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Histamine H3 receptor functions as a presynaptic auto- and hetero-receptor on histaminergic and non-histaminergic neurons in the brain regulating the synaptic release of numerous neurotransmitters. Therefore, the ligands for this receptor have been proposed to be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders. At present, however, the psychopharmacological profiles of H3 ligands, particularly H3 agonists, have not been extensively studied.
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1. Our objective was to evaluate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine in healthy volunteers. 2. The study consisted of two periods: Period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem; and Period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 100 mg fluvoxamine. Between the two periods, the subjects were treated for 6 days with a single daily dose of 100 mg fluvoxamine. 3. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem given in each treatment period were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and the data from two periods were compared to determine statistically significant differences. 4. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 56.4 ± 25.6 ng/mL (zolpidem alone) and 67.3 ± 25.8 ng/mL (zolpidem after pretreatment with fluvoxamine). The t(max), times taken to reach C(max), were 0.83 ± 0.44 and 1.26 ± 0.74 h, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 200.9 ± 116.8 and 512.0 ± 354.6 ng h/mL, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.24 ± 0.81 h when given alone and 4.99 ± 2.92 h after pretreatment with fluvoxamine. 5. Fluvoxamine interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers and increases its exposure by approximately 150%. The experimental data showed the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine, and suggest that the observed interaction might be clinically significant, but its relevance has to be confirmed.
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In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the encephalotropic and psychotropic effects of tianeptine (TIA)--a new tricyclic antidepressant, enhancing serotonin reuptake--were investigated as compared with the serotonin reuptake inhibiting antidepressant, fluvoxamine (FLU), utilizing EEG mapping, psychometric and psychophysiological measures. 16 healthy volunteers (8 males, 8 females) aged 21-35 (man 27) years received randomized and at weekly intervals single oral doses of placebo, 12.5 and 25 mg TIA and 50 mg FLU. EEG recordings, psychometric and psychophysiological tests and evaluation of pulse, blood pressure and side effects were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours; blood sampling, in addition, at hour 1. TIA plasma levels rose fast to peaks at 1-2 hours and declined rapidly as well, while the MC5 metabolite peaked in the 4th hour and declined more slowly. EEG mapping demonstrated that both TIA and FLU induced significant changes in brain function between the 1st and 8th hour, which, however, differed in their time course. 12.5 mg TIA exhibited, as compared with placebo, slight activating properties in the EEG (decrease of delta and theta, increase of alpha and beta, acceleration of the centroid), parallelled by thymopsychic improvement (mood elevation). 25 mg TIA showed EEG activation up to the 4th hour, later EEG sedation, accompanied by an initial thymopsychic improvement and differential changes thereafter (improved mood, decreased vigility), with the noopsyche improving at all times (attention, Pauli test). 50 mg FLU induced initially sedation and thereafter activation, accompanied by thymopsychic deterioration and subsequent improvement, the latter also being observed in the noopsyche (attention, memory). In pupillary and skin conductance measures, generally a slight activation occurred after placebo, which was attenuated by 25 mg TIA. Correlation maps between plasma levels and EEG changes demonstrated: the higher the TIA plasma levels, the more absolute and relative beta power, the less alpha power and the faster the centroid of the total power spectrum, reflecting CNS-activation. Topographically, the correlations were mostly seen over both fronto-temporal regions. In the latter, dominant frequency signalled desactivation in the right and activation in the left hemiphere after both antidepressants which, thereby induced changes in brain function opposite to those observed in depression. Both drugs were well tolerated.
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We report on five Japanese men (an 84 year old (acute aortic dissociation: Stanford type A), a 55 year old (traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and brain contusion), a 76 year old (sepsis by pyelonephritis), an 85 year old (cerebral infarction), and an 86 year old (pulmonary emphysema and severe pneumonia)) in which the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and sigma-1 receptor agonist fluvoxamine was effective in ameliorating the delirium of the patients.
Clozapine treatment is associated with side-effects such as blood cell dyscrasias and weight gain. Increased plasma levels of the cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble TNF receptors p55 and p75, as well as toxic metabolites of clozapine, have been suggested as the basis for these side-effects,
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In the mouse forced-swimming model, dose-dependent reversal of immobility was induced by the alpha-agonist clonidine given IP 30 min before testing. In addition, three preferential inhibitors of 5-HT uptake (citalopram, indalpine and fluvoxamine) had similar activity in the dose range 8-16 mg/kg as did the 5-HT1 agonist 8-OH-DPAT (1-4 mg/kg). Pretreatment with alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (100 mg/kg) did not prevent clonidine (1 mg/kg) action, suggesting that there was mediation by alpha post-junctional receptors. The effect of clonidine was unaltered by prazosin (2 mg/kg) and reversed by yohimbine (4 mg/kg) and 5-MeODMT (1 mg/kg), whereas it was potentiated by reserpine (2.5 mg/kg), methysergide (2 mg/kg) and ketanserin (8 mg/kg). Moreover, an ineffective dose of clonidine (0.06 mg/kg at 45 min pre-testing) made active subthreshold doses of various antidepressants (given at 30 min pre-testing): imipramine (4 mg/kg), amitriptyline (1 mg/kg), maprotiline (8 mg/kg), citalopram (2 mg/kg), indalpine, fluvoxamine and mianserin (4 mg/kg), viloxazine (2 mg/kg). Similar interactions were found with iprindole and nialamide (32 mg/kg), which were inactive alone up to 64 mg/kg, and 8-OH-DPAT (0.5 mg/kg) but not with major and minor tranquillizers. It is suggested that one effect of antidepressants might be the triggering of different relationships between alpha-2 and 5-HT mechanisms.
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Stimulation of a restricted area of the rat's hypothalamus elicits unprovoked violent attacks of a species-specific and strain-specific nature. Serotonergic drugs affecting 5HT1 receptors, propranolol, the 5HT re-uptake inhibitor fluvoxamine, and the anxiolytic oxazepam, inhibit hypothalamic attack selectively. However, hypothalamic attack is extremely unsensitive for many drugs that do affect attack provoked by natural stimuli. The pharmacology, the form, the impulsive nature, the absence of preliminaries, the insensitivity for contexts and ultimate aims of aggressive behaviour, suggest that a mechanism with the limited function of damaging adversaries of any kind is activated in the hypothalamus. This hypothalamic attack release mechanism (harm) requires specific sensory input for the expression of specific motor components, such as biting and kicking. The back and dorsal part of the opponent's head are the important attack releasing and directing stimuli. Attacks of this nature are part of the "aggressive" repertoire of the rat in natural settings. "Lateral" or "sideways" postures, specific for intermale fighting cannot be induced by hypothalamic stimulation. Drug, lesion, and stimulation studies suggest that attack and "sideways" postures are under the control of different central mechanisms. These results suggest new ways to describe the patterning of aggressive behaviour. There are interesting ethopharmacological similarities between hypothalamic responses and obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) in man. It is suggested that further study of the ethopharmacology of hypothalamic responses may shed light on the pathophysiology of impulsive behavioural symptoms which in man seem to be beyond the control of appraisal or context.
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The authors reviewed books and PubMed online articles published in the last 6 years.
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Results of the study indicate that the short-term outcome of exposure in vivo treatment can be enhanced by adding fluvoxamine treatment. Psychological panic management combined with exposure was not superior to exposure alone of equal duration.
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The principal stakes of depression treatment are to accelerate and enhance the clinical effects of antidepressant drug. The onset of antidepressant action of Serotonin (5HT) selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) was attributed in part to the decrease in firing activity of serotonin neurons produced by the activation of raphe 5HT1A autoreceptors at the time of treatment initiation. Pindolol, an antagonist at somatodendritic pre-synaptic 5HT1A receptors has been investigated as a potential accelerator or potentialisator of antidepressant response. Six open label studies and 12 controlled studies were identified for revue. The first open-label pilot study was conducted by Artigas et al. They showed promising results with pindolol, both in the acceleration of antidepressant response and in improving the efficacy of antidepressant. On the basis of these results five open-label studies were conducted. The open label studies suggest that pindolol accelerate the antidepressant response of serotoninergics therapeutics. The augmentation of antidepressant response was not clearly demonstrated by these studies particularly in the treatment of refractory depression. For example, Dinan et Scott that found the addition of pindolol in association with SSRI therapy had a poor efficacy. In the twelve controlled studies, 4 tried to underscore the shortening of the onset and the augmentation of efficacy of SSRI by pindolol [Berman et al., Maes et al., Perez et al., Tome et al. ], 3 tried to underscore shortening of the onset [Bordet, Zanardi ] and 3 tried to underscore the augmentation of efficacy [Maes et al., Moreno et al., Perez et al. ]. One study tried to underscore the augmentation of efficacy of sleep deprivation by pindolol and another one the shortening of the onset of ECT. Six studies included depressive resistant patients. Three studies were carried out with fluoxetine, 1 with fluvoxamine, 3 with paroxetine, 1 with trazodone. Two -studies were investigated with several antidepressant treatments. The results of the studies indicate one acceleration of antidepressant response in 6 studies, one augmentation of efficacy in 5 studies. Two studies clearly demonstrate that pindolol may -augment and accelerate antidepressant response. Three studies did not confirm these observations. Several points can be examined. For pindolol: 3 authors have demonstrated that the effect of pindolol did not rely upon small antidepressant effect mediated by b-blockers properties, because anxiety was not predominantly improved by pindolol plus SSRI while depressive symptoms were clearly improved. On the basis of data issues from recent positron emission tomography (PET) studies, several authors suggested that the dose of pindolol used in most clinical trials (3 yen 2,5 mg day-1) might be insufficient to induce a substantial occupancy of 5-HTA receptors (Rabiner et al. It is possible that higher doses will show a more evident benefit. On the whole, pindolol seemed to be well tolerated. Adverse effects most commonly reported were increased irritability, insomnia and nausea. Pindolol had poor adverse effects in cardiovascular functions. The variation of the results of the controlled studies can be explained by different points: Firstly by difficulty to determine good criterion of resistance. The most simplistic definition of treatment resistance is the failure to achieve and sustain euthymia with adequate antidepressant treatment. Secondly by the fact that depressive patients who present antecedents of depressive illness seem to be worst responders to the association pindolol/serotoninergic antidepressant than patients suffering of first episode of depression. We observed one antecedent of depression in the group of resistant patients who were good responders to the association pindolol/antidepressant therapy. We observed three anterior episodes of depression in negatives studies of the association pindolol/antidepressant therapy. Thirdly by the fact that the failure of the antidepressant treatment at the time of earlier (or actual) episode seems to be a criterion for less responsiveness to the association of this antidepressant treatment with pindolol. In fact, the open label studies who demonstrated efficacy of the association between pindolol and serotoninergic therapy in major resistant depression were realized with new antidepressant molecule for the episode. Other controlled trials could confirm these facts. Most of the studies failed to retrace clearly the historicity of depression, and it may be interesting in future investigations to analyze the response of the association -compared to the status of the patient with the antidepressant therapy. Further perspective could be envisaged especially in the utilization of pindolol for the treatment of pathologies which are usually treated with a serotoninergic antidepressant -therapy. For example, the antagonist 5HT(1A) Way 100635 was experimented with success in animals in order to augment the efficacy of clomipramine in the treatment of chronic pain. In other respects several psychopharmacogenetics studies could be investigated to examine, for instance, the role of the 5-HT transporter and its implication in the response to pindolol and antidepressant association. In summary, pindolol accele-rates, and in some cases enhances the clinical action of antidepressant drugs. It appears that this augmentation strategy has more limited effect on treatment resistant patient but there is experimental evidence for using higher doses in future augmentation trial.
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Adverse event reporting associated with fluvoxamine demonstrates the Weber effect. Adverse events related to fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline do not exhibit the Weber effect. Fluoxetine-related adverse events peaked at year 3, with peaks also occurring during the 10th and 12th years after market entry. Adverse event reports associated with paroxetine and sertraline use increased 5-8 years after market entry.
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The striatum is richly innervated by serotonergic afferents from the raphe nucleus. We explored the effects of this input on striatal cholinergic interneurons from rat brain slices, by means of both conventional intracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Bath-applied serotonin (5-HT, 3-300 microM), induced a dose-dependent membrane depolarization and increased the rate of spiking. This effect was mimicked by the 5-HT reuptake blockers citalopram and fluvoxamine. In voltage-clamped neurons, 5-HT induced an inward current, whose reversal potential was close to the K(+) equilibrium potential. Accordingly, the involvement of K(+) channels was confirmed either by increasing extracellular K(+) concentration and by blockade of K(+) channels with barium. Single-cell reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) profiling demonstrated the presence of 5-HT2C, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptor mRNAs in identified cholinergic interneurons. The depolarization/inward current induced by 5-HT was partially mimicked by the 5-HT2 receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine and antagonized by both ketanserin and the selective 5-HT2C antagonist RS102221, whereas the selective 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists tropisetron and RS23597-190 had no effect. The depolarizing response to 5-HT was also reduced by the selective 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB258585 and SB269970, respectively, and mimicked by the 5-HT7 agonist, 5-CT. Accordingly, activation of either 5-HT6 or 5-HT7 receptor induced an inward current. The 5-HT response was attenuated by U73122, blocker of phospholipase C, and by SQ22,536, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase. These results suggest that 5-HT released by serotonergic fibers originating in the raphe nuclei has a potent excitatory effect on striatal cholinergic interneurons.
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Fifteen patients with MinD and 15 patients with SSD were identified from primary care clinics, referrals and newspaper advertisements. Patients signed informed consent and were offered open label treatment with fluvoxamine 25-100 mg/day. Patients were seen biweekly and measures of functional impairment and depressive symptomatology were gathered systematically.
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The efficacy and tolerability of fluvoxamine (100-300 mg/day) and clomipramine (100-250 mg/day) were compared in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study of 79 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without coexisting major depression. After a 2-week placebo lead-in period, patients were randomized to fluvoxamine (37 patients) or clomipramine (42 patients) for 10 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the National Institute of Mental Health Obsessive-Compulsive scale, and Patient and Clinical Global Improvement scales. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores and somatic symptoms were also assessed. Seventy-eight percent of fluvoxamine patients and 64% of clomipramine patients completed the study. At the end of treatment, 56% of fluvoxamine patients were classified as responders (> or = 25% decrease in Y-BOCS score), compared with 54% of clomipramine patients. Both groups showed steady improvement throughout the study; no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups for any efficacy variable at any time. A similar percentage of patients in both groups withdrew because of adverse events. No serious adverse events related to drug occurred with either drug. Insomnia, nervousness, and dyspepsia were more statistically frequent with fluvoxamine; dry mouth and postural hypotension were more frequent with clomipramine. In this study, fluvoxamine and clomipramine were equally effective in reducing OCD symptoms over a 10-week treatment period but displayed different side effect profiles.
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The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of low-dose fluvoxamine (1.5 mg/kg/day) in youngsters with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). This was a prospective, open-label trial that included 18 subjects with a mean age of 11.3 +/- 3.6 years. Fourteen children (78%) completed the 10-week study. Premature discontinuation due to behavioral activation occurred in three participants. Although there was no response for the group as a whole, eight subjects (including all four females) were considered at least partial responders in intent-to-treat analyses. Neither pubertal status nor serotonin levels predicted clinical response. Fluvoxamine can be beneficial in the treatment of select children and adolescents with PDDs. Gender differences in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) response warrant further investigation.
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The atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine (CLZ) is effective in a substantial number of patients who exhibit treatment-resistance to conventional agents. CYP1A2 is generally considered to be the major enzyme involved in the biotransformation of CLZ to its N-demethylated (norCLZ) and N-oxygenated (CLZ N-oxide) metabolites in liver, but several studies have also implicated CYP3A4. The present study assessed the interplay between these cytochrome P450s (P450s) in CLZ biotransformation in a panel of hepatic microsomal fractions from 14 individuals. The relative activity of P450s 1A2 and 3A4 in microsomes was found to be a major determinant of the relative susceptibility of norCLZ formation to inhibition by the P450-selective inhibitors fluvoxamine and ketoconazole. In contrast, the activity of CYP3A4 alone was correlated with the susceptibility of CLZ N-oxide formation to inhibition by these agents. These findings suggest that both P450s may be dominant CLZ oxidases in patients and that the relative activities of these enzymes may determine clearance pathways. In vivo assessment of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activities, perhaps by phenotyping approaches, could assist the optimization of CLZ dosage and minimize pharmacokinetic interactions with coadministered drugs.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate which clinical variables might influence the antiobsessional response to proserotonergic drugs in a sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One hundred fifty-nine patients with DSM-IV OCD underwent a 12-week standardized treatment with fluvoxamine, clomipramine, citalopram, or paroxetine. According to treatment response, defined as a reduction of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale total score >35%, patients were divided into two groups. Ninety patients (56.6%) responded to treatment and 69 (43.4%) did not. Responders had a significantly higher frequency of positive family history for OCD (FH-OCD) in their first-degree relatives, whereas nonresponders had an earlier onset and a higher frequency of "poor insight" subtype and somatic obsessions. The predictive value of all these variables was tested by a stepwise logistic regression analysis that confirmed poor insight and FH-OCD to be the best predictors of poor and good drug treatment response, respectively. These preliminary findings need additional investigations toward a better definition of the genetic and biological heterogeneity of patients with OCD, and they underlie the importance of collecting the insight score and family history for psychiatric disorders in the pretreatment assessment.
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These findings show that functional regulation of presynaptic CaM kinase II is selectively affected by different psychotropic drugs, and suggest local synaptic mechanisms for pharmacological regulation of the kinase.
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Classic antidepressant drugs, amine uptake inhibitors of the imipramine type and the monoamine oxidase inhibitors, alter the functioning of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurons in the brain. This discovery, made more than two decades ago, has had a profound impact on the study of depressive illness as well as on the development of new models of antidepressant treatment. Apart from their obvious clinical value, antidepressant drugs have come to be used as research tools to study the pathophysiology of depressive illness. A main goal in the development of antidepressant drugs has been to design drugs with more selective effects on the nerve cells that are thought to be important in depressive illness, thereby avoiding unnecessary side effects and possibly enhancing therapeutic effects. Drugs that selectively affect 5-HT neurons have proved to be uptake inhibitors--including fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, and citalopram--and are now available. All of them appear to have an antidepressant effect equivalent to standard reference compounds, with a different spectrum of side effects. One of the most interesting aspects of the serotonergic drugs is their broad spectrum of action, in particular, their effects in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and possibly some disorders of impulse control. There is still relatively little knowledge of which aspects of 5-HT function are important for the antidepressant, antiobsessive, and antipanic effects. The availability of drugs that selectively affect the different 5-HT receptors, such as the partial 5-HT1A agonist gepirone, will presumably be helpful for modern studies of the "anatomy of melancholy."
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Reviewed data demonstrate that social phobia is the only pediatric anxiety disorder whose response to antidepressant medications has been investigated in an adequate number of studies. In this clinical condition, venlafaxine and fluoxetine (and fluvoxamine as second choice) are the only antidepressants that have shown convincing reports on efficacy. In contrast, apart from preliminary observations suggesting the efficacy of sertraline in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder, no evidence-based information definitively supports the use of antidepressants for managing other juvenile anxiety disorders.
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We have studied fasting plasma tryptophan (TRP) levels and tryptophan/large neutral amino acid (TRP/LNAA) ratios in 12 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 12 patients with OCD and a coexisting current diagnosis of major depressive disorder (OCD-MDD). Assessments were made at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment with fluvoxamine. OCD-MDD patients had significantly lower baseline TRP levels and TRP/LNAA ratios than OCD patients. After 6 weeks of fluvoxamine treatment, OCD-MDD patients had significant increases in plasma TRP and TRP/LNAA ratio, whereas OCD patients had non-significant decreases. Our data suggest that a major depressive syndrome could be a state variable affecting the changes in plasma TRP and TRP/LNAA ratio in OCD patients.
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Comparative study of the peculiarities of clinical action of fluoxetine and fluvoxamine in 65 patients with endogenous depressions revealed their high efficiency (in 74.3% and 64.3% respectively). Fluoxetine was characterised by predominance of a stimulating effect from the first days of treatment as well as by relatively late manifestation of very thymoleptic and tranquilizing impact (during 3-4 weeks). Fluvoxamin displayed relatively uniform occurrence of separate clinical effects together with predominance and early appearance of antidepressive influence. On the basis of the comparison of the peculiarities of either clinical action of fluoxetine and fluvoxamin or their side effects with those of traditional antidepressive drugs (amitryptilin and ludiomil) the preferable indications for their prescription were determined. Thus fluoxetine was very good in treatment of apathetic-adynamic depressions while fluvoxamin was recommended for therapy of anxious and melancholic depressions. Antidepressants studied were ranked in the following way in terms of decrease of sedative effect and increase of stimulating action: amitryptilin, fluvoxamin, ludiomil, fluoxetine. The proper thymoleptic effect of fluoxetine and fluvoxamin exceeded the same effect of amitryptilin and ludiomil.
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The results showed a statistically significant median reduction of 2944% in the quinidine total apparent oral clearance, partial clearances by 3-hydroxylation and N-oxidation and residual clearance during fluvoxamine treatment. Renal clearance was unaffected by fluvoxamine.
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A literature search and a search of unpublished documents were performed. Eligible studies focusing on MD patients treated with second-generation antidepressants were entered in the analysis. Our primary outcome measures were insomnia and somnolence rates induced by antidepressants as compared with those associated with placebo. Sensitivity analyses were carried out as well.
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Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) arise when an individual's sleep-wake rhythm mismatches the environmental 24-h schedule. Physiological data and genetic studies in patients with CRSDs suggest that these disorders result from abnormal functioning of the circadian timing system. Diagnosis involves recognition of the characteristics of CRSDs, which can be achieved by clinical interview and actigraphic monitoring of rest-activity patterns. Bright-light therapy and melatonin administration have proved to be the most effective treatment modalities of CRSDs. In psychiatric practice, CRSDs can be encountered on various occasions. Some evidence indicates that a deviant sleep-wake schedule might be a predisposing factor to personality disorders. CRSDs can emerge as an iatrogenic effect of certain psychoactive drugs, such as haloperidol and fluvoxamine. It is not uncommon that the daytime functional difficulties that accompany CRSDs are misinterpreted as symptoms of psychopathology. Recognition and awareness of these disorders should prevent years of erroneous diagnosis and treatment in these patients.
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Fitting models to incomplete categorical data requires more care than fitting models to the complete data counterparts, not only in the setting of missing data that are non-randomly missing, but even in the familiar missing at random setting. Various aspects of this point of view have been considered in the literature. We review it using data from a multi-centre trial on the relief of psychiatric symptoms. First, it is shown how the usual expected information matrix (referred to as naive information) is biased even under a missing at random mechanism. Second, issues that arise under non-random missingness assumptions are illustrated. It is argued that at least some of these problems can be avoided using contextual information.
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Under double-blind conditions, 93 hospitalized patients older than 59 years, who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for a major depressive episode, were randomly assigned to receive sertraline (150 mg daily) or fluvoxamine (200 mg daily) for 7 weeks. The clinical response was defined as a reduction on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score to 8 or below.