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Of the total 206 articles searched, three randomized controlled trials evaluating neem-based herbal mouthrinses were included. Due to marked heterogeneity observed in study characteristics, meta-analysis was not performed. These studies reported that neem mouthrinse was as effective as chlorhexidine mouthrinse when used as an adjunct to toothbrushing in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in gingivitis patients. However, the quality of reporting and evidence along with methods of studies was generally flawed with unclear risk of bias.
The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4 degrees C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h.
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The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857) is one of the most distributed Nuisance Invasive Species (NIS) in South America, and a threat of great concern for the industry of the area. In this study, we carried out toxicity tests made with a Neem's oil solution with L. fortunei larvae and benthonic adults (7, 13 and 19 ± 1 mm). Tests with non-target species (Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa and Cnesterodon decemmculatus) were also made with the aim to evaluate the potential toxicity of the Neem's solution in the environment. The LC(100) of Neem's solution obtained for larvae was 500 µl/L, a value much higher than the one obtained for D. magna and C. decemmaculatus. Thus, we recommend that it should not be used in open waters. However, since the adults were killed in 72 h and the larvae in 24 h, this product can be used in closed systems, in man-made facilities.
Neem leaf extract induced apoptosis in rat oocytes prior to degeneration in vitro.
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Complete resorption of embryos was observed on day 15 of pregnancy in every animal treated with Praneem in contrast to normally developing embryos in rats given peanut oil. In repeat batch experiments, it was established that the effect of the treatment was reversible and animals regained fertility in cycles subsequent to treatment with Praneem. Cytokines of Th1 type, i.e., gamma interferon and TNF, were raised on administration of Praneem, which may be the probable cause of pregnancy termination.
The ethanolic extract from neem leaves exhibited free radical scavenging activities and reduced the power of ferric ion (Fe3+) to ferrous ion (Fe2+) in dose responses. Furthermore, it was able to bind with iron rapidly within 5 minutes. Interestingly, this extract inhibited human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60 cells) growth in concentration response (0-500 microg/ml) for 24 hour treatment.
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To investigate the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the methanolic and aqueous extracts from stems of M. parasiticus against MCF-7 breast cancer cells by brine shrimp lethality (BSL) bioassay, MTT assay and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay.
Our results indicated that because of its emergence inhibition activity, NeemAzal T/S 1.2 per cent EC could be a promising candidate for the use in integrated vector management programme and replace chemical insecticides.
The safety and effect of an acetone-water neem leaf extract (IRAB) on CD4 cells was investigated in 60 HIV/AIDS patients as part of an ongoing study to determine the influence of neem on immunity and viral load in HIV/AIDS. Patients were confirmed as HIV I or II positive, as having CD4 cell count, less than 300 cells/microL, and as antiretrovirally naïve. They were given oral IRAB (1.0 g daily for 12 weeks). Clinical and laboratory tests were carried out at baseline and at 4 weekly intervals. Thus, the patients served as their own controls. Sixty patients completed treatment. Fifty (83.33%) were completely compliant with respect to laboratory tests. Increase in mean CD4 cells, 266 cells/microL (159%), for the 50 patients was significant (P < 0.001) between baseline and week 12. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (64 mm/hr at baseline) was 16 mm/hr at week 12, whereas total number of incidences of HIV/AIDS-related pathologies decreased from 120 at baseline to 5. Mean bodyweight, hemoglobin concentration, and lymphocyte differential count increased significantly by 12% (P < 0.05), 24% (P < 0.0001), and 20% (P < 0.0001), respectively. There were no adverse effects and no abnormalities in kidney and liver function parameters. The results support the safety of IRAB in HIV/AIDS, and its significant influence on CD4 cells may be useful in the formulation of multidrug combination therapies for HIV/AIDS. However, its antiretroviral activity is being evaluated in our laboratory.
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Assessment of antibacterial as well as antiherpes virus activity of sulfonoquinovosyldiacylglyceride (SQDG), a glycolipid, isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica has been described. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and herpes simplex virus. SQDG showed significant inhibitory activity against Salmonella typhi and two isolates of Shigella dysenteriae with MIC values 32 μg ml(-1) , while three isolates of Salm. typhi, Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae were inhibited at 64 μg ml(-1) and have shown zone diameter ranging from 6.2 to 12.3 mm. The growth kinetics study of SQDG on Salm. typhi and Sh. dysenteriae revealed that the growths were completely inhibited at their MIC values within 24 h of exposure. Interestingly, SQDG inhibits herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 with the EC50 of 9.1 and 8.5 μg ml(-1) , compared with acyclovir (2.2 and 2.8 μg ml(-1) against HSV-1 and HSV-2). The selectivity index (SI) was found to be 12.4 against HSV-1 and 13.41 with HSV-2. Furthermore, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of HSV-infected and SQDG-treated macrophages using ELISA kit revealed that SQDG significantly downregulated the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-6.
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Postembryonic development and adult emergence ofCorcyra cephalonica (Stainton) were adversely affected in varying degrees when individuals were reared for the first 2 weeks of larval life or for a similar duration from the sixteenth day of their lives in an environment of eucalyptus oil volatiles. This was, however, not so in the progeny of parents exposed to these volatiles for only 5 min. Exposure of this pest to neem oil volatiles during larval stages for similar periods failed to produce such adverse effects. A marked decline in the reproductive potential, in terms of egg output and egg hatchability, of the moth was observed when the larvae were reared for the first 15 days in the presence of eucalyptus oil volatiles or when the parents were exposed for 5 min to such an environment during adult life. Thus, a "carry over" of the detrimental effect of the volatile(s) of this oil on the reproductive potential of the pyralid was indicated.
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Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are superior cluster of nanomaterials that are recently recognized for their different applications in various pharmaceutical and clinical settings. The objective of this work deals with novel method for biosynthesis of AgNPs using Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract as reducing agent. These bio and chemical synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis Spectroscopy, Nanotarc, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential (ZP), Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The obtained results from Nanotrac and TEM revealed that the synthesized AgNPs possess spherical shape with a mean diameter at 94nm for green and 104nm for chemical method, the zeta potential values was -12.02mV for green AgNPs and -10.4mV for chemical AgNPs. In addition, FT-IR measurement analysis was conceded out to identify the Ag(+) ions reduced from the specific functional groups on the AgNPs, which increased the stability of the particles. Further, we compared the toxicities of green and chemical AgNPs against human skin dermal fibroblast (HDFa) and brine shrimp followed by anticancer activity in NCI-H460 cells. We observed green AgNPs cause dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Further, we proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect and induction of cellular apoptosis in NCI-H460 cells. Furthermore, green AgNPs had no significant changes in cell viability, ROS production and apoptotic changes in HDFa cells. In contrary, we observed that the chemical AgNPs possess significant toxicities in HDFa cells. Hence, the green AgNPs were able to induce selective toxicity in cancer cells than the chemical AgNPs. Furthermore, green AgNPs exhibit less toxic effects against human red blood cells and brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii than the chemical AgNPs. It was concluded, that apart from being superior over chemical AgNPs, the green AgNPs are effective and safer to the milieu as they show less toxic effect to normal cells and can be extensively applied in biomedical sciences particularly in cancer field.
The effect of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, on ultrastructural alteration of larvae and puparia of the blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and house fly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae), was investigated in the laboratory by using neem extract containing 0.24% azadirachtin A. Larvae of both species exposed to single dipping with the neem product exhibited swelling of the integument in relation to the control as determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed slight thickness of epicuticle, but intense thickness of procuticle. Multiple treatment of the larvae displayed noticeably swelling integument and bleb formation on the integument, indicating a dose-dependent relationshipPuparia of both fly species treated with neem product showed similar appearance under SEM and TEM analyses.
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Three plant products with known insecticidal properties, a dry extract of flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium (Trevir.) Vis. produced in Rwanda, an ethanol extract of seeds of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, and crushed leaves of Tetradenia riparia Hochst Codd, a traditional Rwandan medicine, were mixed with beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., for storage protection. These plant-protected beans were compared with "off the shelf' beans that were being sold to consumers by the Rwandan National Agricultural Products Marketing Organization (OPROVIA). A trained sensory panel determined that beans treated with neem and C. cinerariaefolium were as acceptable after 8 months storage as those being sold throughout Rwanda by the marketing organization. Beans marketed by this organization were all treated with the standard insecticide application in Rwanda, 0.01% weight/weight pirimiphos methyl in a powder formulation. Instrumental hardness (% hard-to-cook/mean gram force) after 20 months of storage was acceptable for beans stored with neem or with C. cinerariaefolium or with the conventional government application of pirimiphos methyl. Use of either neem or C. cinerariaefolium for storage protection should not affect consumer acceptance of dry beans.
One randomized and five non-randomized control trials, reporting on 1 and 17 datasets, respectively, were accepted. From non-randomized trials, the Relative Risk with 95% Confidence Interval of 13 datasets showed no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) and 4 showed a statistically significant difference between both materials. Meta-analysis of datasets from these trials found no difference between the inflammatory cell response after 30 days (0.87; 95%CI 0.59-1.26; p=0.46); 38% less inflammatory cell response with calcium hydroxide after 60 days (0.62; 95%CI 0.50-0.76; p<0.00001); higher number of intact odontoblasts beneath restored cavities after 381 days (0.56; 95%CI 0.38-0.82; p=0.0008). The results from the randomized control trial (1.40; 95%CI 0.92-2.14; p=0.11) indicated no difference in clinically identifiable pulp symptoms after two years. All trials showed limited internal validity due to selection bias.
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Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles < 0.002 mm) in 1:1:1:1 ratios and saresh (plant gum of Acacia sp.) as binder entrapping half of the recommended dose of urea. A basal application of organic matrix entrapped urea showed increase in plant growth in terms of fresh and dry weights, root length, root number, leaf number, tillers, plant height earlet number, earlet length and productivity in terms of grain yield and straw yield over free form of urea (FU) and no fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate.
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Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens.
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Extension or otherwise of characteristic insect development inhibitory effects of the neem sesquiterpenoid azadirachtin have been examined on eggs and nauplii of the crustacean cyclops, M. leuckarti sensu lato, a major vector of guineaworm disease at 0.1 ppm and above doses. Azadirachtin reduced survival of early nauplii (N1 to N3) at 0.1 ppm and above doses. No such effect was observed when eggs and late nauplii (N4 to N5) were exposed. Azadirachtin did not affect the moult cycle when late nauplii (N4 to N5) were exposed continuously till adulthood. At all concentrations tested, adult cyclops exhibited normal mating.
A total of nine toothpastes in three groups were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 0266P) and Candida albicans (Laboratory Strain) by modified agar well diffusion method. Statistical Analysis was performed using Minitab Software. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
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The effect of concurrent administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract with DOCA-salt was investigated in the development of hypertension.Over 5-6 week old, inbred male Wistar rats with a starting weight of 190 g were given either: (1) twice weekly subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of vehicle (soyabean oil, 0.25 mL per animal) for the first 2 weeks, plus normal drinking water (controls); (2) twice weekly (s.c.) injections (weeks 1 and 2 only) of 15 mg/kg DOCA dissolved in vehicle, plus drinking water containing 1.0% NaCl and 0.03% KCl (DOCA-salt group); or (3) 20 mg/kg of aqueous neem extract daily, in addition to the DOCA-salt treatment (DOCA-salt-neem group). All groups (8-12 animals) received normal rat pellets ad libitum and their BP was measured weekly. Terminally, the animals were anaesthetized and ECGs recorded using s.c. pins in a lead II configuration. The mean arterial pressure was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the control (97 +/- 3.7 mmHg) and DOCA-salt-neem (87 +/- 3.4 mm Hg) groups than in the DOCA-salt group (115 +/- 7.1 mm Hg). PR and RR intervals and the duration of the QRS complex were shorter (p < 0.05) in the DOCA-salt group than in the control and DOCA-salt-neem groups. Amplitude of the QRS complex was increased (p < 0.05) in the DOCA-salt group compared with both the DOCA-salt-neem and the control groups.Daily administration of 20 mg/kg neem-leaf extract concurrently with DOCA-salt for 5 weeks, prevents the development of hypertension and the accompanying alterations in the ECG patterns seen in DOCA-salt treated rats.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes significant health problems from periodical skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. We report here that an aqueous extract preparation from the barks of neem plant Azardirachta indica acts as a potent entry inhibitor against HSV-1 infection into natural target cells. The neem bark extract (NBE) significantly blocked HSV-1 entry into cells at concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 microg/ml. The blocking activity of NBE was observed when the extract was pre-incubated with the virus but not with the target cells, suggesting a direct antiHSV-1 property of the neem bark. Further, virions treated with NBE failed to bind the cells which implicate a role of NBE as an attachment step blocker. Cells treated with NBE also inhibited HSV-1 glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion and polykaryocytes formation suggesting an additional role of NBE at the viral fusion step. These findings open a potential new avenue for the development of NBE as a novel antiherpetic microbicide.
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The possible mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of neem oil (NO) and its DMSO extract (NDE) were, examined in the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.
A total of 2000 children (1-14 year age group) attending pediatric OPD, school clinic & well body clinic of Dr. R.N. Cooper Municipal Hospital & K.E.M Hospital, Mumbai were examined for caries prevalence and 35.6% had dental caries. Parental income was not shown to have any bearing on caries prevalence. Parental literacy, particularly maternal literacy was shown to influence caries prevalence in children. The prevalence was low in well-nourished children and in those taking vegetarian type of diet. Frequency of sweet consumption was shown to be associated with prevalence of dental caries. In 1-4 year age group it was noted that bottle fed children were more affected by dental caries. Tooth brush with paste was the commonest method used for cleaning their teeth in all age groups in our study. Caries prevalence was low in those children using tooth brush than in those using tooth powder. Those children who were using neem datun were found to be less affected with dental caries. Dental caries was also found to be low in those who rinsed their mouth with water after food.