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The majority of RC/AL patients were taking five or more medications; 16.0% of these patients were receiving IPMs. The most common IPMs were oxybutynin, propoxyphene, diphenhydramine, ticlopidine, doxepin, and dipyridamole. In multivariate analyses, using generalized estimating equations, IPM use was associated with the number of medications received, smaller facility bed size, moderate licensed practical nurse turnover, absence of dementia, low monthly fees, and absence of weekly physician visits.
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Many researchers have suggested that the glutamatergic system may be involved in the effects of antidepressant therapies. We investigated the effects of doxepin, imipramine, and fluoxetine on the excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3).
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There was one trial each of moclobemide, sertraline and venlafaxine, two of fluoxetine and nortriptyline, and five trials of bupropion, one of which tested long term use to prevent relapse. Nortriptyline and bupropion both increased cessation. In one trial the combination of bupropion and nicotine patch produced higher quit rates than patch alone.
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In this nationally representative sample, reported use of prescription medications commonly used for insomnia (MCUFIs) within the preceding month was common, particularly among older adults and those seeing a mental health provider, with high use of sedative polypharmacy among MCUFI users.
The urticarias are a complex group of disorders characterised by transient whealing or swelling of the skin. Understanding the many possible causes is the first step in assessing urticaria. Allergic and drug-induced urticaria respond to removal of the cause. The physical urticarias, particularly delayed pressure urticaria and also urticarial vasculitis, require separate consideration. For the majority of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria, nonsedating antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. There are several to choose from, including cetirizine, astemizole, loratadine, terfenadine and acrivastine, each with its own pharmacokinetics and antiallergic properties. When these fail, histamine H2-antagonists may help either alone or in combination with H1-antagonists. Older sedative antihistamines are still useful. Ketotifen, oxatomide and azelastine have mast cell stabilising effects that are considered an advantage in treating these disorders. Second-line therapies include a wide range of drugs such as doxepin, dapsone, attenuated androgens, calcium antagonists, antimalarials, gold and methotrexate. The most effective and regularly used second-line agents are corticosteroids. These are best limited to short term crisis management, except in severe recalcitrant cases, and in patients with pressure urticaria or urticarial vasculitis. Recent work on circulating histamine releasing autoantibodies suggests that there is scope for more aggressive immunosuppression in selected patients. However, effective treatment with immunosuppression often requires plasma exchange and more toxic agents such as cyclosporin. Such treatments are only likely to be entertained in exceptional cases.
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The administration of serotonin reuptake inhibitors alone or in combination with other medication which increases the level of 5-hydroxytryptamine, i.e. serotonin, in the synaptic cleft mainly leads to hyperthermia. According to a recent study, however, the application of a selective 5-HT(1a) agonist to transgenic mice with a prominent overexpression of the 5-HT(1a) receptor lead to immobility and hypothermia. These findings might help to explain the hypothermia observed in the case of the intoxicated 16-year-old.
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Existing studies were not able to define the best approach for the treatment of BPS/IC. The lack of standardized treatment may be related to the diversity of interventions used; therefore, further studies with better methodological quality are needed.
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Topical application of doxepin provides significant antipruritic activity with a favorable safety profile, suggesting a role for doxepin cream in the symptomatic treatment of pruritus associated with eczematous dermatitis.
Sixty patients with chronic pain of the low back or cervical spine concomitant with clinical depression were studied in a 6-week, randomized, double-blind comparison of doxepin and placebo. Significant improvements in the doxepin-treated group compared to placebo or to baseline values were seen on Hamilton depression scores, Global Assessment Scale scores, pain severity, percent of time pain felt, and effect of pain on activity, sleep, and muscle tension. Some improvements were observed after 1 week of treatment; the most improvement occurred at 6 weeks, when the mean doxepin dosage was approximately 200 mg/day and plasma doxepin and nordoxepin averaged 80 ng/ml. No significant harmful effects were observed. Neither plasma beta-endorphin nor enkephalin-like activity demonstrated significant differences from baseline. These data indicate that doxepin is a valuable treatment for patients with chronic pain and depression.
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A 32 Year-old woman had been suffering from severe solar urticaria since November 2000, which was confirmed by photobiological data. High-dose antihistamine treatment (fexofenadine 180 mg twice a day) was inefficient. Despite a first UVA desensitization, PUVAtherapy produced only a partial improvement and short lasting for protection, with an important handicap in daily life. In March 2002, among the others treatments, we chose intravenous immunoglobulins: 0.5 g/kg the first day then 1 g/kg the second and the third days. The minimal urticaria dose was raised from 1 J/cm2 in UVA before perfusion up to 15.6 J/cm2 48 hours later and in UVB from 100 mJ/cm2 up to 2,200 mJ/cm2. Clinically the improvement was significant but partial in daily activities. It was possible to reintroduce PUVAtherapy without UVA-desensitization and, for the first time, to obtain complete remission for more than 2 Months with an association of intravenous immunoglobulins, PUVAtherapy and antihistamine treatment. In July 2002, treatment was successfully repeated.
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We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register which includes trials indexed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciSearch and PsycINFO, and other reviews and meeting abstracts, in December 2002.
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A simple normal-phase (silica), high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay of amitriptyline (AMI), doxepin (DOX), imipramine (IMI), nortriptyline (NORT), desmethyldoxepin (DESDOX), desipramine (DESIP), and protriptyline (PRO) in serum with no coelution is described here. Trimipramine and promazine were used as internal standards. Extraction of the 1.0-ml serum samples (collected in plastic) was done with Bond-Elut C18 columns. The compounds of interest were eluted with 10 mM methanolic ammonium acetate. The eluates were evaporated at 56-58 degrees C and reconstituted with 200 microliters of the mobile phase. The mobile phase was absolute ethanol-acetonitrile-tert-butylamine (98:2:0.05, vol/vol/vol). Detection of eluted drugs was at 254 nm at 0.01 absorbance units full scale (AUFS), except for PRO, which was detected at 229 nm at 0.02 AUFS. Absolute recoveries were 87-97%. A 5-micron silica (4.6 X 250 mm) HPLC column was used; results with a 10-micron silica column (3.9 X 300 mm) are also presented. Peak height ratios with trimipramine were linear for each analyte between 25 and 1200 ng/ml. Peak height ratios with promazine as the internal standard were linear for each analyte between 25 and 600 ng/ml. Detection limits under the conditions described were 2 ng/ml for AMI, DOX, and IMI, 4 ng/ml for NORT, DESDOX, and DESIP, and 10 ng/ml for PRO. Coefficients of within-day and day-to-day variation at three concentration levels were less than 9.8% and less than 11.2%, respectively. The hydroxylated metabolites of IMI, DES, NORT, and the cis isomer of DOX are discussed. Steady-state daily dosages and corresponding serum levels are presented for 69 patients. The total assay time was less than 10 min for DESIP and 12 min for PRO. This assay can be used in correlating serum levels with clinical effects, compliancy, and pharmacokinetic studies.
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Psychotropic medications are an important treatment approach to mental health disorders; such disorders are common in the elderly population. Elderly patients are more likely to experience adverse effects from these agents than their younger counterparts due to age-related changes in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters. Because of these factors, inappropriate use of psychotropic medications in elderly patients has become a focus of concern. In general an agent is considered inappropriate if the risk associated with its use exceeds its benefit. Implicit and explicit criteria for inappropriate use of medications in the elderly have been created and include psychotropic agents. These criteria vary in their make-up but the explicit criteria tend to agree that amitriptyline, doxepin, and benzodiazepines that have long half-lives are not appropriate. Although explicit inappropriate medication criteria have been in existence since 1991, elderly patients continue to receive inappropriate psychotropic medications. A wide array of factors may be responsible for this practice. Provider-related causes include deficits in knowledge, confusion due to the lack of a consensus on the inappropriate psychotropic criteria, difficulties in addressing an inappropriate medication started by a previous provider, multiple prescribers and pharmacies involved in the care of a patient, negative perceptions regarding aging, and cost issues. Patients may contribute to the problem by demanding an inappropriate medication. Finally, the healthcare setting may inadvertently contribute to inappropriate prescribing by such policies as restrictive formularies or lack of reimbursement for pharmacists' clinical services. Successful approaches to optimising prescribing have been either educational or administrative. Educational approaches (e.g. one-on-one sessions, academic detailing) seek to influence decision making, while administrative approaches attempt to enforce policies to curtail the undesired practice. The US Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, which improved psychotropic medication use in long-term care, is an excellent example of administrative intervention. More research specifically focused on the causes of inappropriate psychotropic medication use and methods to avoid this practice is needed before targeted recommendations can be made.
In recent years, there has been no evidence that the problem of chronic insomnia has faded in the least in US adults; on the contrary, a recent estimate of annual lost productivity due to insomnia was $63.2 billion dollars. However, the proportion of insomniacs who are treated continues to be low, indicating the need for continued development and dissemination of effective therapies. Hypnotic drug development has arguably become more focused in recent years, particularly upon the highly anticipated novel target, the orexin (hypocretin) system. Merck's suvorexant (MK-4305) is the first compound of the so-called dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) class expected to be submitted for FDA approval, with a new drug application anticipated in 2012. While there has also been some new activity in the modulation of well-characterized targets with well-characterized agents, such as CNS histamine receptors with low-dose doxepin, a decades-old antidepressant and GABA(A) with sublingual zolpidem, experience with melatonin and serotonin modulators suggests that other targets also exist. Diversifying insomnia drug targets may expand possibilities for customizing hypnotic administration to individualized patient presentation and mechanistic underpinnings. In addition, it may offer improved avenues for combining medications with non-drug treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I).
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Depressive illness among the elderly is an important public health concern. However, treatment of the elderly may be complicated by age-related changes in physiology, general medical status, and susceptibility to side effects. There is therefore a need for improved treatment modalities for depressed elderly patients. Paroxetine is an antidepressant that acts through selective inhibition of serotonin reuptake. It lacks the anticholinergic and cardiovascular side effects of most first- and second-generation antidepressants. The authors present the combined data from two similarly designed comparisons of paroxetine and doxepin in outpatients over 60 years of age with major depression. The results show that paroxetine was an effective as doxepin in alleviating depression as measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) total score, the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL) depression factor score. Paroxetine was significantly superior to doxepin on the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale for severity of illness, the HAM-D retardation factor, and the HAM-D depressed mood item. Doxepin produced significantly more anticholinergic effects, sedation, and confusion. Paroxetine was associated with more reports of nausea and headache. These results suggest that paroxetine may be a valuable tool for the treatment of major depression in the elderly.
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320 cases of female migraine after menopause according to the diagnostic criteria were studied by using 1:1 matched analysis. It was found that the additional symptoms increased after menopause. Eighty cases available for follow-up were divided into two groups, on which the treatment tests were done. Each patient in group I took Nilestrioli 2 mg twice a month and Perphenazine 12 mg and Doxepin 75 mg per day, while each patient in group II took Tolfenamic acid 300 mg a day. Two months after treatment, the cure rates were 57.58% in group I and 27.78% in group II. Two monthes after the cessation of therapy, 2 cases had relapses in group I. These data indicate that the decrease of estrin disorder and the additional symptoms after monopause play important roles in the change of migraine physiology, and the corresponding treatment methods are rational.
The influence of paroxetine (1x20 mg/day) on safety-relevant performance was compared with the effects of doxepin (2x50 mg/day) and placebo. The medication covered a 3-week period. On day 20 of treatment, ethanol was additionally administered (0.05% BAC). The study group comprised 60 healthy male and female volunteers in the age range 37-60 years, who were assigned to the three structurally identical medication groups under randomized, double-blind conditions. The functional capacity of primary interest was investigated in seven tests to record visual orientation, forced concentration, simple reaction time, choice reaction time, reaction under stress, vigilance, and motor co-ordination. Test sessions took place before the treatment and five times during the medication phase. Paroxetine proved comparable to placebo in all cases, while in comparison with the two reference substances doxepin revealed loss of vigilance and motor coordination, as well as of concentration and the simple (acoustic) reaction time.
It has been suggested that increased platelet activation increases the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may attenuate platelet activation by serotonin depletion in platelets. Observational studies have shown discrepant results of AMI risk associated with the use of SSRIs.
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The epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) are reviewed. PUD occurs commonly, with about 4 million Americans affected in a year. Cigarette smoking, aspirin use, and prolonged corticosteroid use are associated with PUD. The disease's etiology is multifactorial; the long-held assumption that ulcers develop solely because of increased gastric acid secretion is no longer valid. Although duodenal ulcer patients are frequently hypersecretors of acid, gastric ulcer patients more commonly have defective mechanisms for protecting the mucosal lining from acid, pepsin, and other agents. PUD is best diagnosed using an upper gastrointestinal roentgenographic series or using endoscopy. The clinical presentations, which involve epigastric abdominal pain that is relieved by food, milk, or antacids, may aid in diagnosis but are not usually definitive. Treatment is designed to relieve symptoms, heal the ulcer, prevent recurrences, and prevent complications. Of the four currently available drug treatments (cimetidine, ranitidine, antacids, and sucralfate), the treatment of first choice is cimetidine or ranitidine for four or six weeks, respectively, for duodenal and gastric ulcer patients. Antacids should be used as needed for pain, and the patient should be reassessed at the end of this period. For most patients, neither cimetidine nor ranitidine is demonstrably superior to one another. Several agents are under investigation in the U.S., including other H2-receptor antagonists (famotidine and nizatidine), proton-pump inhibitors (omeprazole), prostaglandins (misoprostol, arbasprostil, enprostil, and trimoprostil), antimuscarinic agents (pirenzepine), and tricyclic antidepressants (doxepin and trimipramine). peptic ulcer disease is an important disease. It is best treated with H2-receptor antagonists supplemented with antacids as needed for pain.
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A systematic screening method has been developed for the detection of 29 central nervous system (CNS) drugs in human plasma, urine and gastric juice by high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE). The first step is sample preparation. The patient's or normal human plasma (0.5 ml) spiked with CNS drugs was extracted with 2 x 4 ml dichloromethane, while 2 ml of patient's or spiked urine was extracted with 2 x 6 ml chloroform. The combined extract from plasma or urine was evaporated to dryness in a rotation evaporator at 35 degrees C. The residue was dissolved in 100 microliters methanol and subsequently 400 microliters of redistilled water was added. The patient gastric juice (3 ml) was centrifuged at 2,000 r.min-1 for 5 min. The supernatant was filtered through 0.45 micron microporous membrane for injection onto capillary columns. The second step was to perform CZE separation in acidic buffer composed of 30 mmol.L-1(NH4)3PO4(pH 2.50) and 10% acetonitrile (condition A). Most of the benzodiazepines (diazepam, nitrazepam, chlordiazepoxide, flurazepam, extazolam, alprazolam) and methaqualone were baseline separated and detected at 5-13 min, while thiodiphenylamines showed group peaks at 3-5 min and barbiturates migrate with electroosmotic fluid (EOF) together. The third step is to separate the drugs in basic buffer constituted of 70 mmol.L-1 Na2HPO4(pH 8.60) and 30% acetonitrile (condition B). The thiodiphenylamines and some other basic drugs could be well separated, which include thihexyphenidyl, imipramine, amitriptyline, diphenhydramine, chlorpromazine, doxepin, chlorprothixene, promethazine and flurazepam, while the rest of the CNS drugs did not interfere with the separation. The last step was to separate the drugs by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in such a buffer as 70 mmol.L-1 SDS plus 15 mmol.L-1 Na2HPO4 (pH 7.55) and 5% methanol (condition C). Barbiturates (barbital, phenobarbital, methylphenobarbital, amobarbital, thiopental, pentobarbital, secobarbital) and some hydrophobic drugs (glutethimide, alprazolam, clonazepam, carbamazepine, trifluoperazine, oxazepam) could be well separated. These drugs might be identified by both the relative migration time (rtm = tdrug/tEOF) and the ratios of peak heights (rh) monitored at different wavelength, since the ratios are characteristic of the spectrum of a drug. This method has been used in several real clinical samples of intoxication. For example, perphenazine and doxepin were detected in the gastric juice and phenobarbital in blood and gastric juice of an intoxicated patient.
Psychological and biological variables were examined in two groups of patients with both depression and pain. The relationship of these variables to severity of pain and to pain threshold was examined in a nontreatment evaluation group (N = 25), and their relationship to relief of pain and depression was examined n a doxepin-treated group (N = 16). Eighty-seven percent of the treatment group experienced some pain relief, and 56% experienced complete relief. In the nontreatment group, anxiety as measured on the Zung Anxiety Scale, depression as measured on the Hamilton Depression Scale, and urinary 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG) were all found to correlate significantly and positively with severity of pain as rated on the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Each of these variables was related to different dimensions of the pain experience as measured by the McGill-Melzack Pain subscales. Only anxiety correlated significantly with pain threshold. In the treatment group final pain relief was positively correlated with initial MHPG and anxiety and with improvement in depression. A theory unifying biological, psychological, and clinical experimental pain data is presented.
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Over the past years, the use of antidepressants and neuroleptics has steadily increased. Although incredibly useful to treat disorders like depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, or mental retardation, these drugs display many side effects. Toxicogenomic studies aim to limit this problem by trying to identify cellular targets and off-targets of medical compounds. The baker yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be a key player in this approach, as it represents an incredible toolbox for the dissection of complex biological processes. Moreover, the evolutionary conservation of many pathways allows the translation of yeast data to the human system. In this paper, a better attention was paid to chlorpromazine, as it still is one of the most widely used drug in therapy. The results of a toxicogenomic screening performed on a yeast mutants collection treated with chlorpromazine were instrumental to identify a set of genes for further analyses. For this purpose, a multidisciplinary approach was used based on growth phenotypes identification, Gene Ontology search, and network analysis. Then, the impacts of three antidepressants (imipramine, doxepin, and nortriptyline) and three neuroleptics (promazine, chlorpromazine, and promethazine) on S. cerevisiae were compared through physiological analyses, microscopy characterization, and transcriptomic studies. Data highlight key differences between neuroleptics and antidepressants, but also between the individual molecules. By performing a network analysis on the human homologous genes, it emerged that genes and proteins involved in the Notch pathway are possible off-targets of these molecules, along with key regulatory proteins.