.
Cefixime is a third-generation oral cephalosporin that is highly active against a broad range of gram-negative and some gram-positive aerobic bacteria. In non-complicated urinary tract infections it is at least as effective as other usual treatments, and has a low rate of side effects. Several clinical studies have been performed on cefixime in urinary tract infections both in adults and children. On the basis of the literature data, cefixime could be indicated in the treatment of non-complicated urinary tract infections in children either as monotherapy or as switch therapy.
Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium found in the human stomach, is often present in patients with chronic gastritis. Traditional treatment for H. pylori infection includes metronidazole or clarithromycin, both being associated with development of resistance. In this retrospective report, we describe our clinical experience using a multi-drug treatment regimen for pediatric H. pylori that included nitazoxanide, a newer nitrothiazole benzamide compound used in treating intestinal protozoa infections. Charts were identified for patients who were treated between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013 with an ICD-9-CM code 041.86 (H. pylori) and who underwent elective endoscopy. All patients were exposed to nitazoxanide for 3 days plus azithromycin, and cefixime (or another 3rd-generation oral cephalosporin) for 7-10 days, plus a proton pump inhibitor for 30 days. The clinical cure criteria were predefined. There were 127 individual occurrences or cases identified for inclusion in the review, with 111 occurrences meeting the inclusion criteria. The success rate or clinical cure for the new therapy combination prescribed as defined prior to the chart review was 99 out of 111 cases (89.2%). There were no serious adverse events observed or reported during the treatment of any patient. Approximately 10% of patient charts reflected minor complaints of nausea, vomiting or abdominal cramps during the time of active drug therapy. Nitazoxanide appears to be an effective and well-tolerated option for use in combination with other agents to treat H. pylori-induced gastritis.
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Infectious diarrhea is one of common cause of children diarrhea causing mortality and morbidity worldwide. This study was performed to identify the common bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility in children with diarrhea.
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GV104326 is a novel tricyclic beta-lactam (a trinem or, formerly, tribactam). The in vitro activity of GV104326 was compared with those of cefuroxime, cefixime, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefpirome, and ciprofloxacin. GV104326 had in vitro activity generally similar to that of cefixime against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (MIC at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited [MIC90], < or = 2 micrograms/ml), with cefuroxime and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid being 8- to 32-fold less active and with cefpirome being 4- to 8-fold more active against members of this family. The trinem had no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (MIC90, > 128 micrograms/ml) but was the most active agent against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. GV104326 was particularly active against gram-positive cocci. Ninety percent of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains were susceptible to 0.03 microgram of GV104326 per ml, making it the most active agent studied. Enterococci and Lancefield group A and B streptococci were generally equally or somewhat more susceptible to GV104326 than they were to amoxicillin. Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were highly susceptible to GV104326, and those strains which showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin were generally twofold more susceptible to the trinem than to amoxicillin. Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were highly susceptible to GV104326 (MIC90s, 0.12 and 0.03 microgram/ml, respectively). The anaerobes Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis, and Peptostreptococcus spp. were more susceptible to the trinems (formerly tribactams) than to the other agents studied.
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The Alexander Project is a continuing surveillance study, begun in 1992, examining the susceptibility of pathogens involved in adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) to a range of antimicrobial agents.
We analyzed Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Gifu prefecture between November 2004 and December 2004. We analyzed isolates of 160 strains from 8 medical facilities to determine antibiotic susceptibility, genotype of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes and macrolide resistant genes, and the serotypes of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP). When referred to the classification in CLSI (formerly NCCLS), the overall incidence of penicillin-susceptible (PSSP), penicillin-intermediate (PISP) and penicillin-resistant (PRSP) were 48 (30.0%), 81 (50.6%) and 31 (19.4%) strains, respectively, and the susceptibility distribution to benzylpenicillin showed triplet peaks. The incidence of PISP and PRSP was higher in the material of throat and nasal cavity, and area of Chuno and Gifu district. The sum of the incidence of PISP and PRSP was slightly higher in inpatient-derived stains than outpatient-derived strains. The incidence that didn't possess mutations in PBP genes and macrolide-resistant genes was 6 (3.75%) and the others 154 strain (96.25%) had abnormal PBP genes or macrolide-resistant genes. The 90% of pneumococcal serotypes of PRSP 31 strains were serotype 6 (14 strains, 45.2%), 19 (7 strains, 22.6%) and 23 (7 strains, 22.6%). The MIC90 of each antibiotics was as follows; 0.1 microg/mL for panipenem, 0.2 microg/mL for imipenem and tosufloxacin, 0.39 microg/mL for meropenem and gatifloxacin, 0.78 microg/mL for amoxicillin, cefteram and cefditoren, 1.56 microg/mL for piperacillin, cefcapene and levofloxacin, 3.13 microg/mL for flomoxef, 6.25 microg/mL for cefdinir and cefotiam, 12.5 microg/mL for norfloxacin and minocycline, 25 microg/mL for cefixime, and 100 microg/mL for clarithromycin.
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection (STI) of major importance. As a result of antibiotic resistance, there are now limited options for treating patients. We collected draft genome sequence data and associated metadata data on 76 N. gonorrhoeae strains from around the globe and searched for known determinants of antibiotics resistance within the strains. The population structure and evolutionary forces within the pathogen population were analyzed. Our results indicated a cosmopolitan gonoccocal population mainly made up of five subgroups. The estimated ratio of recombination to mutation (r/m = 2.2) from our data set indicates an appreciable level of recombination occurring in the population. Strains with resistance phenotypes to more recent antibiotics (azithromycin and cefixime) were mostly found in two of the five population subgroups.
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The bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolated from patients diagnosed as urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 13 institutions in Japan were supplied between August 2002 and July 2003. The susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were examined. The bacteria were divided into 2 groups consisting of uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs (with and without indwelling catheter) based on their isolation origins. The results were compared with those obtained between 1993 and 2001. The drug sensitivity of S. aureus in this year was similar to those in up to the previous year and S. aureus showed the best susceptibility to vancomycin. The drug sensitivity of E. faecalis in this year also was similar to those in up to the previous year. The drug sensitivity of E. coli in this year was generally good except penicillins and was similar to those in up to the previous year. Among cephems, cefozopran (CZOP) and cefpirome (CPR) showed the highest potency (MIC90: < or = 0.125 microg/mL). An antibacterial activity of cefotiam (CTM) was similar to it in 10 years ago and was fine (MIC90: < or = 1 microg/mL). The sensitivity of E. coli to carbapenems and carumonam (CRMN) also was good like to CZOP. However, the sensitivity of the complicated UTIs group to quinolones decreased after 2000 and was suggested to develop the resistance to the drug. The drug sensitivity of Klebsiella spp. in this year also was similar to those in up to the previous year. The bacteria showed good susceptibility (MIC: < or = 0.125 microg/mL) to cefmenoxime (CMX), CPR, cefixime (CFIX), flomoxef (FMOX), and CZOP among cephems. The drug sensitivity of P. aeruginosa was generally low. Most of the bacteria were little sensitive to cephems except CZOP and ceftazidime (CAZ). The sensitive bacteria to CZOP and ceftazidime (CAZ) were observed to be 26.8% (15/56 strains) and 39.3% (22/56 strains) in complicated UTIs group, respectively. The sensitivity profile of P. aeruginosa to the other tested drugs was not much different from that in up to the previous year. However, the sensitivity of the bacteria to carbapenems tended to decrease after 2000, and the low sensitive strains (MIC: > or = 256 microg/mL) were detected at 22.2% (2/9 strains) in the uncomplicated UTIs group and 3.6% (2/56 strains) in the complicated UTIs group.
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This was an open-labelled, randomized, parallel-group study of seventy-three (73) radiologically and bacteriologically confirmed adult cases of community-acquired pneumonia, between July 1 and September 31, 2011 at two health care facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria. All of these patients had severity index (CURB 65) scores of either 1 or 2. They were treated with either Cefixime, 400mg twice daily or Ciprofloxacin 500mg twice daily for 14 days. They were evaluated four times during the course of their treatment for clinical responses, radiological and bacteriological clearances and safety of therapy.
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We searched the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2002), MEDLINE (1966 - September 2002), EMBASE (1988 -September 2002), reference lists of articles and abstracts from conference proceedings without language restriction.
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Rates of antimicrobial resistance have been increasing in bacteria responsible for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in the United States. Nearly 100% of clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis now produce beta-lactamase, an enzyme that renders this pathogen resistant to such agents as penicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. However, this organism remains nearly uniformly susceptible to alternative oral antimicrobials, such as cephalosporins, macrolides, tetracyclines, beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, and the combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The susceptibility of M. catarrhalis to these agents is not expected to change markedly in the next few years. A linear increase in the prevalence of beta-lactamase-mediated ampicillin resistance has been evident among isolates of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae during the past decade in the United States. By the year 2000, 45-50% of isolates are likely to produce beta-lactamase. Although the susceptibility of this organism to alternative oral antimicrobials varies, rates of resistance to cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime, cefixime, azithromycin, and perhaps clarithromycin remain < 1%. The rate of penicillin resistance among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, which has increased steadily in recent years, currently stands at approximately 25% in the United States and will likely reach 40-50% during the next 5-10 years. Because of cross-resistance, in general all beta-lactam antimicrobials have reduced activity against penicillin-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae. A 1994-1995 survey found that 3.4% of S. pneumoniae isolates were highly resistant to cefotaxime, and 4-8% were resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and the macrolides. Resistance to these antimicrobials has usually followed the emergence of penicillin resistance in other countries. Therefore, S. pneumoniae resistance to these drugs is expected to increase markedly during the next few years in the United States.
Nineteen (31%) of the 61 S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to penicillin. A significantly lower percentage of the S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to azithromycin (16%) and clarithromycin (11%) than to penicillin, amoxicillin/ clavulanate, cefaclor, loracarbef or cefixime (31% in all cases). Azithromycin was also more active than cefaclor and significantly more active than clarithromycin against the 55 H. influenzae isolates.
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Given the sensitivity of ESR spectrometry, this experimental technique is promising for identification of irradiated cephalosporins.
In an open randomized study 218 outpatients (159 males and 59 females) ranging between 18 and 85 years of age (mean 61.9) suffering from bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis have been randomly treated: 79 with co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin 875 mg+clavulanic acid 125 mg) twice daily, 69 with cefixime (400 mg) once daily, and 70 with ciprofloxacin (500 mg) twice daily for an average period of 10 days. Before treatment start, 234 bacterial strains (105 Gram-positive and 129 Gram-negative) were isolated as the cause of exacerbation; the leading pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus spp. Eradication rates at the end of treatment were 82.2% for the co-amoxiclav group, 77.6% for the cefixime group, and 81.2% for ciprofloxacin group. Clinical success (cure+improvement) was obtained in 90.8% of the cases treated with co-amoxiclav, in 80.9% for the cefixime group and in 85.7% of patients treated with ciprofloxacin. Seven adverse events (8.9%) of which 4 cases of diarrhea and 3 of itching, were recorded in the co-amoxiclav group. Eleven adverse events (14.7%) were recorded in the cefixime group including gastrointestinal disturbances in 6 patients and mild to moderate increase of liver function in 2. Nine adverse events (12.9%) occurred in the ciprofloxacin group, including insomnia in 3 patients, gastrointestinal disturbances in 2, and serious increase of liver function tests in one patient. It can be concluded that there were no statistically significant differences among the three treatment groups. However, co-amoxiclav demonstrated a higher efficacy rate than cefixime and ciprofloxacin and was better tolerated. Therefore, it can be used as a first-choice drug in the treatment of exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.
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The susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae (1,476 strains) and untypeable Haemophilus influenzae (1,676 strains) to various oral beta-lactam, macrolide-azalide, and fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents were determined by broth microdilution. Organisms were isolated from specimens obtained from outpatients in six geographic regions of the United States. MIC data were interpreted according to pharmacodynamically derived breakpoints applicable to the oral agents tested. Among H. influenzae strains, 41.6% were beta-lactamase positive. Virtually all H. influenzae strains were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (98%), cefixime (100%), and ciprofloxacin (100%), while 78% were susceptible to cefuroxime, 57% were susceptible to amoxicillin, 14% were susceptible to cefprozil, 9% were susceptible to loracarbef, 2% were susceptible to cefaclor, and 0% were susceptible to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, 49.6% were penicillin susceptible, 17.9% were intermediate, and 32.5% were penicillin resistant, with penicillin MICs for 50 and 90% of the isolates tested of 0.12 and 4 microg/ml, respectively. Overall, 94% of S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate, 69% were susceptible to azithromycin and clarithromycin, 63% were susceptible to cefprozil and cefuroxime, 52% were susceptible to cefixime, 22% were susceptible to cefaclor, and 11% were susceptible to loracarbef. Although ciprofloxacin has marginal activity against S. pneumoniae, no high-level fluoroquinolone-resistant strains were found. Significant cross-resistance was found between penicillin and macrolides-azalides among S. pneumoniae isolates, with 5% of the penicillin-susceptible strains being macrolide-azalide resistant, compared with 37% of the intermediate isolates and 66% of the resistant isolates. Resistance was highest in S. pneumoniae isolates from patients younger than 10 years of age, middle ear and paranasal sinus specimens, and the southern half of the United States. With the continuing rise in resistance, judicious use of oral antimicrobial agents is necessary in all age groups.
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To report a case of ciprofloxacin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae infection in a patient with chronic lung disease who was exposed to multiple courses of antimicrobial therapy.
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Compared with placebo, cefixime can improve the rate of resolution of symptoms in patients with a sore throat who are selected for antibiotic treatment by their GP. The unexpected finding that cefixime was of benefit compared with placebo for patients without GABHS suggests that bacteria other than GABHS may be important in the pathogenesis of sore throat.