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Eosinophils were isolated from blood of healthy donors and then incubated in the presence or absence of salbutamol (albuterol) or montelukast. Eosinophils were then exposed to leukotriene D4 (LTD4) or another activator, and the generation of superoxide anion (O2-) was evaluated by cytochrome C reduction assay. Eosinophil adhesion was examined by an eosinophil peroxidase assay.
Nineteen non-smoking asthmatic patients with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of > or = 65% of the predicted value and a reproducible fall in FEV1 after exercise of at least 20% were enrolled. Subjects received placebo and montelukast 100 mg once daily in the evening or 50 mg twice daily, each for two days, in a three-period, randomised, double blind, crossover design. In the evening, approximately 20-24 hours after the once daily dose or 12 hours after the twice daily dose, a standardised exercise challenge was performed. Data from 14 patients were available for complete analysis.
Across the study population, improvements in mean scores for asthma control and parent satisfaction were observed at the 1-month follow-up compared with baseline. At 1 month, 57.7% of patients had none offour issues indicative of poor asthma control, compared with 19.4% at baseline. Similarly, after 1 month of treatment with montelukast, 2.7 times as many parents reported being very satisfied with asthma therapy (using montelukast) compared with the previous controller therapy regimen at baseline. During the 1-month follow-up period, montelukast was used as the only controller medication by 18.3% of patients, and in combination with another controller medication by 81.7%.
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For gastric and oesophageal haemorrhages, after removing reports involving antithrombotic agents or NSAIDs, three potential signals were unmasked (prednisone, rivastigmine and isotretinoin). For central nervous system haemorrhage and cerebrovascular accidents, after removing reports involving antithrombotic agents, three potential signals were unmasked (ethinylestradiol, interferon-α-2B and methylprednisolone). For ischaemic coronary disorders, after removing reports involving anthracyclines, bleomycine, anti-HIV drugs or triptans, one potential signal was unmasked (ondansetron). For migraine headaches, after removing reports involving nitrates, calcium channel blockers, opioid analgesics or intravenous immunoglobulins, six potential signals were unmasked (ammonium chloride, leflunomide, milnacipran, montelukast, proguanil and pyridostigmine). For muscle pains, after removing reports involving statins or fibrates, seven potential signals were unmasked (hydroxychloroquine, lactulose, levodopa in combination with dopadecarboxylase inhibitor, nevirapine, nomegestrol, ritonavir and stavudine). Finally, for hepatic enzymes and function abnormalities, after removing reports involving NSAIDs, anilides, antituberculosis drugs, antiepileptics, ketoconazole, tacrine, or amineptine, two potential signals were unmasked (caffeine, metformin). Of all these unmasked potential signals, ten appeared non/incompletely documented as at 1 January 2002 and were considered as real signals, with three of these later being confirmed by the literature and finally considered as true positives (isotretinoin, methylprednisolone and milnacipran).
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The mean value of asthma symptoms score was significantly lower during the montelukast period in comparison with placebo (p = 0.038). The mean PEF values were significantly higher during the montelukast vs. placebo period (p = 0.0091). Moreover, in the montelukast period, the mean PEF values in the second week were significantly higher than those in the first week (p = 0.003). The mean FEV1 predictive value in the last day of the montelukast period was higher, though not significantly, than on the day of study inclusion and on the last day of the placebo period. A similar change in mean MEF50 values was observed.
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Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) suppresses, while indomethacin and aspirin enhance, eosinophil production in murine liquid bone-marrow cultures. Because cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) enhance human eosinophil colony formation, we investigated whether the effects of indomethacin and aspirin on murine bone-marrow were due to blockade of PGE(2) production alone, or involved further promotion of cys-LTs production/signalling.
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Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) event in vascular and nervous system has been documented to rising ischemic and vasculitic neuropathic pain, clinically resembles the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The present study evaluated the effect of montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (Cys-LTC(4) and Cys-LTD(4)) antagonist on ischemia -reperfusion (I/R) induced vasculitic neuropathic pain in rats.
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Thirty-two patients replied (63%) with a mean follow-up duration of 3.3 yr. Ninety-one percent of patients reported recurrent symptoms; a mean of 8.8 months after treatment was completed. Sixty-nine percent of patients repeated treatment with the steroid inhaler at least once.
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In clinically stable asthmatic patients, despite controller treatment including moderate-dose inhaled corticosteroids and add-on M, 33% of mild to moderate asthmatic patients have ongoing nonsuppressed bronchial sites of increased NO production, compared with healthy control subjects. These controllers have no effect on CANO, which was abnormal in 20% of the asthmatic patients studied. The addition of add-on M to baseline moderate-dose inhaled corticosteroid did not further reduce total exhaled, bronchial and/or alveolar NO production.
Nearly all the children had a differential response to each step-up therapy. LABA step-up was significantly more likely to provide the best response than either ICS or LTRA step-up. However, many children had a best response to ICS or LTRA step-up therapy, highlighting the need to regularly monitor and appropriately adjust each child's asthma therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00395304.)
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It was confirmed that ALOX5 promoter polymorphisms have a clear influence in montelukast response in atopic moderate persistent asthma patients. The genetic study could identify those patients most likely to respond to montelukast.
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An adverse experience database was constructed to include all double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of montelukast meeting prespecified criteria. BRAEs (described using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities controlled vocabulary dictionary) were prespecified to include any term in the Psychiatric Disorders System Organ Class, selected terms related to general disorders, and terms related to akathisia. Frequencies of BRAEs (overall, leading to study discontinuation, and/or serious) were summarized. Analyses estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for montelukast versus placebo based on the frequency of patients with BRAEs in each study.
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To study effectiveness of the use of the anti-leukotriene drug montelukast in combination with inhalation glucocorticoid and long-acting beta-agonist in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) and cold-induced bronchial hyperactivity (CBHA) with a view to optimizing control of the disease.
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Population-based cohort study.
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This case describes the original development of a desensitization protocol to high-dose MTX. The successful development and implementation of this protocol will have impact on patients who have anaphylactic reactions to MTX but require this medication for specific diseases. For patients who suffer from osteogenic sarcoma and have anaphylactic reactions to MTX, this desensitization protocol will allow these patients to continue with needed therapeutic or palliative chemotherapy.
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A study was undertaken to determine whether montelukast, a new potent cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, attenuates exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. The relationship between the urinary excretion of LTE4 and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was also investigated.
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Clinical features and treatment responses in pediatric patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis are rarely reported. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical manifestations and outcome of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in children of Asian background.
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Steroid dose could be reduced in 88%, with definitive suspension in 66% of patients. Moreover, an improvement in reducing asthma stratification and the use of rescue drugs were registered. 62% of patients with exercise-induced asthma improved and there was a good tolerance with the same side effects.
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In 4 studies in adult patients with moderate to severe PAR, LCZ 5 mg/d was associated with significant improvements in symptom scores for sneezing, rhinorrhea, and ocular/nasal pruritus at 4 to 6 weeks compared with placebo (P < or = 0.05). In 3 studies, nasal congestion scores were significantly improved within 4 to 6 weeks compared with placebo (P < 0.001). LCZ 5 mg/d was associated with improvements compared with placebo in scores for the ability to do housework, complete work activities, and engage in outdoor activities at 6 months (P < or = 0.011). In a 6-week study in children with moderate to severe SAR, LCZ 5 mg/d was associated with significant improvements compared with placebo in sneezing, rhin-orrhea, and itchy nose (P < 0.004); significant improvements in symptoms from baseline were also seen in a 4-week study in adults with SAR (P < 0.001). One study in patients with SAR reported no significant difference between LCZ and fluticasone compared with fluticasone monotherapy in terms of improvement in QoL, nasal airflow obstruction, sneezing, or pruritus. In a 6-week study in patients with moderate to severe CIU, LCZ 5 mg/d was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing overall CIU symptoms (P < 0.05). In two 4-week studies, one comparing LCZ 5 mg/d with placebo and the other comparing it with desloratadine (DSL), LCZ was significantly more effective than either comparator in terms of improvement in scores for pruritus severity (P < or = 0.001 vs placebo; P < 0.004 vs DSL) and duration (P < or = 0.001 vs placebo; P = 0.009 vs DSL). LCZ was significantly more effective than placebo (but not DSL) in reducing the number and size of wheals (both, P = 0.001). In a 12-week, open-label, crossover study, patients reported significantly longer symptom relief with cetirizine than LCZ (P < 0.005). The most commonly reported adverse events in two 6-month studies in adults with PAR treated with LCZ 5 mg/d included headache (23.8%), pharyngitis (19.4%), influenza (14.6%), fatigue (8.3%), and somnolence (8.3%). There is serious concern about the possibility of febrile seizures in infants treated with LCZ. Three pharmacoeconomic studies of LCZ 5 mg/d were identified, one comparing it with placebo in patients with PAR, one comparing it with placebo in patients with CIU, and another comparing it with second-generation antihistamines and montelukast in patients with PAR. Because of design limitations and differences in comparators in these studies, it was not possible to determine the cost-effectiveness of LCZ in the treatment of PAR or CIU.
Therapy is well tolerated and results in a good therapeutic benefit which lasts after termination of therapy. With adequate monitoring, the use of dapsone in patients with pressure urticaria has such a good risk-benefit ratio that we support early treatment initiation.
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Of the 689 patients enrolled, approximately 60% were boys and 60% were white. Patients were relatively evenly divided by age: 21%, 24%, 30%, and 23% were aged 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, respectively. For 77% of the patients, asthma symptoms first developed during the first 3 years of life. During the placebo baseline period, patients had asthma symptoms on 6.1 days/week and used beta-agonist on 6.0 days/week.