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Lopressor (Metoprolol)

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Lopressor is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of high blood pressure. It also can be used in the treatment of chest pain, heart attacks.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Toprol XL


Also known as:  Metoprolol.


Lopressor is a perfect remedy. Its target is to struggle against high blood pressure. It also can be used in the treatment of chest pain, heart attacks.

Lopressor acts by slowing the heart rate and relaxing the blood vessels. It is beta blocker.

Lopressor is also known as Toprol-XL, Metoprolol, Protomet, Lopresor, Lopresar.

Generic name of Lopressor is Metoprolol Tartrate.

Brand names of Lopressor are Toprol-XL, Lopressor.


Take Lopressor tablets orally with water.

Take Lopressor once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Lopressor suddenly.


If you overdose Lopressor and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Lopressor overdosage: fainting, difficulty, breathing or swallowing, swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs, lightheadedness.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Lopressor are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Lopressor if you are allergic to Lopressor components.

Do not take Lopressor if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Lopressor if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Lopressor in case of taking cimetidine (Tagamet), clonidine (Catapres), diphenhydramine (Benadryl), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), hydroxychloroquine, paroxetine (Paxil), propafenone (Rythmol), quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex), ranitidine (Zantac), reserpine (Serpalan, Serpasil, Serpatab), ritonavir (Norvir), terbinafine (Lamisil),and thioridazine (Mellaril), bupropion (Wellbutrin).

Be careful with Lopressor if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Lopressor if you suffer from or have a history of heart or liver disease; diabetes; severe allergies; or an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism), slow heart rate, heart failure, problems with blood circulation, or pheochromocytoma (a tumor that develops on a gland near the kidneys and may cause high blood pressure and fast heartbeat), had asthma or other lung disease.

Use Lopressor with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

Do not stop taking Lopressor suddenly.

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Seventeen patients suffering from angina pectoris completed a double-blind trial comparing the efficacy and safety of metoprolol Durules administered once daily and metoprolol tablets administered twice daily both at a daily dosage of 200 mg. In terms of anginal attacks and nitroglycerine consumption, there was no difference between the two regimens. Neither the diurnal distribution of attacks nor the patient interview revealed any significant differences between the two regimens. Heart rate, blood pressure and plasma levels of metoprolol were also similar on conventional tablets 100 mg b.d. and Durules 200 mg once daily. These findings indicate that once daily administration of metoprolol Durules is an effective and safe therapy in angina pectoris.

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Both drugs were well tolerated but the vasodilator properties of celiprolol do not seem to provide any obvious additional benefit in the long term treatment of heart failure.

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Electronic databases through May 20, 2012.

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Recent randomized clinical trials have shown that total mortality and cardiovascular mortality are reduced by the early intravenous administration of beta-blockers to patients suspected of suffering from acute myocardial infarction. These trials were conducted on patients meeting strict entry criteria. In order to assess this therapy when applied to a broader range of myocardial infarction patients, we performed a Phase IV study of metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction. The study was designed to test whether early (less than 8 hours from onset of chest pain) intervention by practicing physicians with open label intravenous metoprolol for cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction achieved mortality results similar to those obtained in large randomized clinical trials. We studied 3824 patients treated by 741 physicians representing a broad spectrum of clinical practice in the United States. Seventy-two percent of the patients entered into the study had confirmed myocardial infarction (39% anterior, 39% inferior, 22% other locations) and 85% of all individuals treated tolerated the full intravenous dose of 15 mg of metoprolol. The 15 day total mortality and cardiovascular mortality rates were 4.9% and 4.5%; 90 day mortality rates were 6.9 and 5.9%. Patients with anterior infarctions had a significantly greater cumulative mortality rate than patients with other types of infarctions. Marked bradycardia (heart rate less than 45 beats per minute) in the first 8 hours post treatment occurred in 4.7% cases and hypotension (systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg) occurred in 9.8% of cases. When compared with the results of the Göteborg and MIAMI trials of metoprolol, it appears that there is no appreciable increase in mortality or morbidity when metoprolol is used in the community practice of acute coronary care.

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A 68-year-old non-diabetic physician with a known psychiatric history was found dead in his home. The death scene investigation revealed three used insulin syringes on the coffee table next to the body. The autopsy and the consecutive chemical-toxicological investigation revealed that the deceased committed suicide by injecting an overdose of insulin in combination with a high therapeutic oral bolus application of a beta-blocker (Metoprolol). A surprising morphological finding was a terminal pulmonary thromboembolism in the right pulmonary artery.

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A search using Pubmed was performed to identify reports in English. The search terms were: "statins", "perioperative morbidity", "perioperative mortality" and "vascular surgery". We excluded studies dealing with the effect of statins in cardiac surgery. Retrieved articles were manually searched.

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The aim of this study was to investigate whether nebivolol has added effects on left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and remodeling early after myocardial infarction (MI) beyond its β₁-receptor-blocking properties.

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Subjects in whom it was found that after a month's treatment with beta-blockers there was a fall of not less than 10 mmHg in systolic blood pressure persisting 54 h after cessation of treatment were considered to have "adapted". Significant falls of blood pressure and heart rate were observed, and were still present after two further weeks of treatment with placebo, but these adaptations were not correlated with each other. Fourteen hypertensive patients and five normotensive subjects received oral propranolol 80 mg, or metoprolol 100 mg, twice daily for 5 days. They were studied before treatment, and 54 h after the last dose. Drug administration was continued for a further 26 days, and the subjects were again examined 54 h after cessation of treatment. Blood was withdrawn at the times of study and contained negligible amounts of drug in the plasma. Records were made of blood pressure and ECG at rest and after exercise, the post-exercise QT being measured at a heart rate of exactly 100 beats per minute, obviating the need for any correction of QT. QT intervals were significantly prolonged, both at rest and on exercise. Responses to intravenous propranolol 10 mg or metoprolol 20 mg were also measured during the study periods, and no hypersensitivity to the drugs was found at rest or after exercise.

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The bioavailability patterns of a 100 mg metoprolol controlled release tablet and a 10 mg bisoprolol normal release tablet were compared in a single dose crossover study in 12 healthy subjects. The plasma drug concentration levels were measured for 36 h post-dose, using HPLC with fluorimetric detection. The 2 formulations were equally well tolerated, headache being the most frequently reported adverse event. Episodes of bradycardia (heart rate < 50 bpm) occurred at a similar rate with both formulations. The plasma metoprolol profile differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the bisoprolol profile regarding time to maximum concentration, mean residence time, the ratio of peak concentration (Cmax) to the area under the curve (AUC) and the plateau time as estimated from the half-value duration. The average drug plasma concentration observed 24 h after administration still accounted for 54% of the Cmax value for the metoprolol controlled release tablet, but only 23% with the bisoprolol normal release tablet. A large inter-individual variability was seen in the bioavailability of metoprolol, with 3 subjects (characterised as CYP2D6 deficient) exhibiting AUC values 8 - 10 times larger than in the other subjects. The controlled release pattern of the formulation was similar in slow and fast metabolizers. No such variability pattern was apparent for bisoprolol. The findings allow to conclude that, after administration of the metoprolol controlled release tablet, the rate of absorption of the active principle is significantly slower, therefore yielding more constant plasma concentration levels over the 24 h post-dose period, than after administration of the bisoprolol normal release tablet.

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The selectivity of acebutolol, atenolol, and metoprolol in healthy volunteers was estimated by determining the extent to which the drugs occupied beta 1-receptors of rabbit lung and beta 2-receptors of rat reticulocytes in the circulating plasma after drug intake. This ex vivo method had the advantage of including all drug components contributing to the drug-receptor equilibrium in vivo and of excluding the factors regulating organ sensitivity to catecholamine stimulation. The oral doses of 400 mg acebutolol, 100 mg atenolol, and 100 mg metoprolol were administered to six healthy male volunteers using a double-blind, randomized, and cross-over study design. The three drugs occupied beta 1-receptors to a similar extent at 2 hours after drug intake. The receptor fraction occupied by metoprolol at 3 to 8 hours after drug intake was usually smaller, however (analysis of variance for repeated measures, P < .05) than that of the other drugs. Acebutolol occupied significantly larger fractions of beta 2-receptors (analysis of variance for repeated measures, P < .05) than did atenolol and metoprolol. Therefore, at an identical beta 1-receptor occupancy, the beta 2-receptor occupancy of acebutolol was larger than that of the other agents. Apparently, active metabolites decreased markedly the selectivity of acebutolol, but not that of metoprolol. The receptor occupancy of the agents was well in agreement with the literature concerning the selectivity, intensity, and time-course of drug actions after identical doses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Fresh RPE-choroid specimens from bovine eyes were placed in diffusion chambers for permeability experiments with carboxyfluorescein, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextrans with molecular masses from 4 to 80 kDa, and beta-blockers exhibiting a wide range of lipophilicity (atenolol, nadolol, pindolol, timolol, metoprolol, and betaxolol). Permeability experiments were performed both in the choroid-to-retina (inward) direction and in the retina-to-choroid (outward) direction. Carboxyfluorescein and FITC-dextrans were determined by fluorometry, and beta-blockers by HPLC. The transepithelial electrical resistance and potential difference were monitored during the experiments.

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In 539 patients 5 years after myocardial infarction (MI), quality of life and factors influencing life quality were studied. All patients originally participated in an early intervention trial with metoprolol. A cardiac follow-up questionnaire and the Nottingham Health Profile were answered by 82%. In the former, information about subjective symptoms, smoking, work and current medication was obtained; the latter described health-related quality of life in terms of energy, sleep, emotions, mobility, pain and social isolation. The rate of and the reasons for rehospitalization were registered in the patients' records. The MI patients reported a comparatively high quality of life. Compared with 'normal' population, a decrease was noted in energy, sleep and mobility, and in sex life, hobby-activity and holiday activity. A nonparametric multivariate analysis disclosed that dyspnoea, angina pectoris and anxiety were closely associated with decreased quality of life. In conclusion, 5 years after MI most patients seemed well-adjusted. Impaired quality of life was reported by patients suffering from angina pectoris, dyspnoea and emotional distress. No relationship was found between health-related quality of life and the beta blocker, metoprolol, which was the most frequently used drug.

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Beta (β) blockers are indicated for use in coronary artery disease (CAD). However, optimal therapy for people with CAD accompanied by intermittent claudication has been controversial because of the presumed peripheral haemodynamic consequences of beta blockers, leading to worsening symptoms of intermittent claudication. This is an update of a review first published in 2008.

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Pharmacogenetics is the study of genetic basis in the individual response to drugs. A thorough knowledge of this will lead to a future where tailor-made drugs, suiting an individual, can be used. Scandinavian countries have been known for wide usage of pharmacogenetics and the most widely used application is for genotyping CYP2D6 in treating psychiatric illness. The CYP-450 enzyme, a super family of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes, is the most important of enzymes that catalyzes phase-I drug metabolism reaction. CYP2D6 is a member of this family and it has been most intensively studied and the best example of pharmacogenetics variation in drug metabolism. Neuro-transmitter and drug acting CNS viz. codeine, dextromethorphan, metoprolol and tryptyline etc. are well metabolized by this enzyme. Thus, CYP2D6 is one of the most important and responsible enzymes which regulates bioavailability and metabolism of drug. Presently 75 alleles of CYP2D6 have been described which are responsible for variance of metabolism and toxicity of drugs. Thus, by determining variance of CYP2D6 using molecular approaches viz., PCR, real-time PCR, DNA micro-array and molecular docking can determine the adverse effects, drug toxicity, bioavailability and therapeutic potential of new drug.

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The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is one of the key mediators in cardiac remodelling occurring after myocardial infarction (MI) and in hypertensive heart disease. The TGF-β-stimulated clone 22 (TSC-22) is a leucine zipper protein expressed in many tissues and possessing various transcription-modulating activities. However, its function in the heart remains unknown.

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Results of the investigation of metoprolol CR/XL which was conducted in large randomized controlled study MERIT-HF in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are presented. In the whole trial this beta1-selective blocker lowered mortality of patients with CHF. Analysis of results in subgroups shows that metoprolol CR/XL was equally effective in middle aged and old patients, in men and women.

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It is well established that the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) exhibits a robust ligand-independent activity, whereas this property is considerably weaker in the closely related beta1-AR subtype. To identify the potential domain(s) of beta2-AR responsible for the spontaneous receptor activation, we created three chimeras in which the third intracellular loop (beta1/beta2-Li3) or the carboxyl terminus (beta1/beta2-CT) or both domains (beta1/beta2-Li3CT) of beta1-AR are replaced by the corresponding parts of the beta2-AR. Using adenoviral gene transfer, we individually expressed these beta1/beta2-AR chimeras in mouse cardiomyocytes lacking both native beta1-AR and beta2-AR (beta1/beta2 double knockout), and examined their possible spontaneous activities. Overexpression of these beta1/beta2-AR chimeras markedly elevated basal cAMP accumulation and myocyte contractility in the absence of agonist stimulation compared with those infected by a control adenovirus expressing beta-galactosidase or an adenovirus expressing wild type beta1-AR. These effects were fully reversed by a beta2-AR inverse agonist, (+/-)-1-[2,3-(dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol (ICI 118,551; 5 x 10-7 M), regardless of inhibition of Gi with pertussis toxin, but not by a panel of beta1-AR antagonists, including [2-(3-carbamoyl-4-hydroxyphenoxy)-ethylamino]-3-[4-(1-methyl-4-trifluormethyl-2-imidazolyl)-phenoxy]-2-propanolmethanesulfonate (CGP20712A), betaxolol, bisoprolol, and metoprolol. Furthermore, we have shown that the C-terminal postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/ZO-1 (PDZ) motif of beta1-AR is not responsible for the lack of beta1-AR spontaneous activation, although it has been known that the beta1-AR PDZ motif prevents the receptor from undergoing agonist-induced trafficking and Gi coupling in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, the present results indicate that both the third intracellular loop and the C terminus are involved in beta2-AR spontaneous activation and that either domain seems to be sufficient to confer the receptor spontaneous activity.

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Chiral separations of five β-adrenergic antagonists (propranolol, esmolol, atenolol, metoprolol, and bisoprolol) were studied by capillary electrophoresis using six cyclodextrins (CDs) as the chiral selectors. Carboxymethylated-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) exhibited a higher enantioselectivity power compared to the other tested CDs. The influences of the concentration of CM-β-CD, buffer pH, buffer concentration, temperature, and applied voltage were investigated. The good chiral separation of five β-adrenergic antagonists was achieved using 50 mM Tris buffer at pH 4.0 containing 8 mM CM-β-CD with an applied voltage of 24 kV at 20 °C. In order to understand possible chiral recognition mechanisms of these racemates with CM-β-CD, host-guest binding procedures of CM-β-CD and these racemates were studied using the molecular docking software Autodock. The binding free energy was calculated using the Autodock semi-empirical binding free energy function. The results showed that the phenyl or naphthyl ring inserted in the hydrophobic cavity of CM-β-CD and the side chain was found to point out of the cyclodextrin rim. Hydrogen bonding between CM-β-CD and these racemates played an important role in the process of enantionseparation and a model of the hydrogen bonding interaction positions was constructed. The difference in hydrogen bonding formed with the -OH next to the chiral center of the analytes may help to increase chiral discrimination and gave rise to a bigger separation factor. In addition, the longer side chain in the hydrophobic phenyl ring of the enantiomer was not beneficial for enantioseparation and the chiral selectivity factor was found to correspond to the difference in binding free energy.

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Patients referred to coronary CTA with a HR >65 beats/min despite oral metoprolol premedication were enrolled in the study. We studied 412 patients (211 male; mean age, 57 ± 12 years). Two hundred four patients received intravenous esmolol, and 208 received intravenous metoprolol with a stepwise bolus administration protocol. HR and blood pressure were recorded at arrival, before, during, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the coronary CTA scan.

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The responsiveness to β-blockers with respect to cardiac contractility is determined by the Arg389Gly β(1)AR gene polymorphism. These findings offer a molecular explanation for interindividual differences in the responsiveness to β-blocker treatment in humans.

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For local administration of drugs or enzyme inhibitors in the human gut, a small-bore, smooth tube was introduced through the nose, retrieved from the pharynx, equipped with a firm radio-opaque capsule, and swallowed. Peristalsis moves the capsule to the desired location in the gut where it is anchored before administration via the tube. Drug uptake is followed by plasma sampling. One capsule type is used for solutions, another for solid formulations. With solutions, repeated administrations could be done with the capsule being anchored for 24h or longer or, alternatively, at several locations along the gut. This communication presents the method and an overview of 13 uptake and enzyme/transporter localization studies. Altogether, 268 intubations were undertaken in a total of 128 subjects. Plasma concentrations found with terbutaline and metoprolol are presented showing that terbutaline has its best uptake in the upper small intestine, whereas metoprolol shows the same bioavailability along the whole gut. Subjects could undertake most of their normal activities while carrying the equipment. No serious adverse events (AEs) occurred. Possibly intubation-related AEs were abdominal pain (n=8) and constipation (n=5). In conclusion, the method has been found to be safe, convenient and multifunctional for studies of drug uptake at predetermined gut locations in healthy subjects.

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Protein kinase (PK)Calpha, PKCbeta, and PKCgamma comprise the conventional PKC isoform subfamily, which is thought to regulate cardiac disease responsiveness. Indeed, mice lacking the gene for PKCalpha show enhanced cardiac contractility and reduced susceptibility to heart failure. Recent data also suggest that inhibition of conventional PKC isoforms with Ro-32-0432 or Ro-31-8220 enhances heart function and antagonizes failure, although the isoform responsible for these effects is unknown. Here, we investigated mice lacking PKCalpha, PKCbeta, and PKCgamma for effects on cardiac contractility and heart failure susceptibility. PKCalpha(-/-) mice, but not PKCbetagamma(-/-) mice, showed increased cardiac contractility, myocyte cellular contractility, Ca(2+) transients, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load. PKCalpha(-/-) mice were less susceptible to heart failure following long-term pressure-overload stimulation or 4 weeks after myocardial infarction injury, whereas PKCbetagamma(-/-) mice showed more severe failure. Infusion of ruboxistaurin (LY333531), an orally available PKCalpha/beta/gamma inhibitor, increased cardiac contractility in wild-type and PKCbetagamma(-/-) mice, but not in PKCalpha(-/-) mice. More importantly, ruboxistaurin prevented death in wild-type mice throughout 10 weeks of pressure-overload stimulation, reduced ventricular dilation, enhanced ventricular performance, reduced fibrosis, and reduced pulmonary edema comparable to or better than metoprolol treatment. Ruboxistaurin was also administered to PKCbetagamma(-/-) mice subjected to pressure overload, resulting in less death and heart failure, implicating PKCalpha as the primary target of this drug in mitigating heart disease. As an aside, PKCalphabetagamma triple-null mice showed no defect in cardiac hypertrophy following pressure-overload stimulation. In conclusion, PKCalpha functions distinctly from PKCbeta and PKCgamma in regulating cardiac contractility and heart failure, and broad-acting PKC inhibitors such as ruboxistaurin could represent a novel therapeutic approach in treating human heart failure.

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The terminology, pathophysiology, and therapy of acute hypertensive emergencies of pregnancy are reviewed. A hypertensive emergency of pregnancy can be defined to include any of the following: (1) an acute increase in blood pressure to values greater than 160/110 mm Hg, (2) development of symptoms consistent with severe preeclampsia, or (3) symptoms consistent with known complications of uncontrolled blood pressure. A hypertensive emergency requires hospitalization, immediate antihypertensive treatment to reduce maternal blood pressure without substantially decreasing placental perfusion and compromising the fetus, and delivery of the infant as soon as possible. Hydralazine has been shown to decrease blood pressure effectively in hypertensive emergencies of pregnancy. Although many institutions consider hydralazine the antihypertensive agent of choice in pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, there have been no comparative studies to document that hydralazine is the safest or most efficacious agent and only one human study evaluated its effects on maternal blood pressure, fetal heart rate, growth retardation, and uterine activity. Based on available data, minibolus doses or infusion over 20-30 minutes of diazoxide may prove to be safe and effective alternatives to hydralazine, but more data are needed. Nitroprusside may have a role in the short-term treatment of patients unresponsive or intolerant to hydralazine, but human studies are needed before nitroprusside can be recommended routinely. Methyldopa cannot be considered a first-choice agent for the rapid reduction of blood pressure because of its slow onset of action. Further studies are needed before propranolol, i.v. nitroglycerin, captopril, clonidine, minoxidil, naldolol, atenolol, or metoprolol can be recommended. Until further studies are conducted, hydralazine will continue to be the treatment of choice for hypertensive emergencies of pregnancy.

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PAH P-ECs overexpressed the proinflammatory mediators interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, fibroblast growth factor-2, and the potent vasoconstrictive agent endothelin-1 as compared with control cells. This pathological phenotype was corrected by nebivolol but not metoprolol in a dose-dependent fashion. We confirmed that PAH P-EC proliferate more than control cells and stimulate more PA smooth muscle cell mitosis, a growth abnormality that was normalized by nebivolol but not by metoprolol. Nebivolol but not metoprolol induced endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide-dependent relaxation of PA. Nebivolol was more potent than metoprolol in improving cardiac function, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and inflammation of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension.

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lopressor overdose treatment 2016-11-18

To determine whether the impairment of neuronal NE reuptake was reversible after metoprolol therapy, we studied 18 patients (43+/-7 y) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were stabilized at least for 3 mo with captopril and diuretics. Patients underwent, before and after 6 mo of therapy with metoprolol, measurements of radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), maximal oxygen consumption and plasma NE concentration. The cardiac adrenergic innervation function was scintigraphically assessed with MIBG uptake buy lopressor and release measurements on the planar images obtained 20 min and 4 h after tracer injection. To evaluate whether metoprolol had a direct interaction with cardiac MIBG uptake and release, six normal subjects were studied before and after a 1-mo metoprolol intake.

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beta blockers are not specifically indicated buy lopressor in stage A heart failure. On the contrary, in most of the stage B patients, and particularly after MI, beta blockers are indicated to reduce mortality and, probably, also the progression toward symptomatic heart failure.

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Absence of a Major Arrhythmogenic Role for Cyclic AMP. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology (1986) 18, 375-387. We examined the mechanism whereby beta-adrenoceptor antagonism exerts an antiarrhythmic effect in early myocardial ischaemia. Ligation of the anterior descending coronary artery in the anaesthetized open-chest pig resulted in severe transmural anteroseptal ischaemia. Blood flow in the mid-ischaemic zone 20 min after ligation was decreased to 5.7 +/- 0. buy lopressor 7% of the preligation control value. Epicardial ST-segment deflections of 6.7 +/- 0.4 mV were recorded over this zone. A distinct phase of ventricular arrhythmias was evident about 10 to 30 min after ligation. A high incidence of ventricular fibrillation (14/16 pigs) was associated with a circumstantial increase in levels of cyclic AMP in ischaemic tissue. Twenty minute values were: 1.10 +/- 0.06, P less than 0.05 v. the non-ischaemic tissue level of 0.86 +/- 0.05 nmol/g. Propranolol 3 mg/kg IV, metoprolol 20 mg/kg IV or sotalol 10 mg/kg IV were given between 30 min prior to and 10 min after ligation. Adequate beta-adrenoceptor antagonism by each agent could be proven. Metoprolol decreased the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (2/13, P less than 0.0005 v. control group), while propranolol or sotalol did not. All three beta-antagonists decreased tissue levels of cyclic AMP prior to ligation. However, the temporary increase in ischaemic tissue after ligation could not be prevented. Furthermore, cyclic AMP in ischaemic tissue 20 min after ligation was higher in the metoprolol group than in the propranolol or sotalol group (0.94 +/- 0.04 v. 0.81 +/- 0.02 P less than 0.05, and 0.79 +/- 0.03 nmol/g P less than 0.01, respectively). Blood flow in the mid-ischaemic zone of the metoprolol group was increased to 8.6 +/- 0.6% of preligation control value (P less than 0.0001 v. control group). In contrast, blood flow in the mid-ischaemic zone of the propranolol or sotalol group was decreased. Metoprolol also reduced epicardial ST-segment deflections over the mid-ischaemic zone to 3.5 +/- 0.2 mV (P less than 0.0001 v. control group). ST-segment deflections in the propranolol group were increased. The mechanism whereby metoprolol prevented ventricular fibrillation may be explained by a decrease in the severity of ischaemia but not in terms of changes of tissue levels of cyclic AMP.

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Postoperative atrial fibrillation is a common complication after cardiac surgery, with an incidence as high as 20-50%. Increased age is associated with a significant increase in postoperative atrial fibrillation risk. This common complication is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of nebivolol in preventing atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass buy lopressor surgery in patients over 60 years of age.

intravenous lopressor dosing 2016-02-26

An increasing attention is paid to the potential harmful effects of aquatic contaminant pharmaceuticals exerted on both biosystems and humans. In the present work the effects of 14 pharmaceuticals including NSAIDs, antibiotics, β-blockers and a frequently used X-ray contrast media on the proliferation and migratory behavior of the freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis was investigated. Moreover, the mixture toxicity of four selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol and propranolol) was evaluated in binary mixtures using full factorial experimental design. Our results showed that the sensitivity of Tetrahymena to NSAIDs and β-blockers (EC(50) ranged from 4.8 mg L(-1) to 308.1 mg L(-1)) was comparable to that of algal or Daphnia bioassays. Based on these elevated EC(50) values acute toxic effects of these pharmaceuticals to T. pyriformis are unlikely. Antibiotics and the contrast agent sodium- buy lopressor diatrizoate had no proliferation inhibiting effect. Chemotactic response of Tetrahymena was more sensible than proliferation as significant chemorepellent action was observed in the environmentally realistic concentration range for acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, fenoprofen, paracetamol, metoprolol, propranolol, timolol and trimethoprim (Chemotaxis Index ranged from 63% to 88%). Mixture toxicity experiments resulted in a complex, concentration dependent interaction type pattern with antagonism being the predominant interaction type (59%) followed by additivity (37%) and synergism (4%). Hence the concept of concentration addition validated for NSAIDs in other organisms cannot be adopted for this ciliate. In summary authors suggest Tetrahymena as a sensible model of testing aquatic contaminants as well as underline the significance using more specific endpoints to understand the complex mechanisms investigated.

lopressor normal dosage 2017-01-03

Four SCI (41.6±13.4years; C4-C7, AIS B-D, 13.4±13.4years post injury) and 4 AB (33.0±7.8years) individuals were tested. buy lopressor QTVI was determined from electrocardiographic readings obtained during supine rest and cardiovascular (CV) stress, with and without autonomic blockade. CV stress was induced by 40° head-up tilt, the hand submerged in 10°C water and the jaw clenched. Autonomic blockade was achieved with metoprolol (β-blockade) and atropine (cholinergic blockade).

lopressor drug classification 2017-04-17

Possible segmental differences in drug permeability as well as buy lopressor esterase and ketone reductase activities in the albino rabbit intestine were investigated. Beta adrenergic antagonists and timolol prodrugs spanning four orders of magnitude in distribution coefficient were used as model drugs. Drug penetration was evaluated in Ussing chambers using isolated segments of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ascending colon, descending colon, and rectum. Esterase and ketone reductase activities were determined in homogenates of the above segments using timolol ester prodrugs and levobunolol as substrates, respectively. The results indicate that the hydrophilic beta adrenergic antagonists atenolol and sotalol and moderately lipophilic metoprolol penetrated all intestinal segments equally well, whereas moderately lipophilic timolol and lipophilic propranolol, levobunolol and betaxolol were better absorbed from the large than from the small intestinal segments. Changes in lipophilicity exerted a more pronounced effect on the penetration of beta adrenergic antagonists in the large than the small intestinal segments. A similar pattern existed for timolol prodrugs. In addition to segmental differences in drug permeability, segmental differences in esterase and ketone reductase activities also existed. The level of esterase and ketone reductase activities in the small intestinal segments was, on average, 12 times and 5 times higher, respectively, than in the large intestinal segments. The implication of the above findings is that segmental differences in drug permeability and metabolism must be considered in the design of oral drug delivery systems.

lopressor tablets 2016-06-15

The experiment was performed on a buy lopressor standardized cremaster muscle model of male Wistar rats (n=51). Microcirculation was recorded via transillumination microscopy on each of the 4 test groups and in a control group before and after their respective treatments with one of the following: topical application of bupivacaine, metoprolol, phentolamine, or surgical denervation. The arteriolar diameter and functional capillary density (FCD) as parameter for tissue perfusion were assessed.

lopressor generic name 2016-03-03

Chronotropic incompetence is defined as the inability to reach 80% of heart rate (HR) reserve or 80% of buy lopressor the maximally predicted HR during exercise. The presence of chronotropic incompetence is associated with reduced peak oxygen consumption, and rate-responsive pacing therapy is under investigation to improve exercise capacity in heart failure (HF). However, uncertainty exists about whether chronotropic incompetence and reduced exercise tolerance in HF are attributable to β-blockade.

lopressor hct generic 2016-01-30

to compare buy lopressor variables in patients submitted to hemithyroidectomy under the effect of general anesthesia (GA) and SCPB.

lopressor 40 mg 2015-09-01

To compare the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol in preventing from left ventricular remodeling (LVRM) after buy lopressor acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats.

lopressor 200 mg 2015-01-28

A method for the determination of metoprolol at concentrations down to 10 ng/ml in human plasma is described. After addition of oxprenolol as internal standard, both compounds are extracted into diethyl ether--dichloromethane (4:1, v/v) at basic pH, transferred into an acidic aqueous solution and back-extracted at basic pH into diethyl ether--dichloromethane. They are then derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. The derivatives are quantitatively determined by gas chromatography using a 63Ni electron-capture detector. The linearity was demonstrated, and the technique was formally validated in the buy lopressor concentration range 10-500 ng/ml. The technique was applied in a study of the bioavailability of metoprolol after oral administration to man; mean plasma concentrations are reported.

lopressor reviews 2017-04-05

The purpose of this study Risperdal Medication Dosage was to investigate the in vivo effect of HEI on rat cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C11, CYP2D4, CYP2E1 and CYP3A2) to assess its safety through its potential to interact with co-administered drugs.

lopressor 25 mg 2015-03-17

In severe Combivir 400 Mg preeclampsia, the lack of blood pressure average is a factor for adverse renal function.

lopressor dose 2016-03-28

There were no statistically significant differences in incident CV events between atenolol and metoprolol tartrate Zofran 4mg Tablets users with hypertension. Large registries similar to the one used in this analysis may be useful for addressing comparative effectiveness questions that are unlikely to be resolved by randomized trials.

lopressor hct dosage 2016-01-03

In human heart failure downregulation of beta-adrenoceptors and upregulation of Gi-protein alpha-subunits (Gi alpha) results desensitization of the myocardial beta-adrenergic signal transduction pathway and reduced positive inotropic effects of catecholamines. Metoprolol treatment has been shown to restore the reduced beta-adrenoceptor density in dilated cardiomyopathy. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether metoprolol also decreases the Ceftin Renal Dosing elevated inhibitory Gi alpha levels in patients suffering from congestive heart failure.

lopressor overdose deaths 2017-01-20

In routine clinical practice in the management of angina (with or Calan 40 Mg without coexisting hypertension), S-metoprolol administered at half the dose of the racemate, shows similar efficacy, safety and a trend towards a higher response rate.

lopressor name brand 2016-02-20

Randomised controlled trials evaluating the role of both selective (beta1) and non-selective (beta1 and beta2) Cleocin Ovules Reviews beta blockers compared with placebo. We excluded trials comparing different types of beta blockers.

lopressor 80 mg 2015-05-14

In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) results in worse inpatient outcomes than in those without AF. Two electrocardiographic markers, maximum P wave duration (P(maximum)) and P wave dispersion (P(dispersion)), have been assessed because they reflect conduction abnormalities in Bactroban Generic Name patients with paroxysmal AF. b blockers are known to have beneficial effects in patients with ACS. This prospective study was conducted to investigate whether early intravenous (IV) metoprolol injection acutely decreases P(maximum) and P(dispersion) in patients with ACS. This study involved 100 consecutive patients with ACS who were divided into 2 groups according to whether or not they received early IV metoprolol. Group 1 consisted of 19 patients who received IV metoprolol within 3 h after onset of symptoms, and group 2 consisted of 81 patients who did not receive IV metoprolol within 3 h after symptom onset because of late admission. P(maximum) and P(dispersion) were measured on admission and again at 2 h after admission. Two-dimensional echocardiographic examination was also performed. For patients who received early IV metoprolol, P(maximum) and P(dispersion), measured 2 h after admission, were shorter than values at admission (P<.001). Conversely, P(maximum) and P(dispersion), measured 2 h after admission, did not differ significantly from values at admission in patients who did not receive early IV metoprolol (P=.292 and P=.236, respectively). IV administration of metoprolol reduced values for P(maximum) and P(dispersion), measured 2 h after admission, among patients with ACS who were admitted within 3 h after onset of symptoms.

lopressor online 2017-03-03

This was a prospective, crossover, open-label study performed in 84 consecutive patients (mean age 47 ± 15 years; 60% women) with symptomatic idiopathic PVCs (mean PVCs/24 h, 13,768 ± 9,424; range 1,693-42,687). Patients were treated for 2-3 weeks with metoprolol, propafenone or Duricef Medication verapamil. Then patients were referred for RFCA, if they had drug intolerance, inefficacy or did not wish to have prolonged AAD treatment.

lopressor 60 mg 2016-03-27

Flow-mediated dilatation was more impaired in the non-ACE group than in the ACE group (8.3 +/- 3.8%, 5.7 +/- 1.7%, respectively, p<0.04). Glyceryl trinitrate-induced dilatation was similar in the ACE group, the non-ACE group, and in the control subjects. In the ACE group, FMD was reduced after administration of aspirin (5.3 +/- 4.2%, p<0.05). The percent change in FMD after administration of aspirin correlated significantly with percent change in cGMP (r=0.77, p<0.03; y-intercept Nizoral Pills Medication , -62.1%, p<0.01). After aspirin administration, levels of thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin(1alpha) were significantly decreased compared with those before aspirin administration in all groups.

lopressor dosage iv 2017-01-10

This article presents four case studies of patients with heart failure Augmentin 650 Mg and the rationale for optimal treatment in each case.

lopressor 50mg generic 2016-05-24

1. Electrophysiological measurements of 5-HT neuronal activity report that repeated administration of 5-HT1A receptor agonists leads to desensitization of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor but this has not yet been detected in measurements of brain 5-HT synthesis or metabolism. Here we have determined the effect of repeated administration of 5-HT1A receptor agonists on brain 5-HT release using microdialysis. 2. Acute administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonists buspirone (0.1-5 mg/kg s.c.) and ipsapirone (0.03-3 mg/kg s.c.) caused a dose-dependent decrease in 5-HT output in ventral hippocampus of the chloral hydrate anaesthetized rat. 3. The 5-HT response to buspirone (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg s.c.) and ipsapirone (0.3 mg/kg s.c.) was significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with the 5-HT1/beta-adrenoceptor antagonist pindolol (8-16 mg/kg s.c.). The 5-HT response to buspirone (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) and ipsapirone (0.3 mg/kg s.c.) was not blocked by pretreatment with a combination of the beta 1 and beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonists metoprolol and ICI 118,551 (4 mg/kg s.c.). 4. The effect of an acute challenge of buspirone (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) on 5-HT output in ventral hippocampus was not attenuated in rats treated twice daily for 14 days with 0.5 or 5 mg/kg s.c. buspirone compared to saline-injected controls. Similarly, the decrease in 5-HT induced by an acute challenge of ipsapirone (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) was not attenuated in rats treated twice daily for 14 days with 5 mg/kg s.c. ipsapirone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

lopressor review 2016-01-06

The transparent bodies of see-through medaka fish has led to their use as models for in vivo cell and tissue imaging. However, these fish may also prove useful as models for pathological processes. Accumulating reports show that pathology in fish is similar to that in mammals, including humans. In this study, pathological characterization, comparison of data from rodents and in vivo pharmacological analyses of isoproterenol (Iso)-treated fish were performed. Larval fish showed cardiac hypertrophy-like changes after exposure to > 10 microg/ml Iso for more than one day. Hearts of Iso-treated fish had a larger size and a thicker wall, especially in the ventricle, compared with normal hearts. Several messenger RNA levels dose-dependently increased in Iso-treated fish in a manner similar to that in rodents. Symptoms that accompany mammalian cardiac hypertrophy, such as congestion, were also observed. Propranolol (Pro), a non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blocker (AR), significantly protected the increase in heart rate and volume and other simultaneous symptoms induced by Iso exposure. Athletic capability, measured by optomotor response, showed a dose-dependent decrease after Iso treatment, but was protected by Pro. In contrast, metoprolol (Met) and butoxamine (Btx), selective beta1- and beta2-AR blockers, had little effect in this analysis. These results show that Iso-treated fish develop pathologies analogous to those found in mammalian systems, suggesting that medaka fish can be used for investigation of cardiac hypertrophy; however, drug affinity differences should be considered between species.

lopressor starting dose 2016-04-13

Simvastatin at doses of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw did not influence the heart rate or blood pressure as compared to the control group. Metoprolol injection statistically significantly decreased the heart rate (439.29±14.03 min(-1) vs. 374.41±13.32 min(-1); p<0.05). In rats receiving simvastatin during the 4-week period after metoprolol injection, heart rate and blood pressure (mean, systolic, diastolic) were similar as compared to the group receiving metoprolol alone.