Medical records of 17,000 canine specimens submitted for bacteriologic culture were examined and the number of isolations of E coli was determined. For these cases, records were further examined with respect to body system involvement, sex, concurrent infection with other species of bacteria, and antimicrobial susceptibility.
The age-adjusted ratio of women who were dispensed fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin or norfloxacin) among all 236,376 women dispensed any of the following antibiotics used in the treatment of lower urinary tract infection were studied: ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, pivmecillinam, trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin. Only the first prescription during July 2006 to June 2007 was studied. Prescription data were linked to information on geographical area, marital status, country of birth and educational attainment, which allowed multivariate analysis of the importance of these factors.
In order to clarify the in vivo effect of the new quinolones in the urinary tract, we investigated the antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli in the human urine. Human urine was prepared from a normal volunteer. After cations were removed by chelating resin, human urine was supplemented with 50, 100, or 500 micrograms of Mg2+ per ml using MgCl2 or 10, 50, or 150 micrograms of Ca2+ per ml using CaCl2. The pH of human urine was adjusted to 5.5, 7.0, or 8.0 with HCl or NaOH. Four clinical isolates of E. coli and E. coli NIHJ JC-2 were used. And antimicrobial activities of the new quinolones (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) against these strains were measured using various urines as mediums. Antimicrobial activities of the new quinolones were reduced in the presence of high concentration of magnesium or low pH of urine. However, there was no influence of calcium concentration of urine on antimicrobial activities of the new quinolones. From these results, the component of the urine should be checked in the treatment of the patients with urinary tract infection.
The in vitro activities of five quinolinecarboxylic acids against two laboratory strains of Chlamydia trachomatis were compared. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of nalidixic acid, cinoxacin, and pipemidic acid were all greater than or equal to 50 micrograms/ml; the activity of norfloxacin was intermediate (minimal inhibitory concentration, 8 to 16 micrograms/ml). Ciprofloxacin was the most active of these drugs (minimal inhibitory concentration, 0.5 to 1 microgram/ml).
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An inexpensive and portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, SPReeta Evaluation Kit SPR3, has been used to develop a biosensor for the determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) and to demonstrate its performance analyzing FQ residues in milk samples. The SPReeta three-channel gold chips were activated with a mixed self-assembled monolayer (m-SAM) and functionalized with a FQ haptenized protein. Binding of the antibody produced a concentration-dependent increase of the SPR signal as a result of the change in the refraction index. Similarly, the presence of the FQ produced a dose-dependent decrease of the response, which allowed a good limit of detection (LOD) to be obtained (1.0 ± 0.4 μg L(-1) for enrofloxacin in buffer). The response was reproducible in all three channels, on different injections and days, and also between chips. Milk samples could be analyzed after a simple sample treatment involving fat removal by centrifugation and dilution with water. Under these conditions calibration curves were obtained showing that FQ residues can be analyzed in milk samples with an IC(50) value of 26.4 ± 7.2 μg L(-1) and a LOD of 2.0 ± 0.2 μg L(-1) (for enrofloxacin), far below the European Union regulations for this antibiotic family in this matrix. Finally, the paper also demonstrates that the biosensor is able to selectively detect the presence of FQs in milk samples, even in the presence of other antibiotics. Enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin residues were detected in blind samples supplied by Nestlé Co.
To ascertain the effectiveness of various antibiotic eye-drops in eradicating the preoperative conjunctival bacteria of patients undergoing cataract surgery and to differentiate the failure of these treatments due to the lack of "in vitro" sensibility from other possible causes.
The activity of Ro 15-8074/001 was compared with that of cefaclor, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, and ceftriaxone against 225 clinical isolates. It was more active than cefaclor, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Haemophilus influenzae and had activity similar to that of cefaclor against nonenterococcal streptococci. It was not usefully active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus faecalis, or most isolates of staphylococci.
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A randomized treatment trial of travelers' diarrhea was carried out among U.S. military personnel participating in routine exercises in several port cities in South America and West Africa. A 5-day, twice daily course of either norfloxacin (400 mg) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX, 160/800 mg) was given to 142 volunteers. At the end of 5 days of treatment, diarrhea had resolved in 100% of 73 patients receiving norfloxacin and 97.1% (67/69) receiving TMP/SMX. A probable bacterial pathogen was determined in 44% of 142 subjects: 49% of the norfloxacin group and 39% of the TMP/SMX group. The most common pathogens detected were enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 20% of cases and rotavirus in 15%. Resistance to TMP/SMX was present in 20 (27%) bacterial isolates, while no resistance to norfloxacin was found. Eight of 10 patients in the TMP/SMX treatment group who had TMP/SMX-resistant bacterial enteropathogens improved clinically. Both norfloxacin and TMP/SMX were clinically effective in the treatment of travelers' diarrhea in this military population.
One hundred and sixty-six shigellae strains, isolated from stool samples of paediatric patients (< 5 years old) at a Childrens' Hospital in Kolkata, India during the period of 1995-2000 were examined for serotyping, drug resistance pattern and plasmid profiles. Sh. flexneri (58 %) was found to be commonest isolate of total shigellae, followed by Sh. sonnei (28 %), Sh. boydii (9%) and Sh. dysenteriae (5%). This profile of species was in sharp contrast to the picture obtained before 1995, when Sh. dysenteriae 1 predominated over Sh. flexneri. In Sh. flexneri strains, Sh. flexneri 2a (35%) was the most prevalent serotype, following Sh. flexneri 3a (31%), Sh. flexneri 6 (14%), Sh. flexneri 2b (11%) and Sh. flexneri 4 (9%). Resistance patterns of the strains to 12 commonly used antimicrobial agents and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antibiotics were also tested. All strains were found uniformly susceptible to norfloxacin, but more than 90% strains were resistant to tetracycline, co-trimoxazole and 67% strains were resistant to ampicillin. Resistance to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid was found in 55% (range 45-74%), 46% (range 40-60%) and 29% (range 15-40%) strains respectively. Overall, shigellae strains showed statistically significant increase in resistance against tetracycline, nalidixic acid and furazolidone (P < 0.05) over the years of this study. This indicates decreased efficacy of furazolidone, cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid for the empirical treatment of shigellosis in Kolkata. Although a few strains showed intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (4%) and cefotaxime (10%) by disk diffusion test, but the MICs of those antibiotics were within the normal limits. Almost 57% of the strains were resistant to four or more drugs with high MICs of the antibiotics. Plasmid profile analysis revealed presence of large plasmid of 220 kb in majority of the strains except in Sh. sonnei and a correlation between presence of smaller plasmids and shigellae serotypes. Hence this study reports epidemiological change of shigellae species in Kolkata, India with regard to serotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns.
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Tendon cells were incubated for two periods of 48 h with or without fluoroquinolones and IL-1beta. Total ribonucleic acid (RNA) was assayed for MMP messenger RNA by relative quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, with normalization for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA. Samples of supernatant medium were assayed for MMP output by activity assays.
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The authors studied the epidemiology of external ocular infections and the therapeutic efficacy of topical ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in the treatment of conjunctivitis and blepharitis. Signs and symptoms in two study-group (ciprofloxacin group A = 95 patients and norfloxacin group B = 95 patients) as well as the microbiological data obtained from the conjunctival swab before and after treatment were considered. The clinical and bacteriological success rate in the two study-groups was respectively 91% (group A) and 83% (group B). The results of the present study confirm the therapeutic efficacy of topical fluoroquinolones in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis and blepharitis.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with different types of the infections each consisted of LPSs different in chain sizes. The drug-susceptibility patterns of these strains of P. aeruginosa were investigated to clarify the relationship between the LPS-compositions and susceptibility to some kinds of anti-pseudomonal drugs. The susceptibilities of nineteen strains (seven long-LPS strains, four short-LPS strains and eight LPS-deficient strains) to piperacillin, ceftazidime, gentamicin, norfloxacin and polymyxin-B were determined and these strains were classified into six types (Types I-VI) according to their drug-resistance patterns. Six of the eight LPS-deficient strains were found to be highly resistant to gentamicin alone (Type IV). Four of the seven strains with the long-LPS and one strain with the short-LPS were resistant to three drugs such as piperacillin, ceftazidime and norfloxacin, and classified into Type I. These results indicated that the major part of the LPS-deficient strains and the considerable part of the long-chain LPS strains of P. aeruginosa tested had each characteristic profile in the drug resistance. The outer membrane proteins of thirteen strains, consisting of different types of LPS compositions, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The strains belonging to the same types of the drug-resistance patterns were found to have similar OMP-profiles, although a few exceptions were found. beta-lactamase and gentamicin-inactivating activities were determined for piperacillin-resistant and gentamicin-resistant strains, respectively. Of the piperacillin-resistant strains tested, the activity of beta-lactamase was high in one (No. 8) only, low in four and not found in four. The results showed that degrees of resistance of P. aeruginosa strains tested to piperacillin did not correlate to their producibility of beta-lactamase except one strain. Of the nine gentamicin-resistant strains tested, the gentamicin inactivating activity was high in one (No. 30) only, moderate in six and low in two. These results suggested that the significant levels of piperacillin- or gentamicin-resistance of P. aeruginosa isolated tested might be expressed each due to their decreased abilities for drug-permeabilities in addition to drug-inactivating activities such as beta-lactamase or gentamicin-modifying enzyme. In the case of some resistant strains, the resistance to piperacillin or gentamicin was not explained by the results of the present study. Therefore, we must investigate the possibility that other mechanisms participate in the resistance of these strains.
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Cirrhotic patients frequently develop ascites during the course of their disease. The appearance of ascites is the final consequence of profound disturbances in systemic and splanchnic haemodynamics, and in renal and hormonal function. The alterations in renal function consist of a decreased ability to excrete sodium and water, and in more severe cases, a reduction in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. No effective drug therapy is yet available for water retention and renal failure in these patients. Sodium retention, however, may be treated by the administration of diuretics. The diuretics most commonly used in the treatment of cirrhotic patients with ascites are loop diuretics, particularly furosemide (frusemide), and distal, or 'potassium-sparing' diuretics such as spironolactone. Although furosemide has a much greater natriuretic potency than spironolactone in healthy individuals, studies in cirrhotic patients with ascites have shown that spironolactone is more effective than furosemide in the elimination of ascites. Nowadays, however, therapeutic paracentesis associated with plasma expanders has replaced diuretic therapy as the initial treatment for cirrhotic patients hospitalised with tense ascites since it is more effective and is associated with a lower rate of complications than diuretic therapy. Diuretics should be given after the elimination of ascites by paracentesis to avoid the reaccumulation of the abdominal fluid. Only cirrhotic patients with mild ascites should be treated initially with diuretics. Cirrhotic patients with ascites frequently develop a spontaneous infection of the ascitic fluid which is usually caused by Gram-negative bacilli from enteric origin and has a great tendency to recur after therapy. The antibiotics of choice for this infection are third-generation cephalosporins. Long term administration of norfloxacin, which causes a selective elimination of Gram-negative bacilli from the intestinal flora, is effective in preventing the recurrence of ascites infection in these patients. Finally, cirrhotic patients with ascites are prone to develop renal failure when treated with a variety of pharmacological agents, particularly aminoglycosides and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The administration of the latter drugs may also cause dilutional hyponatraemia and refractory ascites since they induce water retention and impair the renal response to diuretics.
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Two hundred and forty-four cirrhotic patients and 240 controls were studied. Bacteriuria was present in 38 patients (15.6%; IC 5%: 11%-20%) and 18 controls (7.5%; IC 5%: 4.2%-11%; p<0.001). By univariate analysis, female sex and ongoing diuretic treatment were associated with bacteriuria (p<0.0001 and p<0.04, respectively). Pugh's grade, ascites and bladder residual volume were not associated with bacteriuria. By multivariate analysis, female sex (p<0.0001) and Child-Pugh score (p<0.03) were predictors of bacteriuria. Sensitivity of bacteria to norfloxacin was observed in 94.7%; sterile urine cultures were noted in 95.2% of patients treated with this antibiotic.
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A number of new quinolone antibacterial agents such as ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin have been developed and introduced to the market. They possess a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Ciprofloxacin has the highest activity against Gram-positive is higher than other quinolones. The activity of these quinolones against Gram-negative bacteria is generally higher than against Gram-positive bacteria. The substitution group of quinolones at C-7 position is responsible to show similar antibacterial activity with broad spectrum and similar pharmacokinetic properties, and variety of the substituents have been synthesized in many laboratories. Most of the substituents are piperazinyl of six-membered ring or pyrrolidinyl of five-membered ring, being modified with an alkyl group or another group. The development of potent quinolones against bacteria involved in pneumonia was seemed to be useful, and we investigated structure-activity relationships of new quinolones with a stronger activity against Gram-positive bacteria. A quinolone derivative with a seven-membered ring, perhydrodiazepinone, at the C-7 position was found to be a candidate for further evaluation. No previous attempts have been made to synthesize this type of derivatives. The compound FA103, 5-amino-1-cyclopropyl-6,8-difluoro-7-(2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-1 H-1,4-diazepin-5-on-1-yl)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, was synthesized and evaluated. Chemical structure of FA103 is shown in Fig. 1. This is a new difluoroquinolone with a broad antibacterial spectrum and improved activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In this paper, we compare the in vitro activity of FA103 with that of ofloxacin, norfloxacin, sparfloxacin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
The second-generation quinolone ofloxacin interferes with the screening test of porphyrins. We observed a 20-fold increase in the porphyrin concentration measured in urine of an ofloxacin-treated patient, compared with drug-free normal urine. Two other fluorinated 4-quinolones tested, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, had a less marked effect (a twofold increase), whereas the first-generation quinolone, nalidixic acid, did not affect the measured porphyrin concentration at all. The interference is probably due to the overlap in the emission fluorescence spectra of ofloxacin and urinary porphyrins at approximately 600 nm. To avoid a false-positive diagnosis of porphyria, we suggest using HPLC to separate ofloxacin (10-min retention time) from urinary porphyrins (which only start to elute at 12 min). Nonetheless, given a threefold increase in urinary porphyrins observed in the urine of an ofloxacin-treated patient, we also discuss a possible interference of the drug with the metabolism of porphyrins.
The presence of multi-drug resistance and virulence genes in E. coli isolated from surface water being used for domestic and recreational purposes may result in waterborne outbreaks.
Nelson's agarose technique for the in vitro measurement of leukocyte chemotaxis proved to be well suited in the context of pharmaco-toxicological testings, despite several discrepancies in the literature, probably due to varied incubation conditions. Thus, doxycycline (25 micrograms/ml) when added to both the leukocyte suspension and the agarose was shown to exert a significantly more pronounced depressant effect. Using these conditions of improved sensitivity, three fluoroquinolones, i.e. norfloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin (2, 10 or 25 micrograms/ml) failed to depress chemotaxis markedly.
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Ten patients with clinical symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing TUR-P received 200 mg of both drugs per os simultaneously 2 hours before surgery. The concentrations of the drugs in the serum and prostate at the time of surgery were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Patients' clinical characteristics were evaluated, including findings from transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate, prostate specific antigen concentration, renal function tests, and post-operative status.
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From January 1992 to December 1995, kept records of antibiograms of all urinary pathogens isolated were examined. Samples were derived from hospital sources (wards and out-patient clinics) and general practice sources (health centers and general practitioners). Quantitative bacteriologic cultures were performed according to standard laboratory procedures, and identification of isolates were based on Gram reaction, morphology and biochemical characteristics. Significant bacteriuria was defined as the presence of greater than 100,000 organisms per mL of a midstream urine specimen or more than 3000 bacteria per mL in a catheter specimen of a single specie. Antimicrobial sensitivities were done using the following antibiotics: norfloxacin, ampicillin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim), trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, cephalexin and augmentin (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid). Control organism was E coli NCTC 10,418 strain.
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Methanolic extract of L. rugosa leaf is having antibacterial and antifungal activities.
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Altogether, data from five hundred samples of urine from five hospitals in Kathmandu was collected for this study from January 2005 to April 2005.
Fluoroquinolones are recommended as first-line therapy for typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever), but how they compare with other antibiotics and different fluoroquinolones is unclear.
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To compare the bacteriological and clinical efficacy of three treatments for uncomplicated cystitis in ambulatory pre-menopausal women: ciprofloxacin 250 mg orally twice daily for 3 days, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 160/800 mg orally twice daily for 7 days, and norfloxacin 400 mg orally twice daily for 7 days.
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The photochemical reactivity of four fluoroquinolone antibiotics is examined. For norfloxacin (NOR), enoxacin (ENX) and lomefloxacin (LOM), the only process occurring is defluorination (from position 6 for the first two drugs, from position 8 for the last one). The quantum efficiency is both structure and medium dependent (phi close to 0.5 both in water and in 0.1 M phosphate buffer for LOM; 0.01 for ENX and 0.004 for NOR in buffer, but more than an order of magnitude higher in neat water). Ofloxacin (OFL) is less light sensitive (phi 0.001) and undergoes, in part, reactions different from defluorination. The photoreaction involves heterolytic C-F bond fragmentation and its efficiency is determined by the internal charge-transfer character of the excited state (increasing in the series OFL < NOR < ENX < LOM according to the electronegativity of the substituent in position 8) and by the stabilization of the resulting aryl cation (larger for the 8-cation than for the 6-cation). The relevance of these data for the rationalization of the known phototoxicity of these drugs is discussed.
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Microtitre plate method was found to be a more sensitive method for biofilm detection. This study demonstrates a high propensity among the clinical isolates of A. baumannii to form biofilm and a significant association of biofilms with multiple drug resistance. Presence of bla PER-1 appears to be more critical for cell adherence than for biofilm formation.
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We have determined and quantified spectrophotometrically the capacity of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) as (1)O(2) during the photolysis with UV-A light of 5 new synthesized naphthyl ester derivates of well-known quinolone antibacterials (nalidixic acid (1), cinoxacin (2), norfloxacin (3), ciprofloxacin (4) and enoxacin (5)). The ability of the naphthyl ester derivatives (6-10) to generate singlet oxygen were detecting and for the first time quantified by the histidine assay, a sensitive, fast and inexpensive method. The following tendency of generation of singlet oxygen was observed: compounds 7 > 10 > 6 > 8 > 9 > parent drugs 1-5.
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For preparing fluorinated quinolone antibiotic medicine locally used in stomatology, simultaneous determination of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enoxacin was carried out by multiphase ion chromatography with fluorescence detection. Quinolone antibiotics were separated by Dionex OmniPac PAX-500 column with an eluent of 15 mmol/L H(2)SO(4) and 35% methanol (v/v) at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min and detected with fluorescence with excitation and emission wave lengths of 347 nm and 420 nm respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enoxacin were 50, 105 and 80 ng/ml respectively. The relative standard deviations of retention time, peak area and peak height were less than 1.1% and good linear relationship resulted. The developed method was applied to pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids.
Two hospitalized patients (a 4 and 6 year old male and female, respectively) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), had each at different periods sustained burns with necrosis from extravasation of chemotherapeutic products. Pure cultures from their wound exudates and blood repeatedly revealed Corynebacterium jeikeium, an organism recognized and identified in the last decade as an opportunistic cause of life-threatening nosocomial infections particularly in patients on long-term multiple antimicrobial therapy, and in those who are neutropenic or have cardiac valve replacement. The organism has been found to be highly resistant to many antibiotics but sensitive to a few, including vancomycin. Both patients were successfully treated with vancomycin and are reviewed here to emphasize the importance of this group of microorganisms resistant to multiple antibiotic therapy as possible frequent cause of subacute bacterial infection in immunodepressed conditions such as ALL, especially when external wounds are inflicted by extravasation of antileukaemic agents (notably, vinca alkaloids). A review of the literature indicates that these are the first reported cases of infection caused by these organisms in Trinidad, and it is of clinical and therapeutic interest to note that they are sensitive to norfloxacin, polymyxin, tetracycline, and particularly vancomycin in this study.