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Ponstel (Mefenamic Acid)
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Ponstel

Ponstel is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short-term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain. Ponstel blocks the effect of certain substances in the body that are associated with pain and inflammation.

Other names for this medication:

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Celebrex, Voltaren, Dolobid, Lodine, Motrin, Indocin, Orudis, Toradol, Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Voltaren, Aleve, Advil, Celecoxib, Naprosyn, Motrin, Ketoprofen

 

Also known as:  Mefenamic Acid.

Description

Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain.

Ponstel blocks certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation.

Ponstel is also known as Mefenamic acid, Ponstan.

Generic name of Ponstel is Mefenamic Acid.

Brand name of Ponstel is Ponstel.

Dosage

Take Ponstel orally.

Take Ponstel with or without food.

Take Ponstel with a full glass of water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ponstel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Ponstel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Ponstel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Ponstel if you are allergic to Ponstel components or to aspirin.

Do not take Ponstel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Ponstel if you have had a severe allergic reaction (e.g., severe rash, hives, trouble breathing, growths in the nose, dizziness) to aspirin or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (e.g., ibuprofen, celecoxib).

Do not take Ponstel if you have had recent or will be having bypass heart surgery.

Do not take Ponstel if you have kidney problems.

Do not take Ponstel if you have ulcers or inflammation of the stomach or bowel.

Do not use Ponstel with aspirin.

Be careful with Ponstel when it is used by children younger than 14 years old and by elderly people.

Avoid machine driving.

Avoid drinking alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Ponstel taking suddenly.

ponstel syrup children

In order to determine the role of peripheral prostanoids in a newly developed mechanical visceral pain model, several NSAIDs were studied. Systemic acetylsalicylic acid and mefenamic acid, in doses known to produce cyclooxygenase inhibition, produced limited or no analgesia using a duodenal distension model and a behavioral scale for assessment. In contrast, indomethacin at 1 mg/kg, a dose 1/100th of the highest dose of the above compounds, had a marked analgesic effect in the visceral pain model (32% of control response). These data suggest that a duodenal distension stimulus does not have a peripheral prostaglandin E2-mediated nociceptive mechanism. Furthermore, the results obtained with indomethacin support an alternate, possibly central nonprostanoid visceral antinociceptive action.

ponstel dosage

The analgesic mechanism of Y-23023, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was investigated in the writhing response induced by intraperitoneal injection of kaolin and captopril in mice. Y-23023 (0.1-1 mg/kg, p.o.) suppressed the writhing frequency in a dose-dependent manner. Y-23023 also significantly reduced the increased levels of prostaglandin (PG) and bradykinin (BK) in the peritoneal cavity. In contrast, indomethacin, diclofenac sodium, loxoprofen sodium and mefenamic acid inhibited the writhing response, but their efficacies were lower than that of Y-23023. The peritoneal PG levels were dose-dependently reduced to the same extent as Y-23023, whereas the BK levels were not. M1, an active metabolite of Y-23023, inhibited the cyclooxygenase from sheep vesicular gland in a concentration-dependent manner, and its potency was similar to that of indomethacin. These results suggest that in addition to the suppressive effect on PG production via inhibition of cyclooxygenase, the inhibitory effect on BK production is involved in the analgesic action of Y-23023, unlike indomethacin and diclofenac sodium.

ponstel drug interactions

We found no statistically significant difference in the effectiveness of ibuprofen compared to indomethacin in closing the PDA. Ibuprofen reduces the risk of oliguria. However, ibuprofen may increase the risk for chronic lung disease, and pulmonary hypertension has been observed in three infants after prophylactic use of ibuprofen. Based on currently available information ibuprofen does not appear to confer a net benefit over indomethacin for the treatment of a PDA. We conclude that indomethacin should remain the drug of choice for the treatment of a PDA. Future research may include a four arm trial where infants are randomized at birth, either to a prophylaxis arm starting at birth or to an arm in which treatment starts after a PDA is diagnosed by echocardiography within the first seven days of life. Within the prophylaxis and treatment arms, the infants would be randomized to either ibuprofen or indomethacin. The primary outcome should be intact survival (survival without handicap) at 18 months corrected age.

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Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine.

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Analgesic poisoning is a common medical emergency, and these drugs account for about 30% of self-poisoning in adults. Aspirin and paracetamol are taken most often, and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. However, problems with the hepatotoxicity of paracetamol have been greatly reduced by the introduction of effective treatment with agents such as N-acetylcysteine. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics are not commonly taken in overdosage but the incidence of self-poisoning with mefenamic acid is increasing at an alarming rate. With the exception of phenylbutazone and mefenamic acid these drugs rarely seem to cause serious toxicity. The narcotic analgesics can cause profound respiratory depression and are the most dangerous drugs in overdosage.

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The fenugreek seed and dry cupping are effificacious, safe, cost effective, and well tolerated.

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Cotrimoxazole was the most common cause of FDE, whereas FDE with diclofenac sodium, pyrantel pamoate, clindamycin, and albendazole were reported for the first time. FDE may have multiform presentations.

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The occurrence of 15 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the influent and effluent from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and its receiving water in Beijing, China were determined. Results from the present study confirmed that caffeine, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and chloramphenicol were removed at a high rate (>70 % efficiency). In contrast, removal efficiency of the other 12 compounds was quite poor (ranged from -40 % to 58 %). Some compounds in the receiving river were present at higher concentrations compared to those in the WWTP effluent, indicating that sources other than treated effluents are present. The risk to the aquatic environment was estimated by a ratio of measured environmental concentration and predicted no-effect concentration. For those compounds found in the effluent and surface water, mefenamic acid, trimethoprim and gemfibrozil may pose a medium risk to aquatic environment.

ponstel medication dosage

There is no benefit in using mefenamic acid and hyoscine in the prevention of pain occurring from SIS.

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Four hundred ninety three female nurses in the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

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Recent studies showed that the metal-coordinated non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), copper indomethacin, reduced aberrant crypt formation in the rodent colon cancer model, while also exhibiting gastrointestinal sparing properties. In the present study, the stability and biological activity of three BiNSAIDs of the general formula [Bi(L)3]n, where L=diflunisal (difl), mefenamate (mef) or tolfenamate (tolf) were examined. NMR spectroscopy of high concentrations of BiNSAIDs (24h in cell medium, 37°C) indicated that their structural stability and interactions with cell medium components were NSAID specific. Assessment of cell viability using the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium]bromide (MTT) assay showed that the toxicity ranking of the BiNSAIDs paralleled those of the respective free NSAIDs: diflH

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A controlled trial was undertaken to compare the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) with standard intramuscular opiate analgesia in the management of postoperative pain following appendicectomy. Consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy were randomised into control, sham TENS and active TENS groups. There was a significant decrease in pain severity and analgesic intake in both active and sham TENS groups when compared with the control group (P less than 0.01). No difference was demonstrated in pain severity between active and sham TENS groups but the active TENS group required slightly less analgesia. These results suggest that the major benefit of TENS in the postappendicectomy patient is due to its 'placebo effect' and its use in this situation cannot be recommended.

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Forty patients with medication-resistant menorrhagia.

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Based on the Naranjo score, this case of prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis in a young woman was likely associated with loxoprofen use.

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A number of drugs are available that act fairly specifically as "mild" analgesics, although this description by no means implies that their clinical effectiveness is limited to the relief of slight pain and trivial disability. They are effective by mouth and their action is mediated peripherally. Among the possible mechanisms of action, the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis is currently regarded as most likely to be relevant. Some centrally acting drugs of the narcotic analgesic type, such as codeine and dextropropoxyphene are effective orally; they are usable in the same way as other mild analgesics and may be preferable for some types of pain. Many problems arise in the assessment and comparison of mild analgesics, both experimentally and clinically. Subjective assessments may be made on a pain scale by the patient himself, or by a trained observer. Individual variations are all-important, and the limitations of controlled trials need to be remembered. Alternative drugs and mixtures have little advantage over aspirin, but specific drug tolerance, in the long term, varies from patient to patient. Gastric irritation is most likely to occur with aspirin in the presence of chronic dyspepsia or acute precipitating causes such as alchoholic gastritis. Allergy also occurs in some susceptible individuals. The risk of renal damage with phenacetin is increasingly appreciated, and the possibility of hepatic damage from paracetamol is now recognised. Other side-effects and interactions are summarized in the review, and some notes are given on therapeutic and non-therapeutic use.

ponstel s syrup

Human TRPM2 channels in tetracycline-regulated pcDNA4/TO vectors were transfected into HEK293 T-REx cells and the expression was induced by tetracycline. Whole cell currents were recorded by patch-clamp techniques. Ca(2+) influx or release was monitored by fluorometry.

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Myeloperoxidase (MPO) has recently been shown in an in vitro, cell-free system to catalyze the peroxidative degradation of vincristine (VCR). Oxidation of VCR involves a ring fission between positions 20' and 21', and is thought to be facilitated by the presence of an hydroxyl (-OH) group at position 20'. We report here two different approaches, both with potential clinical application, to decrease MPO-catalyzed vinca degradation. Firstly, we tested the hypothesis that -OH substitution at position 20' increases vinca susceptibility to peroxidation by comparing the relative extent of degradation of vinorelbine (Navelbine or NVB), which lacks a 20' hydroxyl substitution, with that of VCR. As anticipated, NVB was significantly less susceptible to MPO-catalyzed peroxidation than was VCR (p < 0.01). Secondly, we screened an array of compounds that are in current clinical use for their ability to inhibit MPO. Acetaminophen, N-acetylcysteine, propylthiouracil, D-penicillamine, mefenamic acid, dapsone, and methimazole all inhibited MPO at clinically achievable concentrations. Insofar as increased MPO activity has been observed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, these findings suggest potential strategies for improving the activity of vinca alkaloids in this disease.

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Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common, chronic problem affecting women and health services. However, long-term evidence on treatment in primary care is lacking.

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The human liver and kidney are important sites of MPA glucuronidation. MPA glucuronidation was inhibited to various extents by different NSAIDs and the four most effective inhibitors were niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid and diflunisal. These drugs have similar molecular structures consisting of two aromatic rings bearing a carboxylic group.

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885 women consulting their general practitioner with menorrhagia over four years.

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The result of competition assay and Scatchard analysis revealed that tamoxifen does not bind to TBG at the T4 binding site, thus it is not a thyroxine competitor. Computational results also indicated that structural characteristics of tamoxifen are significantly different from those of T4 and its well-known competitors.

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It is well accepted that bacterial and virus infections elevate the levels of cytokines in serum and cerebrospinal fluids. Such high levels of cytokines might alter the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), subsequently affecting brain penetration of drugs. However, few reports have addressed this issue. Thus, we investigated brain penetration of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, commonly used as antipyretics, in mice treated with Shiga-like toxin II (SLT-II) derived from E. coli O157:H7, which significantly elevates cytokine levels. As antipyretics, we used diclofenac, mefenamic acid, and acetaminophen. We found that SLT-II significantly increased the brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp) of diclofenac and mefenamic acid, but not of acetaminophen. Moreover, the Kp of diclofenac and mefenamic acid was increased by probenecid, an anionic compound. These results suggest that efflux anion transporters might be involved in the transport of diclofenac and mefenamic acid. Western blot analysis revealed that SLT-II decreased the expression of organic anion transporter-3, an efflux transporter located on the BBB and/or BCSFB. Taken together, these results suggest that SLT-II and/or SLT-II-stimulated cytokines might change brain penetration of drugs and could possibly increase the risk of their side-effects by altering the expression of transporters.

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Case reports and small case series suggest increased central nervous system (CNS) toxicity, especially convulsions, after overdose of mefenamic acid, compared with other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), although comparative epidemiological studies have not been conducted. The current study compared rates of CNS toxicity after overdose between mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, diclofenac and naproxen, as reported in telephone enquiries to the UK National Poisons Information Service (NPIS).

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Various acyloxyethyl mefanamates were synthesized and evaluated for potential application as prodrugs. Their kinetics of hydrolysis were examined in aqueous solutions of pH 1.0 and 7.4 and in human plasma at 37 degrees C. Among the synthesized compounds, the beta-carboxypropionylethyl mefenamate and the pivaloyloxyethyl mefenamate show high stability against enzymatic and non enzymatic hydrolysis. On the other hand the acetyloxyethyl mefenamate shows t1/2s of 1.4 h, 1.41 h and 3.61 h in human plasma, solutions of pH 7.4 and pH 1.0 respectively; However, its hydrolysis to mefenamic acid in plasma was not quantitative. Preliminary in vivo study shows that acetyloxyethyl mefenamate gave plasma concentration of mefenamic acid lower than that of control after oral administration. The calculated AUC0-inf for the acetyloxyethyl and control were 45 and 85 micrograms.h/ml respectively.

ponstel drug interaction

Dynamics of repolarization, quantified as restitution and electrical memory, impact conduction stability. Relatively less is known about role of slow delayed rectifying potassium current, I(Ks), in dynamics of repolarization and memory compared to the rapidly activating current I(Kr). Trans-membrane potentials were recorded from right ventricular tissues from pigs during reduction (chromanol 293B) and increases in I(Ks) (mefenamic acid). A novel pacing protocol was used to explicitly control diastolic intervals to quantify memory. Restitution hysteresis, a consequence of memory, increased after chromanol 293B (loop thickness and area increased 27 and 38 %) and decreased after mefenamic acid (52 and 53 %). Standard and dynamic restitutions showed an increase in average slope after chromanol 293B and a decrease after mefenamic acid. Increase in slope and memory are hypothesized to have opposite effects on electrical stability; therefore, these results suggest that reduction and enhancement of I(Ks) likely also have offsetting components that affect stability.

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ponstel s dosage 2015-02-16

Restoration of flow to hearts made ischemic for 60 min is known to produce accelerated tissue injury. In these studies, reperfusion produced an enhanced enzyme [creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase] efflux, development of contracture, and reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. These effects were associated with prostaglandin (PG) production as measured by 6-keto-PGF1 alpha efflux from the heart. Three nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents--indomethacin, aspirin, buy ponstel and mefenamic acid--that inhibit the cyclooxygenase-dependent conversion of arachidonic acid to PGs reduced most aspects of dysfunction associated with reperfusion. In addition, three glucocorticoids--cortisol, dexamethasone, and methylprednisolone--that prevent substrate availability for cyclooxygenase also significantly decreased CPK efflux, but had variable effects on other parameters. These studies suggest that endogenous PGs produced in the heart may contribute to the dysfunction associated with reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium.

buy ponstel online 2017-01-02

A number of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are subject to glucuronidation in humans, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 is involved in the glucuronidation of many NSAIDs. buy ponstel The objective of this study was to identify a NSAID with potent inhibitory potential against UGT2B7 using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

ponstel 250mg capsules 2016-12-01

The human liver and kidney are important sites of MPA glucuronidation. MPA glucuronidation was inhibited to various extents by different NSAIDs and the four most effective inhibitors were niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid and diflunisal. These drugs have similar molecular structures consisting of two aromatic rings buy ponstel bearing a carboxylic group.

ponstel capsule 2015-01-08

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects which hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) may exert on oral drug absorption, in cases where this soluble fiber is administered to regulate blood lipid levels. Studies were conducted in vitro and in healthy female mongrel dogs using two different grades of HPMC, i.e. K8515 HPMC and ultra high molecular weight (UHMW) HPMC. The maximum plasma concentration, Cmax, of paracetamol and both the Cmax and the area under the concentration-time curve, AUC, of cimetidine were significantly decreased by the coadministration of 10 g of K8515 HPMC or 7.5 g of UHMW HPMC dissolved in 500 mL normal saline under fasting conditions. No statistically significant effects were observed on hydrochlorothiazide or mefenamic acid absorption. Based on in vitro data and previous studies it appears that reductions in gastric emptying and dissolution rate of paracetamol account for the effect observed in vivo. For cimetidine, a drug which can be absorbed from both the small and the large intestine, the indigestibility of HPMC in the colon in addition to the great reduction of dissolution rate led to reductions of both the Cmax and AUC values. The long Tmax values, even in the absence of HPMCs and the more modest reduction of the dissolution rate of hydrochlorothiazide by the HPMCs are thought to have precluded the observation of any significant alterations in the in vivo absorption profile. Owing to its erratic absorption, no statistically based buy ponstel conclusion could be drawn about the effects of coadministered HPMC on the oral absorption of the poorly soluble mefenamic acid. It is concluded that the effects of HPMCs on drug absorption in dogs are most pronounced for compounds with absorption profiles that are dependent on gastric emptying, i.e. compounds that are highly water soluble and that exhibit short Tmax values. Compounds with long absorption profiles appear to be less susceptible to changes in absorption behavior due to coadministration of HPMCs.

ponstel generic price 2015-11-13

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with significant left to right shunt in preterm infants increases morbidity and mortality. Early closure of the ductus buy ponstel arteriosus may be achieved pharmacologically using cyclooxygenase inhibitors, or by surgery. The efficacy of both treatment modalities is well established. However, the preferred initial treatment of a symptomatic PDA in a preterm infant, surgical ligation or trial of indomethacin, has not been well established.

ponstel dosing 2017-01-21

The activity of 12 NSAID active substances, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and eight relevant medicinal products was analyzed with or without pump inhibitors against 89 strains of Gram-negative rods by determining the MICs. Furthermore, the effects of NSAIDs on the susceptibility of clinical strains to antimicrobial buy ponstel agents with or without PAβN (Phe-Arg-β-naphtylamide) were measured.

ponstel s syrup 2017-11-28

1. A high-throughput assay utilizing the voltage/ion probe reader (VIPR) technology identified salicylidene salicylhydrazide (SCS) as being a potent selective inhibitor of alpha2beta1gamma1 GABA(A) receptors with a maximum inhibition of 56+/-5% and an IC(50) of 32 (23, 45) nm. 2. Evaluation of this compound using patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques demonstrated that the compound behaved in a manner selective for receptors containing the beta1 subunit (e.g. maximum inhibition of 68.1+/-2.7% and IC(50) value of 5.3 (4.4, 6.5) nm on alpha2beta1gamma1 receptors). The presence of a beta1 subunit was paramount for the inhibition with changes between alpha1 and alpha2, gamma1 and gamma2, and the presence of a subunit having little effect. 3. On all subtypes, SCS produced incomplete inhibition with the greatest level of inhibition at alpha1beta1gamma1 receptors (74.3+/-1.4%). SCS displayed no use or voltage dependence, suggesting that it does not bind within the channel region. Concentration - response curves to GABA in the presence of SCS revealed a reduction in the maximum response with no change in the EC(50) or Hill coefficient. In addition, SCS inhibited pentobarbitone-induced currents. 4. Threonine 255, located within transmembrane domain (TM) 1, and isoleucine 308, located extracellularly just prior to TM3, were required for inhibition by SCS. 5. SCS did not compete with the known allosteric modulators, picrotoxin, pregnenolone sulphate, dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulphate, bicuculline, loreclezole or mefenamic acid. Neither was the inhibition by SCS influenced by the benzodiazepine site antagonist flumazenil. 6. In conclusion, SCS is unique in selectively inhibiting GABA(A) receptors containing the beta1 subunit via an allosteric mechanism. The buy ponstel importance of threonine 255 and isoleucine 308 within the beta1 subunit and the lack of interaction with a range of GABA(A) receptor modulators suggests that SCS is interacting at a previously unidentified site.

ponstel syrup children 2015-07-01

It seems that fennel can be effective in reducing the severity of buy ponstel dysmenorrhea, but it has an unpleasant taste in view of most of the volunteers.

ponstel medication cost 2017-07-13

General practices in East Anglia. buy ponstel

ponstel generic name 2016-12-11

The effect of caffeine given in combination with mefenamic acid on the renal medulla was examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and gavage fed either vehicle suspension (control), mefenamic acid, mefenamic acid+caffeine or caffeine only for 4 months. Renal tissue taken from the corticomedullary junction was processed for electron microscopy. Ultrathin sections were cut after identification of vasa rectae on survey sections. On subsequent buy ponstel morphometric analysis, percentage interstitial tissue was calculated from the total area of vasa recta less the non-interstitial tissue. The median percentage of interstitial tissue in the mefenamic acid and caffeine group was 41 (range 33-50; n = 15) compared with 34 (20-48; n = 20) in mefenamic acid (P less than 0.01), 29 (15-42; n = 15) in caffeine only (P less than 0.001) and 32 (20-46; n = 18) in vehicle-treated animals (P less than 0.001). There were no significant differences between mefenamic acid alone and vehicle or caffeine-only groups or between caffeine-only and vehicle-treated controls. This suggests that caffeine potentiates the effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, mefenamic acid, on the rat renal medulla, resulting in a quantitative increase in the interstitial tissue between adjacent afferent and efferent vasa recta.

ponstel drug interactions 2017-06-06

The methods for quantitative determination of meloxicam and mefenamic acid in pharmaceuticals by classic spectrophotometry - zero order derivative buy ponstel , first and second order derivatives spectrophotometry is described, using "peak - peak" (P-P) and "peak - zero" (P-O) measurements. The calibration curves are linear within the concentration range of 4.0 - 14.0 microg/mL for meloxicam and 14.0 - 24.0 microg/mL for mefenamic acid. The procedure is simple, rapid and the results are reliable.

ponstel 250 reviews 2016-05-23

Mefenamic acid (MA) is a widely used non-steroidal antiinflammatory (NSAID) drug. The adverse effects typical of NSAIDs are also present in the case of MA, partly due to its low water solubility. The aim of this study was to increase the water solubility of MA in order to influence its absorption buy ponstel and bioavailability. Solid dispersions of MA were prepared by the melting method using polyethylene glycol 6000 and different types (laurate, D-1216; palmitate, P-1670; stearate, S-1670) and amounts of sucrose esters as carriers. The X-ray diffraction results show that MA crystals were not present in the products. Dissolution tests carried out in artificial intestinal juice showed that the product containing 10 % D-1216 increased water solubility about 3 times. The apparent permeability coefficient of MA across human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell layers was high and, despite the difference in solubility, there was no further increase in drug penetration in the presence of the applied additives.

ponstel suspension 2015-11-22

The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the effect of mefenamic acid and placebo on controlling irregular uterine bleeding secondary to Norplant use. A total of 67 Norplant users attending the Family Planning Clinic of Chulalongkorn Hospital all had irregular bleeding. These women were randomly allocated into two groups. A total 34 users received mefenamic acid, 500 mg twice a day for 5 days, and placebos were given to the other 33 in the same manner. The total days of bleeding and spotting and the percentage of women in whom bleeding was stopped were analyzed in weeks 1 and 4. The percentage of subjects in whom bleeding was stopped during week 1 after initial treatment was significantly higher in the mefenamic acid group than the placebo group (76%, 27%; p < 0.001). In the follow-up period (4 weeks after initial treatment), a bleeding-free interval of > 20 days buy ponstel was found in 68% of the subjects treated with mefenamic acid and 33% treated with the placebo; the mean number of bleeding/spotting days was lower with mefenamic acid treatment (11.6 and 17.2 days; p < 0.05). The difference was statistically significant. It is concluded that mefenamic acid was more effective than placebo in short-term control of irregular bleeding and spotting associated with Norplant use.

ponstel cost 2017-08-16

Certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) of the fenamate chemical class are known to cause diarrhea in clinical use. Paradoxically, this action is shared by prostaglandins, against whose syntheses are inhibited by NSAID. This study was done to investigate the laxative potential of 5 NSAID (meclofenamate, flufenamate, mefenamate, indomethacin and aspirin). The ability to produce a laxative response was assessed by determining effects on fluid absorption in vitro in hamster everted sacs and by the enteropooling assay in hamster small intestine. In addition, the lytic action of these drugs buy ponstel on the erythrocyte membrane was determined to arrive at a possible mechanism of action. All of the NSAID, except aspirin, produced dose-related inhibition of fluid transport, similar to prostaglandin E1 and E2. The order of inhibition was flufenamate greater than meclofenamate greater than mefenamate greater than indomethacin. Like results were obtained when enteropooling was measured in vivo. Flufenamate and meclofenamate produced lumenal fluid accumulation comparable to two laxatives, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate and ricinoleic acid. Finally, the effects of these NSAID on fluid movement paralleled their lytic action on the erythrocyte membrane model, suggesting that NSAID may produce diarrhea in a manner similar to certain laxatives, by increasing mucosal permeability through membrane damage.

ponstel medicine 2015-05-07

A simple, sensitive, accurate, and rapid method for the quantitative determination of naproxen Zoloft Yellow Pill , oxyphenbutazone, mefenamic acid, indomethacin, and diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations is proposed. The method is based on the formation of blue complexes with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.

ponstel dosage instructions 2017-08-02

Prostaglandins (PG) are very potent mediators Cipro Xr Dosage which can dilate or constrict the bronchi. In order to evaluate the role of PG in the homeostasis of bronchial tone, we studied the effects of mefenamic acid, a potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor, on the pulmonary function tests of 20 volunteers. The subjects were studied randomly in two sessions, one with a placebo and one with mefenamic acid. Tablets (drug or placebo) were taken for 2 days with the pulmonary function tests performed in the afternoon of the second day. Sessions were performed at least 2 days apart. Parameters measured, including forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, expiratory flows, functional residual capacity and specific airway conductance (SGaw), were similar in both sessions. The SGaw, which was previously reported to increase with cyclooxygenase inhibitors, was 0.23 +/- 0.06 s-1 X cm H2O-1 in the placebo session and 0.24 +/- 0.06 in the mefenamic acid session (mean +/- SD). This study shows that cyclooxygenase inhibitors have no effect on airway tone and strongly suggests that endogenous PG do not participate in the homeostasis of normal bronchial tone.

ponstel tablets 2016-12-09

The pain intensity in the mefenamic and ginger group was 39.01 ± 17.77 and 43.49 ± 19.99, respectively, in the first month, and 33.75 ± 17.71 and 38.19 ± 20.47, respectively, in the second month (p > 0.05). The severity of dysmenorrhea, pain duration, cycle duration and bleeding volume was not significantly different between groups during the study. The menstrual days were more in the ginger group in the first (p = 0.01) and second cycle (p = 0. Priligy 30 Mg 04). Repeated measurement showed a significant difference in pain intensity within the groups by time, but not between groups.

ponstel medication information 2017-07-18

The first clinical trial of Quinacrine Sterilization (QS) in the Philippines was undertaken in Cebu City on January 10, 2000, to evaluate the acceptability, safety, effectiveness and side effects of this technology. We intend to recruit 500 patients to utilize this technique for limiting family size. For the purposes of this report, our cut-off date Imdur Drug Category is April 11, 2003.

ponstel pill 2016-01-03

We selected eight pharmaceuticals with relatively high potential ecological risk and high consumption-namely, acetaminophen, atenolol, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, ifenprodil, indomethacin, mefenamic acid, and propranolol-and conducted laboratory experiments to examine the persistence and partitioning of these compounds in the aquatic environment. In the results of batch sunlight photolysis experiments, three out of eight pharmaceuticals-propranolol, indomethacin, and ifenprodil-were relatively easily photodegraded (i.e., half-life<24h), whereas the other five pharmaceuticals were relatively stable against sunlight. The results of batch biodegradation experiments using river water suggested relatively slow biodegradation (i.e., half-life>24h) for all eight pharmaceuticals, but the rate constant was dependent on sampling site and time. Batch sorption experiments were also conducted to Zetia 5mg Dose determine the sorption coefficients to river sediments and a model soil sample. The determined coefficients (K(d) values) were much higher for three amines (atenolol, ifenprodil, and propranolol) than for neutral compounds or carboxylic acids; the K(d) values of the amines were comparable to those of a four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene. The coefficients were also higher for sediment/soil with higher organic content, and the organic carbon-based sorption coefficient (logK(oc)) showed a poor linear correlation with the octanol-water distribution coefficient (logD(ow)) at neutral pH. These results suggest other sorption mechanisms-such as electrochemical affinity, in addition to hydrophobic interaction-play an important role in sorption to sediment/soil at neutral pH.

ponstel medication dosage 2017-05-16

A new analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of 12 pharmaceuticals using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Six nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, naproxen, sulindac, and piroxicam) and six antibiotics (tinidazole, cefuroxime axetil, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, and chloramphenicol) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted DLLME using dichloromethane (800 μL) and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v, 1200 μL) as the extraction and dispersive solvents, respectively. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvent, vortex and ultrasonic time, sample pH, and ionic strength, were optimized. The ultrasound-assisted process was applied to accelerate the Detrol Pill formation of the fine cloudy solution by using a small volume of dispersive solvent, which increased the extraction efficiency and reduced the equilibrium time. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.04-20 ng mL(-1) (ciprofloxacin and sulfadiazine), 0.2-100 ng mL(-1) (ketoprofen, tinidazole, cefuroxime axetil, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulindac), and 1-200 ng mL(-1) (mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, piroxicam, and chloramphenicol). The LODs and LOQs of the method were in the range of 0.006-0.091 and 0.018-0.281 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative recoveries of the target analytes were in the range from 76.77 to 99.97 % with RSDs between 1.6 and 8.8 %. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and analysis of 12 pharmaceuticals in five kinds of water samples (drinking water, running water, river water, influent and effluent wastewater) with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Twelve pharmaceuticals in water samples analyted by UHPLC-MS/MS using ultrasound-assisted DLLME.