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In this 24-week trial undertaken at four primary health-care practices and one hospital in New Zealand, patients (aged 16-65 years) with a recent asthma exacerbation were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the SMART or standard fixed-dose regimen. Treatment in the SMART group consisted of two actuations of budesonide-formoterol (200 μg and 6 μg, respectively, per actuation) twice daily, delivered through a combination metered dose inhaler (MDI), with one extra actuation as needed for relief of symptoms; treatment in the standard group consisted of two actuations of budesonide-formoterol (200 μg and 6 μg, respectively, per actuation) twice daily through a combination MDI with one to two actuations of salbutamol (100 μg per actuation) by MDI as needed for relief of symptoms. MDIs were monitored electronically to measure actual use of medication. The allocation sequence for randomisation was computer generated, with a block size of eight per site. Participants, investigators, and the statistician were not masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with at least one high-use episode of β agonist (more than eight actuations per day of budesonide-formoterol in addition to the four maintenance doses in the SMART group or more than 16 actuations per day of salbutamol in the standard group). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12610000515099.
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A retrospective analysis of 25 cases of biopsy-proven IMN seen between January 2004 and December 2009.
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sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from patients, and a systematic literature review performed, focusing on national studies on the clinical profile of MG patients.
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Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis and the first cause in young people. Bone loss occurs early after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy and is correlated to dosage and treatment duration. Osteoporosis prevention is justified in all subjects who begin glucocorticoids, since the underlying inflammation has itself a deleterious bone impact. Bone loss magnitude is variable and there is no clearly identified predictor of the individual risk of fracture. Prevention or treatment of osteoporosis should be considered in all patients who received a daily dose of at least 7.5mg equivalent prednisone and a treatment that is expected to last at least 3 months. Bisphosphonates and the anabolic agent parathyroid hormone (1-34) have shown their efficacy in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Recent international guidelines are available and should guide management of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis that remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. Duration of anti-osteoporotic treatment should be discussed at the individual level, depending on the subject's characteristics, and on the underlying inflammation evolution.
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There are significant differences in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis between Canadian and American colorectal surgeons.
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SRD, accurately detected by OCT, is a common complication of acute toxoplasmic RC that should be considered as a potential cause of visual loss. Choroidal ischemia might contribute to the development of such complication.
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For secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI), established biochemical parameters for dosage control are lacking and no optimal substitution dosage and daily distribution have been determined yet. Therefore, in clinical practice, the individual total dose is often adjusted based on patients' subjective well-being.
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On the basis of oral administration of Prednisone, single usage of acupoints of Shaoyang meridian in acute stage can make great improvement for recovery of Bell palsy, better than routine point selection.
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Rituximab-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) every 14 days seems to achieve better outcomes than R-CHOP every 21 days in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Currently, the standard regimen is R-CHOP every 21 days.
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TNF-alpha plays a pivotal role in immune reaction to intracellular pathogens. Very few cases of cutaneous infection involving M. chelonae in association with an anti-TNF-alpha therapy have been reported in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first case occurring during treatment with etanercept and symptoms worsened with the introduction of adalimumab. In addition, this case underlines the difficulties of effectively treating this mycobacterium.
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A single-center cohort study of patients with pSLE followed at a pediatric lupus clinic from 1985 to July 2009. Clinical course and response to treatment were studied. Remission was defined by absence of psychiatric/cognitive symptoms while receiving minimal doses of prednisone. Disease activity and damage were measured using SLE Disease Activity Index and SLE Damage Index.
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A total of 143 patients were randomly enrolled in our study (66 patients in R-CHOP-14 group and 77 patients in R-CHOP-21), between 2011 and 2014. The mean follow-up was 45 months at the time of treatment analysis. The 2-year and 5-year PFS rates for the R-CHOP-14 group were 83.6% vs 73.6% and for R-CHOP-21 group were 75% vs 54%. The 2-year and 5-year OS rates for R-CHOP-14 group were 98% vs 89% and for R-CHOP-21 group were 84.4% vs 67.5%. There was a significant correlation for PFS and OS in the two arms. There was no significant difference between adverse events with the two regimens.
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Patients treated initially with intravenous corticosteroids had higher mortality, which was likely related to disease severity. Both methotrexate and azathioprine showed similar early survival benefits as first-line immunosuppressive drugs. Survival was higher between 5 and 10 years in the methotrexate-treated group, but could not be confirmed in multivariable modeling for the full follow-up period. Other important predictors of long-term survival included younger age, female sex and Caucasian race.
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Improvement of the prognosis requires collaboration in order to compose a national cohort, to evaluate new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and to define prognostic factors.
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The CCI was 6 in 116 patients (52.7%), 7 in 70 (31.8%), 8 in 23 (10.5%), 9 in 4 (1.8%), and 10 in 7 patients (3.2%). HTN was present in 107 (48.6%) patients. Patients with CCI of ≥ 7 were older and exhibited worse performance status and anemia than patients with CCI of 6 (P<0.05). The CCI was not independently predictive of OS on univariable and multivariable analyses. HTN alone or in combination with the CCI was borderline significantly associated with OS (P ~ 0.09) on both univariable and multivariable analyses.
Patients (n = 84) with severe IgA nephropathy received either MMF/prednisone (MMF group) or CYC/prednisone (CYC group). The MMF induction dose was 1.5 g/d for 6 months and the maintenance dose was 0.75 - 1.0 g/day for 12 months. The CYC induction dose was 0.8 - 1.0 g/month for 6 months and the maintenance dose was 0.8 - 1.0 g/3 months for 12 months. Laboratory tests, clinical remission rate and side effects were investigated.
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Among 166 AA DD renal allograft recipients transplanted from July 2001 through July 2007, we compared the outcomes of 26 (16%) receiving a second graft with those of 140 primary cases. All patients received either thymoglobulin (ATG) or an IL-2 receptor antagonist for induction, and were maintained on either tacrolimus or sirolimus + mycophenolate mofetil +/- prednisone.
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To report a 16-year long-term follow-up of a patient with acute multifocal hemorrhagic retinal vasculitis (Blumenkranz syndrome). A 21-year old male was seen in 1994 with acute multifocal hemorrhagic retinal vasculitis (Blumenkranz syndrome), first in the left eye, and later in the right eye. He was treated with retinal photocoagulation in areas of retinal ischemia and oral steroids, followed by sequential annual fundus examination and photography for 16 years. Vision improved to 20/25 in both eyes after retinal ischemic areas photocoagulation and oral steroids, and his vision has been maintained for 16 years. Photocoagulation of retinal ischemia and oral steroids are effective for the treatment of acute multifocal hemorrhagic retinal vasculitis (Blumenkranz syndrome).
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Premature atherosclerosis in patients with SLE is partially explained by traditional risk factors; therefore, we aimed to identify lupus-related risk factors for coronary artery calcifications.
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Prospective clinical trial in which dogs with GI lymphoma were treated with a 20-week combination chemotherapy protocol consisting of induction and consolidation phases.
Medical records and physician checklists were reviewed for confirmation of an RA diagnosis among a sample of Black Women's Health Study participants who reported incident RA and were categorized according to reported medications: disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (n = 102), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (n = 100), and no arthritis medications (no meds) (n = 101). PPVs for confirmed RA were calculated for each of the medication groups, both overall and according to the results of the screening survey.
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Initial treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia traditionally involves tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid) combined with anthracycline-based risk-adapted chemotherapy, with arsenic trioxide being the treatment of choice at relapse. To try to reduce the relapse rate, we combined arsenic trioxide with tretinoin and idarubicin in induction therapy, and used arsenic trioxide with tretinoin as consolidation therapy.
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(1) New marketing authorizations continue to be granted for treatments of multiple myeloma, and new trials and meta-analyses continue to be published. This review re-examines our previous conclusions based on data published between 2003 and 2008. We again used the standard Prescrire methodology to review the latest data; (2) In patients who are symptomatic but who do not qualify for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (especially people aged over 65), the results of five comparative trials suggest that adding thalidomide to the melphalan-prednisone combination delays myeloma progression by an additional 5 to 10 months. There is possibly also an increase in overall survival time. This triple combination is therefore a first-line treatment option. There is no firm evidence that replacing thalidomide with bortezomib in this combination provides an advantage; (3) In symptomatic patients aged under 65, two meta-analyses have compared high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation with conventional chemotherapy. Unlike early trials, these meta-analyses showed no overall survival benefit but only a delay in myeloma progression. Initial treatment with two successive transplantation procedures has a negative risk-benefit balance. (4) The optimal chemotherapy regimen prior to autologous stem cell transplantation is controversial. It is unclear which combination (vincristine + doxorubicin + dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide + dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide + dexamethasone, or bortezomib + dexamethasone, etc.) has a better risk-benefit balance in terms of survival and quality of life; (5) According to a meta-analysis of three clinical trials, thalidomide maintenance therapy appears to improve overall survival after Autologous stem cell transplantation; (6) Despite their inadequate evaluation, lenalidomide and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin are licensed for use in patients who relapse or who are refractory to initial treatment. In view of their major adverse effects, we consider that these drugs should only be used in clinical trials.
We report the first case of unilateral optic neuropathy associated with oral tacrolimus medication. Surgeons and ophthalmologists must evaluate ocular symptoms in the post-transplantation period, and suspicion should be maintained even if unilaterality or asymmetry of symptoms against a toxic etiology.
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In conjunction with prednisone, TAC may be an alternative therapeutic regimen for adult SRNS patients. However, adverse events in these patients should be carefully monitored, especially at the beginning of treatment. Randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up are warranted.
The Southwest Oncology Group S0816 (Fludeoxyglucose F 18-PET/CT Imaging and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Additional Chemotherapy and G-CSF in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Hodgkin Lymphoma) trial enrolled 358 HIV-negative patients between July 1, 2009, and December 2, 2012. A PET scan was performed after two initial cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and was labeled PET2. PET2-negative patients (Deauville score 1 to 3) received an additional four cycles of ABVD, whereas PET2-positive patients (Deauville score 4 to 5) were switched to escalated bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (eBEACOPP) for six cycles. Among 336 eligible and evaluable patients, the median age was 32 years (range, 18 to 60 years), with 52% stage III, 48% stage IV, 49% International Prognostic Score 0 to 2, and 51% score 3 to 7.