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Neem

Neem is a unique herb with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and blood purifying properties which is used in skin disorders and keeps the skin healthy. Neem is effective to most epidermal dysfunctions such as acne, psoriasis, eczema, antifungal.

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Description

Neem is a high-quality herbal medication which is used in skin problems like mild acne, itchy skin, flakey scalp and many other mild dermatological problems. Neem inhibits the growth of microbes and protect the skin.

Neem also fights minor skin eruptions, reduces oiliness and inflammation, stimulates the skin’s circulation and cell renewal. It gently cleanses the skin and maintains moisture balance.

The growth of acne-causing bacteria such as propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and staphylococcus epidermidis is also inhibited by Neem. The role of Neem in acne is further supported by studies which have shown that it exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing P. acnes-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-8.

Neem's main ingredient are: Neem components and Turmeric.

Dosage

Neem is available in capsules which are taken by mouth.

It is recommended to take 1 Neem capsule twice a day after meals.

Overdose

If you overdose Neem and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Neem are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Neem if you are allergic to Neem components.

Do not take Neem if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Neem in children under 12 years of age. It may cause serious side effects such as seizures, coma.

Neem should never be used in place of insulin.

Avoid dehydration.

Always give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.

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Of the total 206 articles searched, three randomized controlled trials evaluating neem-based herbal mouthrinses were included. Due to marked heterogeneity observed in study characteristics, meta-analysis was not performed. These studies reported that neem mouthrinse was as effective as chlorhexidine mouthrinse when used as an adjunct to toothbrushing in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in gingivitis patients. However, the quality of reporting and evidence along with methods of studies was generally flawed with unclear risk of bias.

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The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4 degrees C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h.

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The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857) is one of the most distributed Nuisance Invasive Species (NIS) in South America, and a threat of great concern for the industry of the area. In this study, we carried out toxicity tests made with a Neem's oil solution with L. fortunei larvae and benthonic adults (7, 13 and 19 ± 1 mm). Tests with non-target species (Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa and Cnesterodon decemmculatus) were also made with the aim to evaluate the potential toxicity of the Neem's solution in the environment. The LC(100) of Neem's solution obtained for larvae was 500 µl/L, a value much higher than the one obtained for D. magna and C. decemmaculatus. Thus, we recommend that it should not be used in open waters. However, since the adults were killed in 72 h and the larvae in 24 h, this product can be used in closed systems, in man-made facilities.

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Neem leaf extract induced apoptosis in rat oocytes prior to degeneration in vitro.

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Complete resorption of embryos was observed on day 15 of pregnancy in every animal treated with Praneem in contrast to normally developing embryos in rats given peanut oil. In repeat batch experiments, it was established that the effect of the treatment was reversible and animals regained fertility in cycles subsequent to treatment with Praneem. Cytokines of Th1 type, i.e., gamma interferon and TNF, were raised on administration of Praneem, which may be the probable cause of pregnancy termination.

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The ethanolic extract from neem leaves exhibited free radical scavenging activities and reduced the power of ferric ion (Fe3+) to ferrous ion (Fe2+) in dose responses. Furthermore, it was able to bind with iron rapidly within 5 minutes. Interestingly, this extract inhibited human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60 cells) growth in concentration response (0-500 microg/ml) for 24 hour treatment.

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To investigate the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the methanolic and aqueous extracts from stems of M. parasiticus against MCF-7 breast cancer cells by brine shrimp lethality (BSL) bioassay, MTT assay and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay.

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Our results indicated that because of its emergence inhibition activity, NeemAzal T/S 1.2 per cent EC could be a promising candidate for the use in integrated vector management programme and replace chemical insecticides.

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The safety and effect of an acetone-water neem leaf extract (IRAB) on CD4 cells was investigated in 60 HIV/AIDS patients as part of an ongoing study to determine the influence of neem on immunity and viral load in HIV/AIDS. Patients were confirmed as HIV I or II positive, as having CD4 cell count, less than 300 cells/microL, and as antiretrovirally naïve. They were given oral IRAB (1.0 g daily for 12 weeks). Clinical and laboratory tests were carried out at baseline and at 4 weekly intervals. Thus, the patients served as their own controls. Sixty patients completed treatment. Fifty (83.33%) were completely compliant with respect to laboratory tests. Increase in mean CD4 cells, 266 cells/microL (159%), for the 50 patients was significant (P < 0.001) between baseline and week 12. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (64 mm/hr at baseline) was 16 mm/hr at week 12, whereas total number of incidences of HIV/AIDS-related pathologies decreased from 120 at baseline to 5. Mean bodyweight, hemoglobin concentration, and lymphocyte differential count increased significantly by 12% (P < 0.05), 24% (P < 0.0001), and 20% (P < 0.0001), respectively. There were no adverse effects and no abnormalities in kidney and liver function parameters. The results support the safety of IRAB in HIV/AIDS, and its significant influence on CD4 cells may be useful in the formulation of multidrug combination therapies for HIV/AIDS. However, its antiretroviral activity is being evaluated in our laboratory.

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Assessment of antibacterial as well as antiherpes virus activity of sulfonoquinovosyldiacylglyceride (SQDG), a glycolipid, isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica has been described. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and herpes simplex virus. SQDG showed significant inhibitory activity against Salmonella typhi and two isolates of Shigella dysenteriae with MIC values 32 μg ml(-1) , while three isolates of Salm. typhi, Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae were inhibited at 64 μg ml(-1) and have shown zone diameter ranging from 6.2 to 12.3 mm. The growth kinetics study of SQDG on Salm. typhi and Sh. dysenteriae revealed that the growths were completely inhibited at their MIC values within 24 h of exposure. Interestingly, SQDG inhibits herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 with the EC50 of 9.1 and 8.5 μg ml(-1) , compared with acyclovir (2.2 and 2.8 μg ml(-1) against HSV-1 and HSV-2). The selectivity index (SI) was found to be 12.4 against HSV-1 and 13.41 with HSV-2. Furthermore, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of HSV-infected and SQDG-treated macrophages using ELISA kit revealed that SQDG significantly downregulated the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-6.

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Postembryonic development and adult emergence ofCorcyra cephalonica (Stainton) were adversely affected in varying degrees when individuals were reared for the first 2 weeks of larval life or for a similar duration from the sixteenth day of their lives in an environment of eucalyptus oil volatiles. This was, however, not so in the progeny of parents exposed to these volatiles for only 5 min. Exposure of this pest to neem oil volatiles during larval stages for similar periods failed to produce such adverse effects. A marked decline in the reproductive potential, in terms of egg output and egg hatchability, of the moth was observed when the larvae were reared for the first 15 days in the presence of eucalyptus oil volatiles or when the parents were exposed for 5 min to such an environment during adult life. Thus, a "carry over" of the detrimental effect of the volatile(s) of this oil on the reproductive potential of the pyralid was indicated.

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Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are superior cluster of nanomaterials that are recently recognized for their different applications in various pharmaceutical and clinical settings. The objective of this work deals with novel method for biosynthesis of AgNPs using Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract as reducing agent. These bio and chemical synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis Spectroscopy, Nanotarc, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential (ZP), Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The obtained results from Nanotrac and TEM revealed that the synthesized AgNPs possess spherical shape with a mean diameter at 94nm for green and 104nm for chemical method, the zeta potential values was -12.02mV for green AgNPs and -10.4mV for chemical AgNPs. In addition, FT-IR measurement analysis was conceded out to identify the Ag(+) ions reduced from the specific functional groups on the AgNPs, which increased the stability of the particles. Further, we compared the toxicities of green and chemical AgNPs against human skin dermal fibroblast (HDFa) and brine shrimp followed by anticancer activity in NCI-H460 cells. We observed green AgNPs cause dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Further, we proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect and induction of cellular apoptosis in NCI-H460 cells. Furthermore, green AgNPs had no significant changes in cell viability, ROS production and apoptotic changes in HDFa cells. In contrary, we observed that the chemical AgNPs possess significant toxicities in HDFa cells. Hence, the green AgNPs were able to induce selective toxicity in cancer cells than the chemical AgNPs. Furthermore, green AgNPs exhibit less toxic effects against human red blood cells and brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii than the chemical AgNPs. It was concluded, that apart from being superior over chemical AgNPs, the green AgNPs are effective and safer to the milieu as they show less toxic effect to normal cells and can be extensively applied in biomedical sciences particularly in cancer field.

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The effect of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, on ultrastructural alteration of larvae and puparia of the blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and house fly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae), was investigated in the laboratory by using neem extract containing 0.24% azadirachtin A. Larvae of both species exposed to single dipping with the neem product exhibited swelling of the integument in relation to the control as determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed slight thickness of epicuticle, but intense thickness of procuticle. Multiple treatment of the larvae displayed noticeably swelling integument and bleb formation on the integument, indicating a dose-dependent relationshipPuparia of both fly species treated with neem product showed similar appearance under SEM and TEM analyses.

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Three plant products with known insecticidal properties, a dry extract of flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium (Trevir.) Vis. produced in Rwanda, an ethanol extract of seeds of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, and crushed leaves of Tetradenia riparia Hochst Codd, a traditional Rwandan medicine, were mixed with beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., for storage protection. These plant-protected beans were compared with "off the shelf' beans that were being sold to consumers by the Rwandan National Agricultural Products Marketing Organization (OPROVIA). A trained sensory panel determined that beans treated with neem and C. cinerariaefolium were as acceptable after 8 months storage as those being sold throughout Rwanda by the marketing organization. Beans marketed by this organization were all treated with the standard insecticide application in Rwanda, 0.01% weight/weight pirimiphos methyl in a powder formulation. Instrumental hardness (% hard-to-cook/mean gram force) after 20 months of storage was acceptable for beans stored with neem or with C. cinerariaefolium or with the conventional government application of pirimiphos methyl. Use of either neem or C. cinerariaefolium for storage protection should not affect consumer acceptance of dry beans.

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One randomized and five non-randomized control trials, reporting on 1 and 17 datasets, respectively, were accepted. From non-randomized trials, the Relative Risk with 95% Confidence Interval of 13 datasets showed no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) and 4 showed a statistically significant difference between both materials. Meta-analysis of datasets from these trials found no difference between the inflammatory cell response after 30 days (0.87; 95%CI 0.59-1.26; p=0.46); 38% less inflammatory cell response with calcium hydroxide after 60 days (0.62; 95%CI 0.50-0.76; p<0.00001); higher number of intact odontoblasts beneath restored cavities after 381 days (0.56; 95%CI 0.38-0.82; p=0.0008). The results from the randomized control trial (1.40; 95%CI 0.92-2.14; p=0.11) indicated no difference in clinically identifiable pulp symptoms after two years. All trials showed limited internal validity due to selection bias.

neem 950 mg

Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles < 0.002 mm) in 1:1:1:1 ratios and saresh (plant gum of Acacia sp.) as binder entrapping half of the recommended dose of urea. A basal application of organic matrix entrapped urea showed increase in plant growth in terms of fresh and dry weights, root length, root number, leaf number, tillers, plant height earlet number, earlet length and productivity in terms of grain yield and straw yield over free form of urea (FU) and no fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate.

dabur neem capsules

Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens.

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Extension or otherwise of characteristic insect development inhibitory effects of the neem sesquiterpenoid azadirachtin have been examined on eggs and nauplii of the crustacean cyclops, M. leuckarti sensu lato, a major vector of guineaworm disease at 0.1 ppm and above doses. Azadirachtin reduced survival of early nauplii (N1 to N3) at 0.1 ppm and above doses. No such effect was observed when eggs and late nauplii (N4 to N5) were exposed. Azadirachtin did not affect the moult cycle when late nauplii (N4 to N5) were exposed continuously till adulthood. At all concentrations tested, adult cyclops exhibited normal mating.

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A total of nine toothpastes in three groups were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 0266P) and Candida albicans (Laboratory Strain) by modified agar well diffusion method. Statistical Analysis was performed using Minitab Software. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

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The effect of concurrent administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract with DOCA-salt was investigated in the development of hypertension.Over 5-6 week old, inbred male Wistar rats with a starting weight of 190 g were given either: (1) twice weekly subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of vehicle (soyabean oil, 0.25 mL per animal) for the first 2 weeks, plus normal drinking water (controls); (2) twice weekly (s.c.) injections (weeks 1 and 2 only) of 15 mg/kg DOCA dissolved in vehicle, plus drinking water containing 1.0% NaCl and 0.03% KCl (DOCA-salt group); or (3) 20 mg/kg of aqueous neem extract daily, in addition to the DOCA-salt treatment (DOCA-salt-neem group). All groups (8-12 animals) received normal rat pellets ad libitum and their BP was measured weekly. Terminally, the animals were anaesthetized and ECGs recorded using s.c. pins in a lead II configuration. The mean arterial pressure was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the control (97 +/- 3.7 mmHg) and DOCA-salt-neem (87 +/- 3.4 mm Hg) groups than in the DOCA-salt group (115 +/- 7.1 mm Hg). PR and RR intervals and the duration of the QRS complex were shorter (p < 0.05) in the DOCA-salt group than in the control and DOCA-salt-neem groups. Amplitude of the QRS complex was increased (p < 0.05) in the DOCA-salt group compared with both the DOCA-salt-neem and the control groups.Daily administration of 20 mg/kg neem-leaf extract concurrently with DOCA-salt for 5 weeks, prevents the development of hypertension and the accompanying alterations in the ECG patterns seen in DOCA-salt treated rats.

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Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes significant health problems from periodical skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. We report here that an aqueous extract preparation from the barks of neem plant Azardirachta indica acts as a potent entry inhibitor against HSV-1 infection into natural target cells. The neem bark extract (NBE) significantly blocked HSV-1 entry into cells at concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 microg/ml. The blocking activity of NBE was observed when the extract was pre-incubated with the virus but not with the target cells, suggesting a direct antiHSV-1 property of the neem bark. Further, virions treated with NBE failed to bind the cells which implicate a role of NBE as an attachment step blocker. Cells treated with NBE also inhibited HSV-1 glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion and polykaryocytes formation suggesting an additional role of NBE at the viral fusion step. These findings open a potential new avenue for the development of NBE as a novel antiherpetic microbicide.

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The possible mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of neem oil (NO) and its DMSO extract (NDE) were, examined in the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.

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A total of 2000 children (1-14 year age group) attending pediatric OPD, school clinic & well body clinic of Dr. R.N. Cooper Municipal Hospital & K.E.M Hospital, Mumbai were examined for caries prevalence and 35.6% had dental caries. Parental income was not shown to have any bearing on caries prevalence. Parental literacy, particularly maternal literacy was shown to influence caries prevalence in children. The prevalence was low in well-nourished children and in those taking vegetarian type of diet. Frequency of sweet consumption was shown to be associated with prevalence of dental caries. In 1-4 year age group it was noted that bottle fed children were more affected by dental caries. Tooth brush with paste was the commonest method used for cleaning their teeth in all age groups in our study. Caries prevalence was low in those children using tooth brush than in those using tooth powder. Those children who were using neem datun were found to be less affected with dental caries. Dental caries was also found to be low in those who rinsed their mouth with water after food.

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dabur neem capsules 2017-10-11

The Division of Public Oral Health at the University of the Witwatersrand conducted a 2-week ART training course for 5th year dental students in the School of Oral Health Sciences. Students were taught both theoretical knowledge and buy neem clinical skills in ART. Course evaluation showed that the course achieved its aims and objectives and was considered a worthwhile experience by students. However, there were some limitations to the format of the programme. We recommend that ART should be integrated as part of clinical student training in the BDS curriculum.

neem tablets 2016-08-20

Triclosan-based dental formulation with combination of fluoride (1000ppm) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against test organisms than the combination of lower fluoride-concentration or sodium monofluorophosphate. Among herbal dentifrices, formulation containing Neem, Pudina, Long, Babool, Turmeric and Vajradanti showed significant antimicrobial activity against all the four tested microorganisms (p<0.05). However, against Streptococcus mutans, all buy neem three herbal products showed significant antimicrobial activity. Homeo products showed least antimicrobial activity on the tested strains. Formulation with kreosotum, Plantago major and calendula was significantly effective only against Streptococcus mutans.

neem reviews 2016-02-20

The germinability and desiccation tolerance (DT) in developing seed are regulated by cellular metabolism involving active oxygen species (AOS) and protective proteins during maturation drying. The aim of the present investigation was to unravel the functions of AOS (superoxide, H2O2 and OH-radical), antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and APX) and dehydrin-like proteins in regulating the germinability and DT in undried and artificially desiccated developing neem seeds. Germination was first observed in seeds of 8 weeks after anthesis (waa) whereas DT was noticed from 9 waa. High levels of superoxide in undried and artificially desiccated seeds of 9 waa were rapidly declined up to 15 waa with simultaneous increase in levels of SOD (quantitative and isoenzymes) that dismutates superoxide with corresponding formation and accumulation of H2O2. Activities and isoenzymes of buy neem APX and CAT were promoted in seeds from 9 to 12 waa. Intensity of dehydrin-like proteins increased as development progressed in seeds with higher intensities in slow dried (SD) seeds. Desiccation modulated the metabolism for the acquisition of germinability and DT in the developing neem seeds from 8 to 15 waa by altering the levels of superoxide, H2O2 and OH-radical those possibly act as signalling molecules for reprogramming protective proteins. Desiccation mediated the expression of new bands of SOD and APX in undried as well as SD seeds during 9-12 waa but the bands were more intense in SD seeds. The superoxide and H2O2-regulated intensity of dehydrin-like protein in SD seeds further validated our conclusion.

dabur neem tablet 2015-10-12

The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary buy neem point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control.

neem juice buy 2017-05-08

Postcoital intrauterine buy neem treatment of neem oil during preimplantation period causes fertility block in mouse by lowering the EGFR localization in the luminal and glandular epithelium, by causing massive leukocytes infiltration into the uteri, by degenerating the early embryos, and by causing the postimplantation embryonic resorptions in the uteri. The possible mechanism of action of neem oil is discussed.

neem gel 2016-08-09

Androgenic haploids of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) were produced by anther culture at the early- to late-uninucleate stage of pollen. Haploid formation occurred via callusing. The best medium for inducing callusing in the anther cultures was Murashige and Skoog's basal medium (MS) (9% sucrose) supplemented with 1 microM 2,4-D, 1 microM NAA and 5 microM BAP, while anther callus multiplied best on MS medium supplemented with 1 microM 2,4-D and 10 microM Kn. These calli differentiated shoots when transferred to a medium containing BAP; 5 microM BAP was optimum for young calli (75% cultures differentiated shoots), but older calli showed the best regeneration with 7.5 microM BAP. Shoots elongated at a buy neem lower concentration of BAP-0.5 microM. These shoots were multiplied by forced axillary branching and rooted in vitro. The plants were subsequently established in soil. Of the plants that regenerated from anther callus 60% were haploid, 20% were diploid and 20% were aneuploid.

neem leaf capsules 2016-11-16

The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms buy neem and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs.

neem tab 2016-12-15

Azadirachta indica (AI, Neem) was tested for analgesic potency in experimental pain models in mice. In the glacial acetic acid (GAA) induced writhing test, AI (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced both the incidence and the number of writhes. Similarly, AI, at the dose levels tested, also enhanced tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test for nociception. In the interaction studies, pretreatment with the opioid antagonist, naloxone (1 mg/kg) and the central noradrenaline depleter, DSP-4 (50 mg/kg) attenuated AI analgesia by differential degrees in both experimental models, whereas, the serotonin synthesis inhibitor, PCPA (300 mg/kg) potentiated the same. These results suggest that both central and peripheral mechanisms and complex neural pathways, opioid buy neem and non-opioid, may be involved in AI induced analgesia.

neem capsules 2015-12-15

Practical application of aligned carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) would have to be determined by a matter of its economical and large-scale preparation. In this study, neem oil (also named Margoaa oil, extracted from the seeds of the neem--Azadirachta indica) was used as carbon source to fabricate the bundles of ACNTs. ACNTs have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis of neem buy neem oil and ferrocene mixture at 825°C. The major components of neem oil are hydrocarbon with less amount of oxygen, which provided the precursor species in spray pyrolysis growth of CNTs. The bundles of ACNTs have been grown directly inside the quartz tube. The as-grown ACNTs have been characterized through Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopic (SEM/TEM) techniques. SEM images reveal that the bundles of ACNTs are densely packed and are of several microns in length. High-resolution TEM analysis reveals these nanotubes to be multi-walled CNTs. These multi-walled CNTs were found to have inner diameter between 15 and 30 nm. It was found that present technique gives high yield with high density of bundles of ACNTs.

neem toothpaste review 2016-07-16

The database search (up to 10 August 2010) identified 1 new trial, in addition to the 9 included in the original systematic review, and 11 further trials were included after a hand-search and reference check. Of these 21 trials, 11 were excluded and 10 were accepted for data extraction and quality assessment. Thirteen dichotomous datasets of primary outcomes and 4 datasets with secondary outcomes were extracted. Meta-analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were used in combining clinically homogenous datasets. The overall results of the computed buy neem datasets suggest that GIC has a higher caries-preventive effect than amalgam for restorations in permanent teeth. No difference was found for restorations in the primary dentition.

neem with alcohol 2017-05-24

In the present communication some dehydrated dialdol products such as 1, 5 - Diphenyl pent - 1, 4 - diene - 3 - one (A1); 1, 9 - Diphenylnon - 1, 3, 6, 8 - tetraene - 5 - one (A2); 1, 5 - di (2 - hydroxyphenyl) pent - 1, 4 - buy neem diene - 3 - one (A3); 1, 5 - difuran pent - 1, 4 - diene - 3 - one (A4); 1, 5 - di [4 - bis (N, Ndimethyl) phenyl] pent - 1, 4 - diene - 3 - one (A5) were screened for their antifungal activity. To reduce their adverse effect on the environment, for the first time, we have attempted to screen the antifungal activity of these synthetic compounds in conjunction with selected natural products. The natural products that were used in our study include Nicotine tobaccum and Neem oil (Azadirachta indica). A set of 15 samples was tested against highly pathogenic and of extensive host range fungi Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizactonia bataticola, Fusarium udum. The filter paper disc assay to monitor antifungal effect revealed significant and interesting results. We found that the use of the combination of natural and synthetic pesticides is more effective and environmentally healthy compared to just synthetic chemicals and/or less available natural products. These results obtained from the combined use of natural and synthetic chemicals lead us to suggest to a new class of less toxic but more effective pesticides. We call it group as CSYNAP, i. e. Combination of SYnthetic and NAtural products as Pesticides.

neem capsule benefits 2016-11-03

The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p < 0.05) in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group fed without neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem buy neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection.

neem 475 mg 2017-10-04

Zearalenone, a mycotoxin produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium, including F. graminearum, triggers reproduction disorders in certain animals and hyperestrogen syndromes in humans. Current research investigates three concentrations of neem oil extract (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5%) in reducing the production of zearalenone. Neem oil extract decreased zearalenone amount in the three concentrations buy neem but highest inhibition (59.05%) occurred at 0.1%.

neem 950 mg 2017-10-05

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a pathogenic bacterium that causes life threatening outbreaks such as community-onset and nosocomial infections has emerged as 'superbug'. The organism developed resistance to all classes of antibiotics including the best known Vancomycin (VRSA). Hence, there is a need to develop new therapeutic agents. This study mainly evaluates the potential use of botanicals against MRSA infections. Computer aided design is an initial platform to screen novel inhibitors and the data finds applications in drug development. The drug-likeness and efficiency of various herbal compounds were screened by ADMET and docking studies. The virulent factor of most of the MRSA associated infections are Penicillin Binding Protein 2A (PBP2A) and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). Hence, native structures of these proteins (PDB: 1VQQ and 1T5R) were used as the drug targets. The docking studies revealed that the active component of Aloe vera, β-sitosterol (3S, 8S, 9S, 10R, 13R, 14S, 17R) -17- [(2R, 5R)-5-ethyl-6-methylheptan-2-yl] -10, 13-dimethyl 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17- dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta [a] phenanthren-3-ol) showed best binding energies of -7.40 kcal/mol and -6.34 kcal/mol for PBP2A and PVL toxin, respectively. Similarly, Meliantriol (1S-1-[ (2R, 3R, 5R)-5-hydroxy-3-[(3S, 5R, 9R, 10R, 13S, 14S, 17S)-3-hydroxy 4, 4, 10, 13, 14-pentamethyl-2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17-decahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] phenanthren-17-yl] oxolan-2-yl] -2- Urispas Online methylpropane-1, 2 diol), active compound in Azadirachta indica (Neem) showed the binding energies of -6.02 kcal/mol for PBP2A and -8.94 for PVL toxin. Similar studies were conducted with selected herbal compound based on pharmacokinetic properties. All in silico data tested in vitro concluded that herbal extracts of Aloe-vera, Neem, Guava (Psidium guajava), Pomegranate (Punica granatum) and tea (Camellia sinensis) can be used as therapeutics against MRSA infections.

dabur neem tablets 2017-07-30

A total of eighteen (18) rats weighing 110g-150g were used. They were randomly divided into three groups (A, B, and C) of six rats each. Group A: served as control and received distilled water equivalent in volume to the test extract. Group B: was treated with 200mg/kg of the methanolic extract of neem leaves. Group C: received 400mg/kg of Betnovate S Online the methanolic extract of neem leaves. Administration was by gavage and lasted for a period of 14 days.

neem dosage 2016-06-28

We evaluated the protective effects of subfractions Sinequan Generic of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and the methanolic fraction (MF) from the crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) leaves against various free radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage to red blood cells (RBCs) and pBR322 DNA. Neem leaf fractions reduced DPPH(*), ABTS(*+), superoxide (O(*-)), hydroxyl (OH(*)), and nitric oxide radicals to nonradical forms in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with the benzene insoluble fraction from EAF (EBIF), the chloroform insoluble fraction from EAF (ECIF), the chloroform insoluble fraction from MF (MCIF), and the ethyl acetate insoluble fraction from MF (MEIF) significantly mitigated H2O2-induced oxidative damage to RBCs and pBR322 DNA. Although we found low in vitro free radical scavenging activity for the benzene insoluble fraction from EAF (EBSF), the chloroform soluble fraction from EAF (ECSF), the chloroform soluble fraction from MF (MCSF), and the ethyl acetate soluble fraction from MF (MESF), these fractions showed no effect on H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation and pBR322 DNA damage. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and TLC-Iatroscan analysis revealed that the greater efficacy of EBIF, ECIF, MCIF, and MEIF may be due to the presence of more polar compounds such as nimbolide and quercetin. Our studies suggest that the antioxidant and protective effects of active neem leaf fractions against H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation and pBR322 DNA damage can be attributed to their ability to inhibit various free radicals.

neem pills 2015-11-01

In this experimental study, A total of 48 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into four groups of 12 mice per group: i.cancer control (CC) treated with 0.5% Tween 20 in PBS, ii. 0.5 µg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT), iii. 250 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C250), and iv. 500 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C500). in situ reverse Coumadin Dosage transcription polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR) was applied to evaluate suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression in breast cancer tissue.

dabur neem capsules 2015-03-02

The results indicated that 5.25% sodium hypochlorite is more effective as root canal irrigant when compared with 100% neem leaf extract and 40% honey. It was also observed that 100% neem Exelon 4 Mg leaf extract has greater antimicrobial effect than 40% honey.

neem tablets 2015-09-28

New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil Flonase Coupon Online first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides.

neem reviews 2017-01-11

The commercial products and laboratory-produced repellents can be utilized by individuals to avoid contact with Cialis Online Kaufen An. arabiensis in Ethiopia.

dabur neem tablet 2015-01-11

Much attention has been given to the development of botanical insecticides to provide effective natural control of cattle ectoparasites without harming animals, consumers, and Effexor Best Dose environment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial neem cake in controlling Haematobia irritans infestation on cattle. The study was conducted at the Embrapa Southeast Cattle Research Center (CPPSE), in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, from April to July 2008. The neem cake mixed in mineral salt in a 2% concentration was provided to 20 Nelore cows during nine weeks and had its efficacy evaluated by comparison of the infestation level against a control group. Fly infestations were recorded weekly by digital photographs of each animal from both groups and the number of flies was later counted in a computer-assisted image analyzer. Quantification of neem cake components by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of azadirachtin (421 mg.kg(-1)) and 3-tigloyl-azadirachtol (151 mg.kg(-1)) in the tested neem cake. Addition of the 2% neem cake reduced mineral salt intake in about 22%. The 2% neem cake treatment failed to reduce horn fly infestations on cattle during the 9-week study period.

neem juice buy 2016-01-07

In wetland ecosystem, nitrogen along with other elements and its management is most imperative for the production of so many aquatic food, non-food and beneficial medicinal plants and for the improvement of soil and water characteristics. With great significant importance of INM (integrated nutrient management) as sources, emphasizing on management on nitrogen as a key element and its divergence, a case study was undertaken on such aquatic food crops (starch and protein-rich, most popular and remunerative) in the farmers' field of low-lying 'Tal' situation of New Alluvial Zone of Indian subtropics. The study was designed in factorial randomized block design, where, three important aquatic food crops (water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Roxb.), makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.) and water lily (Nymphaea spp.) as major factor and eleven combinations of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients as sub-factor was considered in the experiment. It revealed from the results that the production of fresh kernels or nuts of water chestnut (8.57 t ha(-1)), matured nut yield of makhana (3.06 t ha(-1)) and flower stalks of water-lily as vegetables (6.38 t ha(-1)) including its nutritional quality (starch, protein, sugar and minerals) was remarkably influenced with the application of both organic (neem oilcake @ 0.2 t ha(-1)) and inorganic sources (NPK @ 30:20:20 kg ha(-1) along with spraying of NPK @ 0.5% each over crop canopy at 20 days interval after transplanting) than the other INM combinations applied to the crops. Among the crops, highest WCYE (water chestnut yield equivalence) exhibited in makhana due to its high price of popped-form in the country, which is being exported to other countries at now. Sole application of both (organic and inorganic sources) with lower range did not produce Lamictal Drug Test any significant outcome from the study and exhibited lower value for all the crops. Besides production of food crops, INM also greatly influenced the soil and water characterization and it was favourably reflected in this study. The physico-chemical characteristics of soil (textural class, pH, organic carbon, organic matter, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) are most important and contributed a significant improvement due to cultivation of these aquatic crops. Analysis of such wet bodies represented the water characteristics (pH, BOD, COD, CO3-, HCO3-, NO3-N, SO4-S and Cl-) were most responsive, adaptable and quite favourable for the cultivation of these crops in this vast waste unused wetlands for the mankind without any environmental degradation.

neem gel 2016-12-08

A Benicar Water Pill polyherbal pessary was formulated with purified ingredients from neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves, Sapindus mukerossi (pericarp of fruit) and Mentha citrata oil. Spermicidal action on human sperm was tested by Sander-Cramer slide test in vitro and by post coital tests in vivo. Contraceptive action was tested in rabbits.

neem leaf capsules 2017-08-06

The effects of A. indica (AI, Neem) were evaluated on tests of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses after 3 weeks of oral AI (leaf extract) treatment in ovalbumin immunized mice. At the dose levels tested, AI (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg), had no appreciable influence on different organ (liver, spleen, thymus)/body weight indices, when compared to controls. In tests for humoral immune Co Diovan Reviews responses, AI (100 mg/kg) treated mice had higher (1) IgM and IgG levels, and (b) anti-ovalbumin antibody titres, when compared to the vehicle treated group. In tests for cell-mediated immune responses, there was an enhancement (%) of (a) macrophage migration inhibition, and (b) footpad thickness after AI (100 mg/kg) treatment. These results are discussed in light of the possible immunopotentiating effects of AI.

neem tab 2015-05-07

We have reported that prophylactic as well as therapeutic administration of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP) induces significant restriction of solid tumor growth in mice. Here, we investigate whether the effect of such pretreatment (25µg/mice; weekly, 4 times) benefits regulation of tumor angiogenesis, an obligate factor for tumor progression. We show that NLGP pretreatment results in vascular normalization in melanoma and carcinoma bearing mice along with downregulation of CD31, VEGF and VEGFR2. NLGP pretreatment facilitates profound infiltration of CD8+ T cells within tumor parenchyma, which subsequently regulates VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling in CD31+ vascular endothelial cells to prevent aberrant neovascularization. Pericyte stabilization, VEGF dependent inhibition of VEC proliferation and subsequent vascular normalization are also experienced. Studies in immune compromised mice confirmed that these vascular and intratumoral changes in angiogenic profile are dependent upon active adoptive immunity particularly those mediated by CD8+ T cells. Accumulated evidences suggest that NLGP regulated immunomodulation is active in tumor growth restriction and normalization of tumor angiogenesis as well, thereby, signifying its clinical translation.

neem capsules 2017-10-11

A total of 12 controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials addressing the use of oral, systemic botanical agents for psoriasis were assessed in this review. While overall evidence is limited in quantity and quality, HESA-A, curcumin, neem extract, and, to a lesser degree, Traditional Chinese Medicine seem to be the most efficacious agents.

neem toothpaste review 2015-05-23

Neem leaf ethanolic extract presented inhibitory effect on MRSA biofilm and planktonic aggregation formation, and anthelmintic activity against S. mansoni worms.

neem with alcohol 2017-02-02

The results conclude that Spinosad and NSKE are potential larvicides against An. stephensi and Ch. circumdatus.

neem capsule benefits 2016-04-29

Thirty-one nortriterpenoids, including 28 limonoids (1-28) and 3 degraded limonoids (29-31), and one diterpenoid (32), were isolated from the seed extract of Azadirachta indica (neem). Among these, six were new compounds and their structures were established to be 15-hydroxyazadiradione (3), 7-benzoyl-17-hydroxynimbocinol (5), 23-deoxyazadironolide (12), limocin E (13), 23-epilimocin E (14), and 7alpha-acetoxy-3-oxoisocopala-1,13-dien-15-oic acid (32). Upon evaluation of compounds 1-32 on the melanogenesis in the B16 melanoma cells, five compounds, 20, 26, 27, 29, and 31, exhibited marked inhibitory effect (74-91% reduction of melanin content at 25 microg/mL) with no or almost no toxicity to the cells. Seven compounds, 1, 6, 9, 10, 18, 20, and 26, on evaluation for their inhibitory effect against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, exhibited, except for compound 26, marked anti-inflammatory activity (ID(50) values 0.09-0.26 mg/ear). In addition, all of the 32 compounds exhibited moderate or potent inhibitory effects (IC(50) values of 230-501 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA) against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by TPA. Furthermore, on evaluation of azadirachtin B (21) for its anti-tumor-initiating activity on the two-stage carcinogenesis of mouse skin tumor induced by peroxynitrite (ONOO-; PN) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter, this exhibited marked inhibitory activity.