Pharmacological agents that can normalize or enhance the ciliary and mucociliary activity of the tubotympanum should also be able to break the vicious circle of chronic otitis media with effusion (OME). Roxythromycin (RXM) has been shown to enhance the ciliary activity in vitro and also stimulate the mucociliary activity in vivo and may therefore, when clinically applied, prevent not only occurrence but also recurrence of clinical OME. The present study was designed to discuss the possible preventive effect of RXM on endotoxin-induced OME in the guinea pig. A total of 120 guinea pigs were used. The normal control group was treated with intratympanic injection of 0.1 ml of physiologic saline solution. The saline-control group was treated with oral administration of physiologic saline solution for 14 successive days. The low-dosage group and the high-dosage group were treated with oral administration of 5 and 50 mg/kg of sairei-to for 14 successive days, respectively. Then, the saline-control group, the low-dosage group and the high-dosage group were treated with intratympanic injection of 0.1 ml of lipopolysaccharide solution (100 micrograms/ml) derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae. All 10 animals in the four groups were sacrificed 1, 3, and 7 days after the intratympanic injection, to examine ciliary activity, mucociliary clearance time, and mucosal pathology of the tubotympanum. The saline-control group exhibited middle ear effusions and pathologies similar to human OME. The incidence of middle ear effusions was significantly reduced in the low-dosage and high-dosage groups. Throughout the observation period, the ciliary activity in the tubotympanum was significantly reduced in the saline-control group as compared with that of the normal control group. By contrast, the ciliary activity in the low-dosage and high-dosage groups was not so reduced in the Eustachian tube and the middle ear close to the orifice. Mucociliary clearance time in the low-dosage and high-dosage groups was not different from that in the normal control group throughout the period. The tubotympanum in the saline-control group exhibited mucosal pathologies characteristic of OME in human. By contrast, the low-dosage and high-dosage groups exhibited much milder pathological changes in the tubotympanum than those in the saline-control group. In conclusion, clinical application of RXM could be an effective measure to prevent the occurrence of OME and also the recurrence of the disease, especially in OME-prone individuals.
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Our study probed the effects of the beta-2 adrenergic agonist, formoterol and the macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, on muscle wasting in a well-characterized animal model of cancer cachexia. Female Wistar rats were inoculated with Yoshida AH130 ascites hepatoma (AH) cells to induce rapid and severe cachexia as demonstrated by wet weight determinations of the hearts, gastrocnemius muscles and carcasses. The control animals received saline (vehicle) inoculations. The AH-inoculated rats were treated once daily for four days by i.p. injection with a vehicle control, 1 mg/kg formoterol, 5 and 50 mg/kg roxithromycin or 1 mg/kg formoterol plus 5, 25, 40 and 50 mg/kg roxithromycin. The saline-inoculated animals were treated by i.p. injection with vehicle control, 1 mg/kg formoterol, 5 and 40 mg/kg roxithromycin. As a result, formoterol alone reduced the loss of muscle mass in the AH-inoculated rats by approximately one-half, consistent with literature reports. Roxithromycin alone at 5 mg/kg did not affect muscle mass in the AH-inoculated rats. Roxithromycin given alone at 50 mg/kg reduced the loss of muscle mass in AH-inoculated animals by approximately one-half. With respect to the antagonizing muscle loss, formoterol combined with either 5 or 25 mg/kg roxithromycin did not reach statistical significance versus formoterol alone, while formoterol plus either 40 or 50 mg/kg roxithromycin enhanced protection against muscle loss versus formoterol alone. The gastrocnemius weights in the AH-inoculated rats treated with formoterol combined with 40 mg/kg roxithromycin were not significantly different from the muscle weights in the saline-inoculated controls. To sum up, formoterol and roxithromycin apparently exert anti-cachectic effects in an additive fashion and may offer the potential for combination therapy in cachexia.
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A rapid, sensitive and specific LC-MS-MS method has been developed for the determination of clarithromycin (CLA) in human plasma using roxithromycin (ROX) as the internal standard. Samples were prepared via liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and chromatographed on a Supelco RP(18) (4.6 x 50 mm, 3 microm particle size) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:methanol:60 mM (pH 3.5) ammonium acetate buffer (32.5:32.5:35) at a constant flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The run time was 3 min with retention times of approximately 1.65 and 1.70 min for CLA and ROX, respectively. Detection was performed on a PE Sciex API 365 mass spectrometer equipped with a turboionspray ionization source in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The MRM pairs were m/z 748.5 --> m/z 158.2 for CLA and m/z 837.7 --> m/z 679.3 for ROX, respectively, with dwell times of 200 ms for each transition. The validated calibration curve range was 5.00-5000 ng/mL, based on 0.100 mL plasma sample volume with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) greater than 60 for CLA at the lower limit of quantification level (5.00 ng/mL). The correlation coefficients (r(2)) of the calibration curves were better than or equal to 0.996. The inter-day (n = 18) precision and accuracy of the quality control (QC) samples were less than 3.58% RSD (relative standard deviation) and -10.8% bias, respectively. The intra-day (n = 6) precision and accuracy of the quality control samples were less than 5.0 and 12.6%, respectively. There was no significant deviation from the nominal values after a 10-fold dilution of high concentration QC samples using blank matrix. The QC samples were stable when left on the bench for 24 h or after three freeze-thaw cycles. The processed samples were also stable in HPLC autosampler at 10C for over 72 h. No matrix ionization suppression was observed when extracted blank matrix or reconstitution solvent was injected onto the system with post-column infusion of clarithromycin and roxithromycin. No carryover was observed when an extracted blank plasma sample was injected immediately after a 5000 ng/mL ULOQ (the upper limit of quantification) standard. The mean recovery was 81.5 and 78.3%, respectively, for clarithromycin and internal standard.
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Macrolides, one of the oldest antibiotic classes, are widely used in out-patient, clinics and hospitals. The major improvement in developing newer derivatives concerns pharmacokinetic properties. Increased half-lives, persisting concentrations in tissues, interstitial fluids and macrophages confer upon newer macrolides significant advantages as compared to the parent compound erythromycin. Roxithromycin, a newer macrolide has a high peak serum concentration, providing very high levels both in the interstitial fluid and intracellularly. Pharmacodynamic approaches are still limited with macrolides, however the very high inhibitory quotient established for tissue concentrations and interstitial fluid suggests the potential clinical efficacy of these drugs.
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Vegetable cultivation in soils polluted with heavy metals, antibiotics and a high abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) can seriously threaten human health through the food chain. Therefore, novel techniques that not only remediate soil, but also ensure food security are urgently required. In the present study, two successive washings with 20gL(-1) of sophoroliplid solution plus ultrasonication (35kHz) were effective in extracting 71.2% Cd, 88.2% tetracycline, 96.6% sulfadiazine, and 100% roxithromycin. Simultaneously, relative abundance of ARGs (tetM, tetX, sulI, and sulII) was decreased to 10(-7)-10(-8) (ARG copies/16S copies). Further, lettuce cultivation in the 2nd washed soil showed significant improvement in vegetable growth indices (fresh/dry weight, root surface area, chlorophyll content and soluble protein content) and a decrease in isolate counts for antibiotic-resistant bacterial endophytes and ARG abundance in lettuce tissues. This combined cleanup strategy provides an environmentally friendly technology for ensuring vegetable security in washed soils.
The cytocidal effect increased in a concentration-dependent manner as the concentration of each of the eight test agents increased. The order of the agents according to their cytocidal effects (LD50) was minocycline > tetracycline > enoxacin > clarithromycin > roxythromycin approximately ofloxacin > azithromycin > erythromycin. The cytocidal effects of minocycline, tetracycline, enoxacin, clarithromycin, roxythromycin, ofloxacin, and azithromycin ranged from 1.2 to 23.2 times greater than that of erythromycin. The maximum non-cytocidal concentrations (MNCCs) of these agents for NDUSD-1 cells were: 0.3 microm for minocycline, 1 microm for tetracycline, 3 microm for ofloxacin and erythromycin, 10 microm for enoxacin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, and 100 microm for roxythromycin. The MNCCs of ofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxythromycin were greater than their MIC90 concentrations for periodontopathic bacteria described above. The effects on the mRNA and protein expressions of epithelial-cell- or cell-adhesion-related genes were examined in NDUSD-1 cells exposed to clarithromycin, roxythromycin, ofloxacin, and azithromycin at their MNCCs. None of the agents affected the mRNA expressions of five genes: keratinocyte growth factor receptor, keratin 18, integrin beta1, integrin beta4, and laminin 5gamma2. Clarithromycin and ofloxacin slightly decreased the protein expression of integrin beta4. Roxythromycin markedly decreased the protein expressions of integrin beta4 and laminin 5gamma2. Azithromycin had little inhibitory effects on the protein expressions of any of the five genes.
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RXM did not affect the production of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines, whereas it specifically inhibited production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin 6 (IL-6) by T cells and macrophages. RXM inhibited T cell migration. We found that RXM treatment of mice with CIA reduced the severity of arthritis and serum level of IL-6, as well as leukocyte migration into the affected joints and destruction of bones and cartilage.
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Although the pathogeneses of interstitial pneumonia are not well understood, it has been reported that inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, and their injurious substances play important roles in the progression of interstitial pneumonia. Erythromycin and other 14-membered ring macrolides (14-MRMLs) have been reported to inhibit chronic airway inflammation by mechanisms of anti-neutrophil and several other anti-inflammatory activities. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects and mechanisms of 14-MRMLs (erythromycin: EM; clarithromycin: CAM; roxithromycin: RXM) on an experimental model of bleomycin (BLM) -induced acute lung injury in mice.
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The entry criteria was fulfilled in 250 patients, of whom 13 missed the control endoscopy. The treatment had to be discontinued for adverse effects in 8 (10%) BRMR patients, and 1 (1%) PCA patients. Compliance was 100% in the PC group. All ulcers were healed at the end of the study with one exception in the BRMR group. The best eradication rate of Hp was shown by the PCA group with 94.8% (n = 73/77) followed by the PC group with 82.5% (n = 66/80) and finally the BRMR with 67.6% (n = 48/71)-PCA:BRMR - p < 0.001; PC:BRMR-p < 0.001; PCA:PC-p < 0.05.
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the activity of erythromycin, roxithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim and rifampin against 32 strains of Legionella spp. under different testing conditions. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the E-test (Ab Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) and agar dilution reference technique (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), 1990) on two different media, buffered charcoal yeast extract agar (BCYE-alpha) and buffered yeast extract agar (BYE-alpha), under 48- and 72-h incubation, without CO2. RESULTS: All the antimicrobial agents were inhibited by BCYE-alpha agar. The MIC90 values on BYE-alpha were lower than those on BCYE-alpha but the variation factor was not the same: ciprofloxacin and rifampin, followed by erythromycin, suffered the greatest inhibition by the charcoal in the culture medium. Except for ciprofloxacin and rifampin, the 72-h MIC90 readings were always higher than the 48-h results whenever the agar dilution method was used. The E-test results showed slight variations with some, but not all, antibiotics. The most active agents against the 32 Legionella strains tested were rifampin and ciprofloxacin. CONCLUSIONS: BCYE-alpha is not suitable for susceptibility testing of Legionella spp. The E-test method on BYE-alpha agar with 48-h incubation is recommended.
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The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of five macrolides (roxithromycin, erythromycin, troleandomycin, josamycin and spiramycin) were tested against 284 bacterial strains belonging to various species of Gram positive (staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, Listeria sp, Corynebacterium sp, Bacillus sp) and Gram negative bacteria (Neisseria sp, H. influenzae, P. multocida). The activity of these compounds on the whole strains showed near results: 71.8% of susceptible strains to erythromycin and spiramycin, 70% to josamycin, 67.6% to roxithromycin, 65.5% to troleandomycin. Resisting strains were MLSB resistant cocci Gram positive, H. influenzae and P. multocida strains. Species usually less studied (nongroupable streptococci, Corynebacterium sp, Bacillus sp) were very susceptible to macrolides with MICS equal or inferior to 1 mg/l for the two last genus. A bactericidal effect was observed for 38.8% of 72 tested strains (erythromycin), 36.1% (josamycin), 34.7% (spiramycin), 31.9% (roxithromycin), 20.8% (troleandomycin). Among various tested species, this bactericidal effect concerned especially group A streptococci, N. meningitidis and Corynebacterium (except D2 and JK species).
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A 6-month retrospective audit of hospitalized patients with proven legionnaires' disease around the time of the Melbourne Aquarium outbreak was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 8.0 (SAS Institute Inc., NC, USA).
To investigate the infection and the drug resistance status of mycoplasma and chlamydiae in genitourinary tracts of children with suspected nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and provide information for clinical rational administration of antimicrobial agents.
A new macrolide (A-56268) was found to be approximately twice as active as erythromycin and four to eight times more active than roxithromycin. All three macrolides were similar in their potency against anaerobes. Human plasma enhanced the antistaphylococcal activity of A-56268 and erythromycin but reduced the activities of roxithromycin and clindamycin.
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The erythromycins have gained widespread use in treating a variety of infections. Although they are effective, limitations include the need to administer four times a day and the intolerable adverse gastrointestinal effects. Four of the more extensively studied agents, azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, and roxithromycin, are currently being studied in patients. Based on the studies to date, the newer macrolides may offer several advantages over erythromycin, including: (1) greater antimicrobial activity against certain organisms; (2) longer elimination half-life, thus allowing less frequent administration; and (3) lower incidence of adverse gastrointestinal effects.
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The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of roxithromycin in patients with early seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.
Eighteen strains of Uu clinical isolates with different phenotypes of resistance to Macrolide antibiotics were screened for mutations in 23S rRNA in comparison with the reference strain ATCC 27618 and AF272627-1 in GenBank, which is susceptible to Macrolide antibiotics.
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The anti-Pneumocystis carinii activity of atovaquone, dapsone and sulphamethoxazole alone and combined with dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors and macrolides was investigated against five clinical isolates of P. carinii. The susceptibility tests were performed by inoculation of the organisms on to cell monolayer and parasite count after 72 h incubation at 37 degrees C. Culture plates were added to Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing serial dilutions of atovaquone, dapsone and sulphamethoxazole alone or in combination with diaveridine, pyrimethamine, trimethoprim, azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin. Atovaquone, dapsone and sulphamethoxazole were found to be effective at levels well below the concentrations that could be achieved clinically, while DHFR inhibitors were shown to combine effectively with dapsone and sulphamethoxazole. No synergy could be demonstrated between atovaquone and DHFR inhibitors or macrolides. A mild synergic effect was noted when macrolides were combined with dapsone and sulphamethoxazole. Pyrimethamine (0.5 mg/L) combined with dapsone and trimethoprim (0.5 mg/L) combined with sulphamethoxazole exerted the strongest inhibitory effect.
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Vascular infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae might boost inflammatory responses that play a pivotal part in neointima formation, which is the main cause of restenosis after stenting. Our aim was to investigate whether or not treatment of C pneumoniae infection with antibiotics prevents restenosis after coronary stent placement.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based and GP-based intervention in reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) including sore throats, sinusitis and otitis media.