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Starlix (Nateglinide)
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Starlix

Starlix is used for lowering blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

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Actulin, Glucophage, Gluconorm, Hipover, NovoNorm, Regan, Repaglinide, Rapilin, Prandin, Sestrine, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glycomet, Micronase

 

Also known as:  Nateglinide.

Description

Starlix is used for lowering blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may also be used for other conditions.

Starlix is an antidiabetic agent. It works by lowering blood glucose levels, causing insulin to be released from beta cells of the pancreas.

Starlix is also known as Nateglinide, Fastic, Glinate, Glunat, Starsis, Trazec.

Dosage

Take Starlix by mouth 1 to 30 minutes before meals. If you skip a meal, you must also skip your scheduled dose to avoid the risk of low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Starlix suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Starlix and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Starlix are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Starlix if you are allergic to its components.

Be careful with Starlix if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Starlix if you have type 1 diabetes.

Do not take Starlix if you have diabetic ketoacidosis.

Be careful with Starlix if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Starlix if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Starlix if you have adrenocortical, pituitary, liver, or kidney problems

Be careful with Starlix if you have a high fever or are malnourished.

Be careful with Starlix if you are taking beta-adrenergic blockers (eg, metoprolol), gemfibrozil, imidazoles (eg, ketoconazole), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (eg, phenelzine), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen), or salicylates (eg, aspirin) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), rifampin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), thiazides (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), or thyroid hormones (eg, levothyroxine) because they may decrease Starlix 's effectiveness

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Starlix suddenly.

starlix medicine

In this single-dose study in nondiabetic volunteers, nateglinide provided a more rapid and shorter-lived stimulation of insulin secretion than repaglinide, resulting in lower meal-related glucose excursions. If similar results are observed in diabetes, nateglinide may produce a more physiological insulin secretory response with the potential for a reduced risk of postabsorptive hypoglycemia.

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Regional hospitals in Hong Kong.

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There is a rising worldwide prevalence of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is one of the most challenging health problems in the 21st century. The associated complications of diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, diabetic neuropathy, amputations, renal failure, and blindness result in increasing disability, reduced life expectancy, and enormous health costs. T2DM is a polygenic disease characterized by multiple defects in insulin action in tissues and defects in pancreatic insulin secretion, which eventually leads to loss of pancreatic insulin-secreting cells. The treatment goals for T2DM patients are effective control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids (if elevated) and, ultimately, to avert the serious complications associated with sustained tissue exposure to excessively high glucose concentrations. Prevention and control of diabetes with diet, weight control, and physical activity has been difficult. Treatment of T2DM has centered on increasing insulin levels, either by direct insulin administration or oral agents that promote insulin secretion, improving sensitivity to insulin in tissues, or reducing the rate of carbohydrate absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. This review presents comprehensive and up-to-date information on the mechanism(s) of action, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, pleiotropic effects, drug interactions, and adverse effects of the newer antidiabetic drugs, including (1) peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor-γ agonists (thiazolidinediones, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone); (2) the incretin, glucagon-like peptide-) receptor agonists (incretin-mimetics, exenatide. and liraglutide), (3) inhibitors of dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (incretin enhancers, sitagliptin, and vildagliptin), (4) short-acting, nonsulfonylurea secretagogue, meglitinides (repaglinide and nateglinide), (5) amylin anlog-pramlintide, (6) α-glucosidase inhibitors (miglitol and voglibose), and (7) colesevelam (a bile acid sequestrant). In addition, information is presented on drug candidates in clinical trials, experimental compounds, and some plants used in the traditional treatment of diabetes based on experimental evidence. In the opinion of this reviewer, therapy based on orally active incretins and incretin mimetics with long duration of action that will be efficacious, preserve the β-cell number/function, and block the progression of diabetes will be highly desirable. However, major changes in lifestyle factors such as diet and, especially, exercise will also be needed if the growing burden of diabetes is to be contained.

starlix diabetes medication

A total of 248 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive nateglinide or glibenclamide, and metformin for 12 months. We assessed body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), postprandial plasma insulin (PPI), homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA index), lipid profile with lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], fibrinogen (Fg), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), homocysteine (Hcy), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP).

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Observational analysis of data from the Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) study, a double-blinded randomised clinical trial of nateglinide and valsartan, respectively.

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Ten patients (5 M/5 F, age 57.8+/-1.9 years, HbA(1c) 7.6+/-0.5%, fasting plasma glucose 9.4+/-1.2 mmol/l, creatinine 81.6+/-4.5 microM/l) received oral nateglinide 120 mg or placebo, 10 min prior to 75 g oral glucose in a random, single blind, crossover design, 1 week apart. Blood samples were taken for glycated insulin, glucose, insulin and C-peptide over 225 min.

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Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been used commercially as antacids, to stabilize drugs, to allow the controlled release of incorporated drugs, and to act as drug carriers to reduce drug accumulation within the body. Several types of LDH were investigated: nitrate type (LDH-NO3); chloride type (LDH-Cl); and carbonate type (LDH-CO3). Each type was added to an aqueous or methanol (MeOH) solution containing a drug (pravastatin or nateglinide). With pravastatin sodium, the interlayer distance expanded after reaction with LDH-NO3 and LDH-Cl in aqueous solution. In contrast, the interlayer distance of LDH-CO3 increased in methanol with nateglinide. Each drug was intercalated into the interlayer space of LDH by ion exchange. The hygroscopicity of the drug substances, complexes, and physical mixtures were determined at 70% relative humidity. Increases in weight (%) of the complexes were less than those of the physical mixtures, which demonstrates that hygroscopicity was reduced upon complexation with LDH due to the layer of LDH over the drugs.

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Islet dysfunction, characterized by the loss of an acute insulin secretory response (AIR) to glucose is a well-established pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using oral insulin secreting agents with very different pharmacodynamic profiles, the present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that, within the setting of an underlying insulin resistance, changes in the insulin response profile can differentially affect glycaemic control.

starlix maximum dose

This study was performed in 58, insulin naïve type 2 diabetes. After fasting glucose was optimized by insulin glargine, nateglinide or acarbose was initiated and then crossed over after second wash out period. 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and 7 point self monitoring blood glucose for 3 days at the end of each period was performed.

starlix 60 mg

We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a duration of 12 weeks or more comparing insulin secretagogues with any pharmacological glucose-lowering intervention, behaviour-changing intervention, placebo or no intervention in people with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, moderately elevated HbA1c or combinations of these.

starlix tablet

Meglitinides may offer an alternative oral hypoglycaemic agent of similar potency to metformin, and may be indicated where side effects of metformin are intolerable or where metformin is contraindicated. However, there is no evidence available to indicate what effect meglitinides will have on important long-term outcomes, particularly mortality.

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The effects of sitagliptin on postprandial glucose levels were similar to those of nateglinide in drug-naïve type 2 diabetes patients. However, the induced changes in insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon during meal loading suggest that reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia was achieved by the unique effect of each drug.

starlix dosing

Loss of beta-cell mass and function raises a concern regarding the application of sulfonylureas for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because previous studies have shown that agents that cause closure of inwardly rectifying K(+) sulfonylurea receptor subtype of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, such as tolbutamide and glibenclamide, induce apoptosis in beta-cell lines and rodent islets. Therefore, we investigated the effect of the new insulin secretagogues, repaglinide and nateglinide, and the sulfonylurea, glibenclamide, on beta-cell apoptosis in human islets. Human islets from six organ donors were cultured onto extracellular matrix-coated plates and exposed to glibenclamide, repaglinide, or nateglinide. The doses of the three compounds were chosen according to detected maximal effects, i.e. efficacy. Exposure of human islets for 4 h to 0.1 and 10 microm glibenclamide induced a 2.09- and 2.46-fold increase in beta-cell apoptosis, respectively, whereas repaglinide (0.01 and 1 microm) did not change the number of apoptotic beta-cells. At low concentration (10 microm), nateglinide did not induce beta-cell apoptosis. However, at high concentration of 1000 microm, it induced a 1.49-fold increase in the number of apoptotic beta-cells. Prolonged exposure for 4 d of the islets to the secretagogues induced beta-cell apoptosis. The increase was of 3.71- and 4.4-fold at 0.1 and 10 microm glibenclamide, 2.37- and 3.8-fold at 0.01 and 1 microm repaglinide, and of 3.2- and 4.6-fold at 10 and 1000 microm nateglinide, respectively. Glibenclamide at 0.1-10 nm (doses that were less efficient on insulin secretion) did not induce beta-cell apoptosis after 4 h incubation as well as 0.1 nm after 4 d incubation. However, 1 and 10 nm glibenclamide for 4 d induced a 2.24- and 2.53-fold increase in beta-cell apoptosis, respectively. Taken together, closure of the inwardly rectifying K(+) sulfonylurea receptor subtype of ATP-sensitive potassium channels induces beta-cell apoptosis in human islets and may precipitate the decrease in beta-cell mass observed in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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ABCC8 encodes the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) subunits of the beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel playing a critical role in the regulation of insulin secretion, and inactivating mutations in ABCC8 cause congenital hyperinsulinism. Recently, ABCC8 inactivating mutations were reported to be involved in the development of diabetes mellitus later in life. We report a girl who was born macrosomic with transient hypoglycemia and thereafter developed diabetes mellitus accompanied by severe reactive hypoglycemia at the age of 11 yr. An OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) revealed hyperglycemia due to poor early insulin response and subsequent hypoglycemia due to delayed prolonged insulin secretion. Hypoglycemia was improved by the combination of nateglinide, which stimulates early insulin secretion, and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, voglibose. Sequencing of the ABCC8 identified a compound heterozygous mutation (R1420H/F591fs604X), suggesting that this mutation may alter regulation of insulin secretion with advancing age, leading to diabetes mellitus with reactive hypoglycemia from hyperinsulinism. Therefore, long-term follow-up and periodic OGTTs are important for early detection of insulin dysregulation in congenital hyperinsulinism patients carrying the ABCC8 mutation, even though hypoglycemia resolves spontaneously during infancy. Furthermore, nateglinide may be useful therapeutically in the treatment of not only diabetes mellitus but also reactive hypoglycemia.

starlix drug information

Nateglinide is an oral antidiabetic medication that acts through rapid, short-term stimulation of insulin production. This study undertook to identify the nature of any adverse effects of nateglinide and to assess its clinical efficacy in long-term use in clinical practice. Patients (n=1014) were recruited from centers in Japan and were followed over a 15-month treatment period. Pretreatment and posttreatment values were obtained for fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triglycerides, and total cholesterol. All adverse reactions were noted, along with standard laboratory blood variables. The efficacy value was rated as 78.76% by the treating physicians; this was indicated by a postprandial glucose decrease of 53.2 mg/dL (from 223.8+/-61.1 mg/dL to 170.6+/-40.7 mg/dL), a fasting glucose decrease of 9.3 mg/dL (from 155.1+/- 40.0 mg/dL to 145.4+/-35.1 mg/dL), and an HbA1c decrease of 0.68% (from 7.51+/- 1.36% to 6.83+/-1.09%). In patients previously treated with sulfonylurea, a decrease in HbA1c was not observed. Changes in HbA1c had no association with age, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, or concomitant disease. No change in BMI was noted after 15 months of nateglinide treatment. Adverse reactions occurred at an incidence of 10.07% (100/993 cases), with hypoglycemic symptoms being the most prevalent (1.91%). Adverse reactions were sometimes associated with extant renal dysfunction, a condition about which the physician had to be aware. No problems such as increased incidences of adverse reactions or deterioration in severity were detected in this long-term study. This study showed the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with nateglinide of patients with diabetes from various backgrounds.

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We used data collected for prescription-event monitoring (PEM) studies of rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, nateglinide and repaglinide. PEM is an observational, non-interventional, incept cohort study. Observation time for each patient and incidence rate (IR) per 1000 patient-years of treatment for hypoglycaemia was calculated for each drug cohort. Smoothed hazard estimates were plotted over time. Case/non-case analysis was performed to describe and compare patients who had at least one hypoglycaemic event in the first 9 months of treatment with those who did not.

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As compared to control drugs, patients were not more likely to systematically switch back from generic to brand-name versions of the four study drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

starlix 120 mg

A 68-year-old man with a history of cerebral infarction showed complete occlusion of the left internal carotid artery with severe stenoses in the A1 segment of the left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the left posterior communicating artery resulting in poor visualization of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Administration of aspirin and clopidogrel prevented ischemia from recurring for 1 year; however, the stenoses never improved. Technetium-99m-L, L-ethylcysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) demonstrated a significant decrease in CBF in the territory of the left MCA. Anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and the MCA was recommended to the patient because no supplementary blood supply was expected through either the left A1 or posterior communicating artery. However, the patient refused surgery because of the associated risks. To enhance vasodilation, clopidogrel was replaced by cilostazol. One year later, the stenoses had partially improved. Further treatment with aspirin, cilostazol, simvastatin, and nateglinide contributed to the significant increase in CBF with normal hemodynamics, as shown with acetazolamide-loading SPECT.

starlix medication

Patients were randomized to nateglinide (n = 122) or glyburide (n = 110). The treatment groups were similar in terms of age, gender, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, 2-h postprandial glucose and HbA(1c). At endpoint, nateglinide recipients had significantly greater reductions than those receiving glyburide in both the 2-h (-2.4 vs. -1.6 mmol/l; P = 0.02) and 1-h (-1.7 vs. -0.9 mmol/l; P = 0.016) postprandial glucose excursions. Adverse events, most commonly symptomatic hypoglycaemia, were reported in 26% of recipients of glyburide and 22% of recipients of nateglinide. Episodes of suspected mild hypoglycaemia were reported in 24% of recipients of glyburide and 10% of recipients of nateglinide.

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Mean baseline HbA(1c) values were similar in both groups (8.9%). Final HbA(1c) values were lower for repaglinide monotherapy than nateglinide monotherapy (7.3 vs. 7.9%). Mean final reductions of HbA(1c) were significantly greater for repaglinide monotherapy than nateglinide monotherapy (-1.57 vs. -1.04%; P = 0.002). Mean changes in FPG also demonstrated significantly greater efficacy for repaglinide than nateglinide (-57 vs. -18 mg/dl; P < 0.001). HbA(1c) values <7% were achieved by 54% of repaglinide-treated patients versus 42% for nateglinide. Median final doses were 6.0 mg/day for repaglinide and 360 mg/day for nateglinide. There were 7% of subjects treated with repaglinide (five subjects with one episode each) who had minor hypoglycemic episodes (blood glucose <50 mg/dl) versus 0 patients for nateglinide. Mean weight gain at the end of the study was 1.8 kg in the repaglinide group as compared with 0.7 kg for the nateglinide group.

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Fasting triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly reduced by both nateglinide and acarbose (P<0.001), with acarbose providing a significantly more robust improvement (vs. nateglinide, P=0.005). Additionally, the TG levels at both postprandial times were significantly reduced by acarbose (P<0.001 at 30 min and P=0.002 at 120 min), whereas nateglinide treatment only significantly reduced the 30-min postprandial TG (P=0.029). Neither nateglinide nor acarbose treatment had significant impact on total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

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Using accepted systematic review methods, three electronic databases were searched from inception to 13 June 2011. Original studies measuring the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) for an insulin secretagogue on K(ATP) channels using standard electrophysiological techniques were included. Steady-state concentrations (C(SS)) were estimated from the usual oral dose and clearance values for each drug.

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starlix 30 mg 2017-12-17

Twenty patients were randomly assigned to the sitagliptin group and sixteen patients were randomized to the nateglinide group. All 36 patients took the medication as directed by the physician in both groups, and they all were analyzed. Apart from antidiabetic drugs, there was no difference between the two groups with respect to the frequency of combined use of lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and/or antiplatelet drugs. The doses of these medications were maintained during 12 wk of treatment. Detailed dietary advice, together with adequate exercise therapy, was given to the patients so that other factors apart from the two test drugs were similar in buy starlix the two groups. There were no significant differences of the baseline characteristics between the two groups, except for body mass index (the sitagliptin group: 25.14 ± 3.05 kg/m(2); the nateglinide group: 21.39 ± 2.24 kg/m(2)). Fasting levels of HbA1c, glycated albumin, 1.5-anhydroglucitol, and blood glucose, as well as the blood glucose levels at one and three hours postprandially, improved in both groups after 12 wk of treatment, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, the glucagon level at one hour postprandially (P = 0.040) and the diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01) only showed a significant decrease in the sitagliptin group. In the nateglinide group, there was no significant change in the AUC of Apo B48, the glucagon level at one hour postprandially, the fasting triglyceride level, or the diastolic blood pressure. Body weight was unchanged in both groups. However, the AUC of Apo B48 at three hours postprandially showed a significant decrease in the sitagliptin group from 2.48 ± 0.11 at baseline to 1.94 ± 0.78 g/L per hour after 12 wk (P = 0.019). The fasting triglyceride level also decreased significantly in the sitagliptin group (P = 0.035). With regard to lipid-related markers other than Apo B48 and fasting triglycerides, no significant changes were observed with respect to Apo A1, Apo B, or Apo C3 in either group. No adverse events occurred in either group.

starlix nateglinide generic 2017-09-08

There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate whether insulin buy starlix secretagogues compared mainly with placebo reduce the risk of developing T2DM and its associated complications in people at increased risk for the development of T2DM. Most trials did not investigate patient-important outcomes.

starlix medication 2015-06-22

A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trial with two parallel groups was carried out; each group was made up buy starlix by six healthy volunteers who were submitted to a hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique on two different occasions, one of them prior to the administration of 120 mg nateglinide and the other one prior to the administration of an homologated placebo. One group was submitted to and maintained at a hyperglycemia of 6.9 mmol/l above the fasting glucose level and the other group at a hyperglycemia of 4.1 mmol/l above the baseline of fasting glucose level.

starlix 120 mg 2016-01-14

The interactions of sulfonylureas and a novel anti-diabetic drug, nateglinide, with rat renal organic anion transporter (rOAT1) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes were studied. Uptake of p-aminohippurate via rOAT1 was markedly buy starlix inhibited by glibenclamide and nateglinide, and moderately by chlorpropamide and tolbutamide. The inhibition constant values (K(i)) for chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, tolbutamide and nateglinide were 39.5, 1.6, 55.5 and 9.2 microM, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the inhibition of p-aminohippurate uptake by glibenclamide was competitive. Sulfonylureas examined and nateglinide did not show a trans-stimulation effect on [14C]p-aminohippurate efflux from rOAT1-expressing oocytes. There was no stimulation of [3H]glibenclamide uptake via rOAT1. These findings suggested that sulfonylureas and nateglinide interact with rOAT1, but these drugs are not translocated via the transporter.

starlix brand name 2016-11-14

Results buy starlix from this study suggest that compared with nateglinide, rosiglitazone has a more favorable effect on the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetes in rats.

starlix dosing 2015-07-08

Nateglinide is a novel insulinotropic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is a D-phenylalanine derivative, chemically distinct from repaglinide and sulphonylureas (glyburide or glimepiride). Although each agent is known to stimulate insulin release via the signaling cascade initiated by closure of ATP-dependent K+ (K(ATP)) channels in pancreatic beta-cells, the pharmacological effect of nateglinide is reportedly fast-acting, short-lasting, sensitive to ambient glucose and more resistant to metabolic inhibition. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the distinct properties of the insulinotropic action of nateglinide. By using the patch-clamp methods, we comparatively characterized the potency and kinetics of the effect of these agents on K(ATP) channels in rat beta-cells at normal vs. elevated glucose and under physiological condition vs. experimentally induced metabolic inhibition. Our results demonstrated that the mode of the action of nateglinide on K(ATP) current was unique in (a) glucose dependency; (b) increased potency and efficacy under ATP depletion and uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation than physiological buy starlix condition; (c) substantially more rapid onset and offset kinetics. The data provide mechanistic rationale for the unique in vivo and ex vivo activity profile of nateglinide and may contribute to reduced hypoglycemic potential associated with excessive insulin secretion.

starlix dosage 2016-08-12

Eight healthy volunteers with the SLCO1B1*1B/*1B genotype and 16 with the SLCO1B1*1A/*1A genotype ingested a single 0.5-mg dose of buy starlix repaglinide and, after a washout period of 1 week, a single 60-mg dose of nateglinide. Plasma repaglinide and nateglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for 7 h.

starlix pill images 2016-10-01

A single dose of nateglinide (60, 120, or 180 mg) or placebo buy starlix was given to eight diet-treated overnight-fasted type 2 diabetic patients and to seven patients 5 min before a standard breakfast. Plasma glucose, radioimmunoassay insulin, and nateglinide were measured at baseline and for a further 180 min.

starlix generic 2017-04-23

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, is a disease with a rising prevalence worldwide. It is currently estimated that 190 million people around the world suffer from diabetes mellitus, with over 330 million predicted to have the condition by 2025 and 366 million by the year 2030. It is predicted that the developing countries will contribute 77.6% of the total number of diabetic patients in the world by the year 2030. This rapidly growing prevalence among developing countries is attributed to the effects of urbanization, industrialization and globalization on these countries. There has been substantial progress over the last decade in the development of new agents buy starlix for the treatment of type 2 diabetes especially focusing on the underlying pathophysiology. Despite this and the numerous guidelines from diabetes organisations only less than 40% of patients achieve recommended glycaemic targets. We therefore decided to do a review of the pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus to highlight the pharmacology and effectiveness of these agents and their roles in the management of type 2 diabetes.

starlix tablet 2017-08-02

(-)-N-(trans-4-Isopropylcyclohexanecarbonyl)-D-phenylalanine (nateglinide) is a novel oral hypoglycemic agent possessing a carboxyl group and a peptide-type bond in its structure. Although nateglinide quickly reaches the maximal serum concentration after oral administration, nateglinide itself is not transported by PepT1 or MCT1. The aim of this study was to characterize the transporters on buy starlix the apical side of the small intestine that are responsible for the rapid absorption of nateglinide. The uptake of nateglinide by rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles is associated with a proton-coupled transport system. Ceftibuten competitively inhibited H(+)-dependent nateglinide uptake. Glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar), cephradine, and cephalexin did not significantly inhibit the uptake of nateglinide. The combination of Gly-Sar and nateglinide greatly reduced the uptake of ceftibuten. The effect of the combined treatment was significantly greater than that of Gly-Sar alone. Furthermore, nateglinide competitively inhibited H(+)-driven ceftibuten transporter-mediated ceftibuten uptake. Ceftibuten transport occurs via at least two H(+)-dependent transport systems: one is PepT1, and the other is the ceftibuten/H(+) cotransport system. On the other hand, we demonstrated that nateglinide transport occurs via a single system that is H(+) dependent but is distinct from PepT1 and may be identical to the ceftibuten/H(+) cotransport system.

starlix maximum dose 2015-11-16

After adjustment for multiple testing, nateglinide, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of diabetes (36% and 34%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.15; P=0.05), the core composite cardiovascular outcome (7.9% and 8.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.09; P=0.43), or the extended composite cardiovascular outcome (14.2 buy starlix % and 15.2%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.93, 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.03; P=0.16). Nateglinide did, however, increase the risk of hypoglycemia.

starlix drug 2017-05-04

The efficacy of repaglinide and nateglinide in FBG, postprandial glucose excursion and early-phase insulin secretion is similar. But the effect of repaglinide 1.0 mg t.i.d. on HbA(1c) is stronger than that of nateglinide 90 mg t.i.d.. This trial had shown that nateglinide and repaglinide could comparably improve insulin sensitivity buy starlix and beta-cell function.

starlix and alcohol 2017-06-23

At the 16-week end point, nateglinide 120 mg, troglitazone 600 mg, and the combination of the agents achieved statistically significant buy starlix decreases in HbA(1c) in comparison with placebo and a baseline HbA(1c) of 8.1-8.4% (P < 0.001). The reductions in HbA(1c) were similar in the nateglinide (0.6%) and troglitazone (0.8%) monotherapy groups. The reduction in HbA(1c) (1.7%) was greatest in the combination group; 79% of patients in the combination group achieved HbA(1c) levels of <7%. The combination group had a higher number of adverse events, primarily due to an increased incidence of mild hypoglycemia in this treatment group.

starlix drug class 2017-04-02

Adulteration of herbal antidiabetic products with undeclared pharmaceuticals is a significant yet under-recognized problem. Patients taking these illicit buy starlix products could be at risk of potentially fatal adverse effects. It is important to educate the public to avoid taking pCMs of dubious source. Effective regulatory measures should be put in place to address the problem.

starlix medicine 2016-11-28

In drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes, the improvement in glycaemic control with nateglinide is Protonix Dosage associated with a decrease in systolic blood pressure.

starlix generic name 2016-06-25

A new group of hybrid nitric oxide-releasing type II antidiabetic drugs possessing a 1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (13 and 18), 1-(N,N-diethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (14 and 19), Ilosone Gel 60g or nitrooxyethyl (15 and 20) moiety attached to the carboxylic acid group of the type II antidiabetic drugs nateglinide and meglitinide were synthesized. These prodrugs, based on the beneficial properties of nitric oxide (NO), were designed to reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. Ester prodrugs (13-15 and 18-20) exhibited appreciable oral antihyperglycemic activity comparable to the parent drugs in nonfasted diabetic rats. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure profiles validated the beneficial hypotensive properties of these prodrugs. These prodrugs released NO (1.3-72.2% range) upon incubation with either phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 or in the presence of serum. This new type of hybrid NO donor prodrug represents an attractive approach for the rational design of type II antidiabetic drugs with a reduced risk of contraindicated cardiovascular events.

starlix medication cost 2015-11-26

This study investigated the non-inferiority of mitiglinide 10 - 20 mg versus nateglinide 120 mg, given orally three times daily Trandate Oral Dose for 20 weeks, in 291 Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in whom adequate blood glucose control had not been achieved by diet and exercise. Mitiglinide was started at 10 mg three times daily for 12 weeks and thereafter could be increased to 20 mg three times daily, depending on symptoms. In the mitiglinide and nateglinide groups the change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) from baseline to week 12 was -0.53 +/- 1.08% and -0.58 +/- 1.04%, respectively, and further decreased by -0.77 +/- 1.06% and -0.71 +/- 1.12%, respectively, at week 20 compared with baseline. The intergroup difference (95% confidence interval) of HbA(1c) was 0.05% (-0.19, 0.30) at week 12 and 0.06% (-0.31, 0.19) at week 20. Similar changes in HbA(1c) were seen in patients whose baseline value was < 8.0% as well as in those aged >or= 60 years. Comparable reductions in other blood glucose variables were noted in the two groups. Adverse events in the mitiglinide and nateglinide groups were noted in 54.5% and 57.9% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, mitiglinide 10 - 20 mg three times daily provided similar blood glucose control to nateglinide 120 mg three times daily in type 2 DM patients, including the elderly and patients with mild diabetes mellitus.

starlix diabetes medication 2015-06-06

Ipragliflozin (Suglat® [Japan]), an orally active, next-generation sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been developed by Astellas Pharma and Kotobuki Pharmaceutical for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ipragliflozin has received its first global approval in this indication in Japan, for use as monotherapy or in combination with another Motrin Dose antihyperglycaemic agent (metformin, pioglitazone, a sulfonylurea, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, a dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor or nateglinide). Ipragliflozin is the first SGLT2 inhibitor to be approved in Japan. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of ipragliflozin leading to this first approval for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

starlix drug classification 2016-08-18

NAVIGATOR ("Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research") is a large international placebo-controlled trial that randomised 9,031 individuals at high risk because of impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors. This trial aimed at investigating whether valsartan (a selective AT1 receptor antagonist) and/or nateglinide (a short-acting insulin-secreting agent) are able to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events. Elavil Brand Name After a median follow up of 6.5 years, neither valsartan nor nateglinide improved cardiovascular prognosis in the tested population, which already benefited from a protective pharmacotherapy at baseline and a reinforcement of lifestyle modification throughout the trial. Nateglinide did not diminish the risk of new onset diabetes. In contrast, valsartan reduced the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 14%, confirming the potential interest of the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in this high-risk population.

starlix drug information 2015-02-05

After a single 90 mg dose, nateglinide significantly increased the post-prandial secretion of insulin and thereby reduced plasma glucose levels. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0-6) 10.45 mg/l/h; t(1/2) 1.89 h, Cl/F 10.19 l/h) were comparable with those reported in healthy subjects. A much larger AUC value than those previously reported Biaxin Cost of M1, a major metabolite in the urine of healthy subjects, was observed, and the plasma concentration of M1 did not decline up to 6 hours after. In patients treated on a regular basis, there was marked accumulation of M1, while nateglinide could not be detected 24 hours after the last dose. Plasma M1 levels were significantly reduced by the hemodialysis sessions.

starlix 60 mg 2015-06-19

The goal of treatment for intracranial arterial stenosis is to supply sufficient blood flow to the brain rather than to completely dilate the stenotic artery. Long-term treatment with aspirin, cilostazol, simvastatin, and nateglinide Elavil Overdose Charcoal might help increase CBF in some patients with intracranial arterial stenosis.

starlix generic cost 2016-05-28

A single challenge of glucose Naprosyn Gel 50g was shown to impair endothelial function in diabetic patients, and the post-challenge endothelial dysfunction was improved by a prior use of nateglinide. Long-term effects of nateglinide on endothelial function in Type 2 diabetic patients need to be clarified in future studies.

starlix reviews 2016-02-09

In type 2 diabetic patients mealtime glucose fluctuations are important determinants of overall glucose control and overall risk of diabetes cardiovascular complications. In fact, acute elevation of plasma glucose concentrations trigger an array of tissue response that may contribute to development of such vascular complications since it may result in a thrombophilic condition, causes endothelial dysfunction (possibly through a reduction of nitric oxide availability) and is responsible for non-enzymatic glycation and production of free- radicals with ensuing oxidative stress. To keep post-prandial glucose with narrow range Avelox Hci Tablets , metiglinide analogues drugs have been developed. In particular, repaglinide and nateglinide seem the most useful ones. In fact, both drugs improve 1(st) phase insulin release but they do not affect the total daily amount of insulin released by the pancreas. Due to the mechanism of action and to pharmacokinetic properties, repaglinide and nateglinide allow diabetic patients to get a more tight metabolic glucose control with a contemporary reduction in the cases of severe hypoglycaemia. In conclusions, repaglinide and nateglinide are new and powerful pharmacological tools not only for achieving a better metabolic glucose control but also for preventing the development of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications.

starlix tabs 2016-09-22

Type 2 diabetes is associated with substantially increased cardiovascular mortality. The need to reduce the progression of atherosclerosis alongside lowering blood glucose levels is now well established. Ideally, pharmaceutical treatment should address both of these needs. This review summarises current evidence of the anti-atherosclerotic effects exerted by oral antidiabetic agents. Metformin has so far consistently succeeded in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and exerting beneficial effects on lipids. Of the new agents, thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) have been most widely studied. They have a favourable effect on fat distribution and improve lipid profile, fibrinolysis and endothelial function. Moreover, they reduce blood pressure and inflammatory markers, attenuate the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and may reduce the rates of coronary restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. Glinides (repaglinide and nateglinide) have also been documented to improve endothelial function and lipid profile, to reduce oxidative stress, platelet activity and inflammatory markers, and to diminish the progression of CIMT. Finally, acarbose may significantly reduce new cases of hypertension and cardiovascular events, as well as diminishing the progression of CIMT in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Interestingly, some of these beneficial effects appear to be independent of the antidiabetic action. Thus, oral antidiabetic agents are now emerging as useful tools for the attenuation of the atherosclerotic activity and for the protection of the vasculature in patients with type 2 diabetes.