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Lopid (Gemfibrozil)
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Lopid

Lopid is an effective medication which helps to fight with high levels of serum triglycerides. Lopid acts by reducing the production of triglycerides in the liver. It is fibrates.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Pravachol, Mevacor, Zetia, Crestor

 

Also known as:  Gemfibrozil.

Description

Lopid target is to fight against high levels of serum triglycerides.

Lopid acts by reducing the production of triglycerides in the liver. It is fibrates.

Generic name of Lopid is Gemfibrozil.

Brand name of Lopid is Lopid.

Dosage

Take Lopid tablets orally.

Take Lopid twice a day with water at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Lopid suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Lopid and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Lopid overdosage: arthralgia, muscle pain, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Protect from light and humidity. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Lopid are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Lopid if you are allergic to Lopid components.

Do not take Lopid if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Be careful with Lopid if you are taking cholesterol-lowering medications (statins) such as atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), and simvastatin (Zocor); and repaglinide (Prandin), anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin).

Be careful with Lopid if you suffer from or have a history of kidney, liver, gallbladder disease.

Do not stop taking Lopid suddenly.

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Primary cultures of hepatocytes were established from sexually mature male rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) and treated with the hypolipidemic drugs gemfibrozil (0.25-1.25 mM), clofibric acid (2.25-3.00 mM), or ciprofibrate (0.25-1.00 mM). Significant dose-related increases in peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (FACO) were seen after exposure for 48 hr to clofibric acid (P < 0.01) and ciprofibrate (P < 0.05) but not gemfibrozil (P = 0.08). Strong correlation was obtained between increased acyl-CoA oxidase activity and the relative amount of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (PBE), further supporting evidence of a proliferative effect. These preliminary studies demonstrate that peroxisomal beta-oxidation can be induced in vitro in a primary rainbow trout hepatocyte system.

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Shenshuai Yangzhen capsule can regulate blood lipid levels in rats with renal insufficiency possibly by enhancing LPL gene expression.

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Peroxisome proliferators are a diverse group of chemicals that include several therapeutically used drugs (e.g., hypolipidemic agents), plasticizers and organic solvents used in the chemical industry, herbicides, and naturally occurring hormones. As the name implies, peroxisome proliferators cause an increase in the number and size of peroxisomes in the liver, kidney, and heart tissue of susceptible species, such as rats and mice. Long-term administration of peroxisome proliferators can cause liver cancer in these animals, a response that has been the central issue of research on peroxisome proliferators for many years. Peroxisome proliferators are representative of the class of nongenotoxic carcinogens that cause cancer through mechanisms that do not involve direct DNA damage. The fact that humans are frequently exposed to these agents makes them of particular concern to government regulatory agencies responsible for assuring human safety. Whether frequent exposure to peroxisome proliferators represents a hazard to humans is unknown; however, increased cancer risk has not been shown to be associated with long-term therapeutic administration of the hypolipidemic drugs gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, and clofibrate. To make sound judgments regarding the safety of peroxisome proliferators, the validity of extrapolating results from rodent bioassays to humans must be based on the agents' mechanism of action and species differences in biologic activity and carcinogenicity. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, has been found to mediate the activity of peroxisome proliferators in mice. Gene-knockout mice lacking PPARalpha are refractory to peroxisome proliferation and peroxisome proliferator-induced changes in gene expression. Furthermore, PPARalpha-null mice are resistant to hepatocarcinogenesis when fed a diet containing a potent nongenotoxic carcinogen WY-14,643. Recent studies have revealed that humans have considerably lower levels of PPARalpha in liver than rodents, and this difference may, in part, explain the species differences in the carcinogenic response to peroxisome proliferators.

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1. The effects in vitro and in vivo of three fibric acid derivatives, clofibrate (CFB), bezafibrate (BFB) and gemfibrozil (GFB) on some enzyme activities related to fatty acid biosynthesis, namely palmitoyl-CoA synthetase and hydrolases (microsomal and cytosolic), NADH and NADPH cytochrome c reductases and acyl-CoA elongases were investigated in guinea-pigs. 2. The three fibrates inhibited acyl-CoA elongation in vitro, irrespective of the substrate of elongation used (saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated) and with an order of potency GFB > BFB > CFB. In the case of GFB, inhibition occurred at concentrations that can be reached in vivo. 3. Microsomal palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase and synthetase were also inhibited in vitro (GFB > or = BFB > CFB), whereas NADH cytochrome c reductase activity was increased by GFB. Nevertheless, the magnitude of changes were lower than those observed in elongation activities. 4. Treatment with fibrates did not produce peroxisomal proliferation in guinea-pigs, as measured by peroxisomal beta-oxidation activity and liver weight/body weight ratio. Nevertheless, fibrates provoked a reduction in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, at least in GFB- and BFB-treated animals. 5. Fatty acid elongation was significantly modified by GFB treatment in vivo. The remaining enzyme activities studied were only slightly changed by fibrate treatment. 6. Treatment with BFB and to a lesser extent with CFB, increased the relative proportion of MUFA (palmitoleic and oleic acids) in microsomal phospholipids, whereas PUFA (mainly linoleic acid) decreased. GFB behaved differently, increasing palmitic and linoleic acids and decreasing stearic and oleic acids. The latter changes are attributable to an inhibition of elongation activity by GFB. 7. The changes observed after fibrate treatment in both rats and guinea-pigs, as they are not directly related to peroxisome proliferation, could be more reliably extrapolated to man than those observed only in rats.

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This study took place in the Internal Medicine Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Osmangazi University, Turkey between 2004-2005. This study was carried out on 99 hyperlipidemic and 40 control subjects. Subjects were divided into 2 groups; elderly hyperlipidemic (n=65) and young hyperlipidemic (n=34). In the young and elderly hyperlipidemic subjects of the first group treated only with vit E (600 mg/day) for one month. In the young and elderly hyperlipidemic subjects of the second group were treated only with gemfibrozil (600 mg/twice daily) for one month. The 2 therapies of vit E and gemfibrozil were then combined and applied to the third group of our study. Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total cholesterol (total chol), serum low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), vit E, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels of the 3 groups were measured.

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Experimental evidence suggests that in addition to hypertension, serum lipids might also accelerate the decline in renal function. We tested this hypothesis in 2702 dyslipidemic middle-aged men without renal disease participating in the Helsinki Heart Study, a coronary primary prevention trial. The decline in renal function was estimated from linear regression slopes based on reciprocals of 10 serum creatinine determinations over the study period. Renal function deteriorated 3% on average during the 5-year study, and hypertension accelerated this change. Subjects with an elevated ratio of low- to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( > 4.4) had a 20% faster decline than those with a ratio less than 3.2. Both the contribution of the lipoprotein ratio and the protective effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol alone remained significant in multiple regression analyses. In the study of joint effects the contribution of lipids was confined to subjects with simultaneous elevation of blood pressure and lipids. The results suggest that in addition to hypertension, blood lipids also modify the decline in renal function.

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Patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and either a history of coronary artery disease or at least one other significant cardiovascular risk factor as defined by the American College of Physicians guidelines (i.e., age greater than 55 years, hypertension, left-ventricular hypertrophy, previous cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral arterial disease).

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Over one quarter of veterans in the VANCHCS may have metabolic syndrome based on our modified ATP III criteria. We urge screening more veterans with fasting laboratory testing. Computerized screening of a large clinical database can provide an effective strategy to aid clinicians in identifying more patients at risk for cardiovascular disease.

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In this paper, a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrode is prepared for gemfibrozil, 2, 2-dimethyl-5-(2,5-xylyloxy) valeric acid, based on its ion pair complexes with hexadecyltrioctyl ammonium iodide (HTOA). The membrane composition of the electrode was optimized by using the sequential level elimination method for orthogonal experimental design. The electrode has a Nernstian response range from 2.5 x 10(-5) to 0.1 mol/l with an average slope of 55.3 mV/decade. The limit of detection is 7.1 x 10(-6) mol/l. The electrode responses were not affected by pH in the range 10.0-12.3. A Na2B4O7-Na2CO3 buffer of pH = 11.0 was selected as the background electrolyte solution for potentiometric measurements. The electrode was used for determining gemfibrozil in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results.

lopid 450 mg

Itraconazole, gemfibrozil and their combination markedly raise the plasma concentrations of loperamide. Although not seen in the psychomotor tests used, an increased risk of adverse effects should be considered during concomitant use of loperamide with itraconazole, gemfibrozil and especially their combination.

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The efficacy of gemfibrozil in the treatment of resistant familial hypercholesterolaemia and type III hyperlipoproteinaemia was evaluated in 26 individuals over a mean period of 16 months. In the untreated state both disorders are associated with a high frequency of coronary heart disease. In the former, gemfibrozil with a bile acid sequestrant reduced plasma cholesterol by 32%, an incremental decrease of 17% compared with sequestrant therapy alone. In type III, plasma cholesterol was reduced by 40% and plasma triglyceride by 70%, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 45%. In none of the patients studied did clinical or biochemical side effects occur.

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Eighty-six water samples were collected in early 2009 from Costa Rican surface water and coastal locations for the analysis of 34 pharmaceutical and personal care product compounds (PPCPs). Sampling sites included areas receiving treated and untreated wastewaters, and urban and rural runoff. PPCPs were analyzed using a combination of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The five most frequently detected compounds were doxycycline (77%), sulfadimethoxine (43%), salicylic acid (41%), triclosan (34%) and caffeine (29%). Caffeine had the maximum concentration of 1.1 mg L(-1), possibly due to coffee bean production facilities upstream. Other compounds found in high concentrations include: doxycycline (74 μg L(-1)), ibuprofen (37 μg L(-1)), gemfibrozil (17 μg L(-1)), acetominophen (13 μg L(-1)) and ketoprofen (10 μg L(-1)). The wastewater effluent collected from an oxidation pond had similar detection and concentrations of compounds compared to other studies reported in the literature. Waters receiving runoff from a nearby hospital showed higher concentrations than other areas for many PPCPs. Both caffeine and carbamazepine were found in low frequency compared to other studies, likely due to enhanced degradation and low usage, respectively. Overall concentrations of PPCPs in surface waters of Costa Rica are inline with currently reported occurrence data from around the world, with the exception of doxycycline.

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma (PPAR alpha, PPAR gamma) are nuclear transcription factors regulating gene expression in response to their ligands. Initially, PPARs were identified as regulators of gene expression in lipid metabolism and adipogenesis, but recent work has demonstrated PPAR expression in vascular cells and suggests antiinflammatory properties in the vasculature. Since PPAR alpha activators include lipid-lowering fibric acid derivatives and since PPAR gamma can be activated by antidiabetic thiazolidinediones, activation of these receptors might be an intriguing tool to influence atherogenesis in patients with vascular disease. However, there is also evidence that PPAR activators might furnish lesion development under certain circumstances. The following review will focus on these aspects of potential anti- or proatherogenic effects in the vessel wall and discuss potential clinical implications of these findings.

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, an entity that includes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is typically a benign, indolent condition. However, in a subset of patients, the clinical course may progress to advanced cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis, natural history, and potential therapies for these disorders remain poorly understood. Identifying patients who should be targeted for potential treatment remains difficult. Liver biopsy should be considered to assess the degree of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, because physical examination findings, biochemical parameters, and the results of radiographic studies have been shown to correlate poorly with the severity of steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Although there is some evidence suggesting that obesity, diabetes mellitus, older age, and perhaps an aspartate transaminase:alanine aminotransaminase ratio higher than 1 may be predictors of more advanced fibrosis, histology remains the gold standard. Most patients with simple hepatic steatosis appear to follow a benign course and probably do not require aggressive therapy. Conversely, patients with steatohepatitis with extensive inflammation and fibrosis are the patients who are most likely to benefit from effective therapies. The most commonly recommended treatment is weight loss. Existing data suggest that rapid weight loss may promote hepatic inflammation and fibrosis; therefore, gradual weight loss should be recommended. Large, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the long-term histologic impact and clinical outcomes of weight loss strategies are lacking. Potentially promising pharmacologic therapies include insulin-sensitizing oral hypoglycemic agents such as metformin and the thiazolidenediols, antihyperlipidemic agents such as gemfibrozil or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, vitamin E and other antioxidants, ursodeoxycholic acid, and betaine. As with weight loss, data regarding the efficacy of these pharmacologic options are limited. In addition, there are no widely accepted guidelines to help direct the clinician in the optimal use of these agents in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases.

lopid 800 mg

Potencies for the induction of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (FACO) and microsomal laurate hydroxylase (LH) were determined for clofibric acid (CPIB), ciprofibrate (Cipro) and gemfibrozil (Gem) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes based on complete concentration-response analysis and determination of theoretical maximum inductive responses for Cipro. CPIB and Cipro each induced FACO and LH in a concentration-dependent manner. Scatchard analysis of the data allowed calculation of EC50 values (mM) of 0.82 and 0.028 (for FACO) and 0.22 and 0.0081 (for LH) for CPIB and Cipro respectively. The EC50 ratios (CPIB/Cipro) were identical (29-fold) for induction of FACO and LH, supporting the concept that these enzymes are induced by CPIB and Cipro through a common mechanism. By comparison, Gem was relatively ineffective as an inducer of FACO and LH. Furthermore, Gem did not antagonize Cipro-mediated enzyme inductions, suggesting that Gem is a peroxisome proliferator of low potency rather than a partial agonist. Based on the potency and time-course profiles observed for induction of FACO and LH, the effects of CPIB, Cipro and Gem on triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis were determined in the cultured rat hepatocytes. Conditions of maximal FACO and LH induction by the drugs did not result in inhibition of TG biosynthesis in the cells. These results support the in vivo evidence which indicates that FACO and LH induction are not causally linked to the hypotriglyceridemic actions of peroxisome proliferating drugs.

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To report a case of rhabdomyolysis in a patient receiving cyclosporine, simvastatin, gemfibrozil, and itraconazole.

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To report a case of rhabdomyolysis possibly due to combination therapy with colchicine and gemfibrozil.

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Acidic pesticide and pharmaceutical contaminants were pre-concentrated and extracted from wastewater samples (500 mL) using solid-phase extraction. Analyte recoveries were 79-96%, with % RSD values in the range, 1.7-7.4%. Analyte identification and quantification were carried out using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with hybrid linear ion trap (LIT) Orbitrap instrumentation. Using a resolution setting of 30,000 FWHM, full-scan MS analysis was performed using heated electrospray ionization (HESI) in negative mode. The high mass resolution capabilities of the Orbitrap MS were exploited for the determination of trace contaminants allowing facile discrimination between analytes and matrix. The dependant scan functions of the Orbitrap MS using higher collisional dissociation (HCD) and LIT MS were evaluated for the confirmation of analytes at trace concentration levels. Mass accuracy for target contaminants using this method was less than 2 ppm. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were in the range, 2.1-27 ng/L. The inter-day accuracy and precision were measured over a five-day period at two concentrations. The % relative errors were in the range, 0.30-7.7%, and the % RSD values were in the range, 1.5-5.5%. Using this method, 2,4-D, mecoprop, ibuprofen, naproxene and gemfibrozil were identified in several wastewater treatment plants in Ireland.

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A 60-year-old black man developed rhabdomyolysis after receiving lovastatin for 14 months. Rhabdomyolysis developed in the absence of other medications previously reported to cause this adverse effect when administered concomitantly with lovastatin. Adverse drug reaction causality algorithms categorized this reaction as either possible or probable.

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Gemfibrozil is long known for its ability to reduce the level of triglycerides in the blood circulation and to decrease the risk of hyperlipidemia. However, a number of recent studies reveal that apart from its lipid-lowering effects, gemfibrozil can also regulate many other signaling pathways responsible for inflammation, switching of T-helper cells, cell-to-cell contact, migration, and oxidative stress. In this review, we have made an honest attempt to analyze various biological activities of gemfibrozil and associated mechanisms that may help to consider this drug for different human disorders as primary or adjunct therapy.

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A series of phenylenebis(oxy)bis[2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid]s have been synthesized and evaluated as potential hypolipidemic agents. Compound 18 (CI-924) was found to be the most potent compound in this series. In rats, compound 18 not only reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but also increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Comparative studies in rats indicated 18 produced an equal elevation of HDL cholesterol at one-third of the dose required of gemfibrozil. Structure-activity relationships are discussed.

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It was suggested that postprandial lipoproteins (PPLp) may play an important role in atherogenesis. To examine this hypothesis, we studied PPLp metabolism in normolipidemic individuals and hyperlipoproteinemic (HLP) patients on various diets, physical activity programs and hypolipidemic drugs as well as in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We used the vitamin A-fat loading test, which labels intestinally derived lipoproteins with retinyl palmitate. Type IV HLP patients demonstrated a severe defect in chylomicron clearance. Type III HLP patients showed severely disordered clearance of chylomicron remnants. Compared to the saturated fatty acid enriched diet, the omega 6 polyunsaturated acid enriched diet reduced chylomicrons and their remnant levels by 56% and 38%, respectively. The diet enriched in omega 3 polyunsaturated acid decreased chylomicrons and their remnant levels by 67% and 53%, respectively. Physical conditioning reduced chylomicron levels by 37%. Gemfibrozil decreased chylomicron levels in type IV HLP patients. Cholestyramine increased chylomicron levels by 88%. Bezafibrate reduced chylomicrons and their remnants levels and increased fasting HDL-C in patients with isolated low HDL-C levels. Continuous prolonged intravenous heparin administration inhibited chylomicron clearance. Normolipidemic patients with CAD had significantly higher plasma levels of chylomicron remnants than matched controls with normal coronary arteries. The studies reported here demonstrate that both chylomicrons and their remnants are present in the plasma of normolipidemic people and more so for hyper- or dyslipidemic patients for a prolonged period of time after fat ingestion. The duration and magnitude of this postprandial lipemia can be regulated or altered by such interventions as diet, physical activity, and drugs. Our case control studies strongly support the hypothesis that PPLp may play a crucial part in atherogenesis, and therefore justify measuring their levels in high risk patients. We believe that in selected patient groups the use of one or more of the interventions mentioned here is warranted.

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lopid dose 2016-01-15

A 79-year-old Caucasian man with a primary diagnosis of acute hemoptysis secondary to pneumonia was admitted to the medical-surgical intensive care unit. A chest radiograph showed a large, right, lower-lobe infiltrate with alveolar consolidation. The patient's medical history included hyperlipidemia that was chronically treated with lovastatin and gemfibrozil. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia was suspected and confirmed. Vancomycin 1 g i.v. every 12 hours was administered for approximately 10 days into the admission and switched to linezolid 600 mg i.v. every 12 hours after a lack of response to vancomycin. On hospital day 11, the patient's CPK concentration was 47 units/L. Seven days later, his CPK concentration was 2584 units/L and his lovastatin and gemfibrozil were discontinued on that day. The patient's CPK concentration peaked at 5369 buy lopid units/L on the following day, and linezolid was discontinued at that point. One week later, his CPK concentration was 28 units/L. Approximately two weeks after the patient's CPK levels normalized, he developed numerous complications. The patient died as a result of respiratory failure 11 days after being extubated, which occurred about 38 days after his admission. Although concomitant use of statins and gemfibrozil is known to increase the risk for CPK elevations, the continued rise in CPK levels after discontinuation of antihyperlipidemic therapy and the rapid time course for normalization after linezolid discontinuation are more consistent with an event associated with linezolid initiation.

lopid 80 mg 2016-09-13

Scopus and MEDLINE databases were searched (up to October 15, 2014) to identify RCTs investigating whether fibrates lower plasma PAI-1 concentration or activity. A random-effects model and the generic inverse variance method were used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using the one-study remove approach. Random-effects meta-regression was performed to assess the impact of potential moderators on the estimated effect sizes buy lopid .

lopid max dose 2015-08-10

Aggressive treatment of atherosclerotic risk factors can substantially reduce stroke risk in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Data from several recent large clinical trials provide convincing evidence of benefit for a number of specific therapies directed at this population. The authors recommend treatment with ramipril alone or perindopril plus indapamide regardless of blood pressure, provided there is no contraindication. For patients already taking a different angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, the authors do not routinely switch agents. The authors recommend use of simvastatin 40 mg per day in patients with a total cholesterol level of 135 mg/dL or greater, provided no contraindication exists. The authors also recommend consideration of gemfibrozil in patients with isolated low high- density lipoprotein levels. In patients with diabetes mellitus, tight glycemic control has not been shown to reduce macrovascular complications such as stroke, but does reduce microvascular complications. However, diabetics should receive especially aggressive treatment of other vascular risk factors. There is no role for post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy in prevention of stroke. Weight loss for overweight buy lopid patients, regular exercise, and a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and fish, as well as low in fat and cholesterol, should be a standard recommendation for this group of patients. Treatment with folic acid, B(6), and B(12) for patients with elevated homocysteine appears rational, though this is unproven. However, there is no benefit to vitamin E, vitamin C, or beta-carotene supplementation. Smokers should stop. For every 43 smokers who quit, one stroke is prevented. Moderate consumption of alcohol (one to two drinks a day) may be beneficial, but heavy alcohol use (more than five drinks a day) increases stroke risk.

lopid renal dosing 2017-04-18

91 patients (80 men and 11 women) with coronary heart disease buy lopid , a mean age of 60 years, total cholesterol levels less than 6.4 mmol/L (250 mg/dL) at baseline, and ratios of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol greater than 4.0 at baseline.

lopid generic cost 2017-03-07

A 53G>A polymorphism identified in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) gene alters a putative shear stress responsive element (SSRE). PECAM-1 was shown to be responsive to shear stress and transient transfection of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) with two luciferase reporter constructs driven by the PECAM-1 promoter and 5'UTR showed a response of the 53G allele, buy lopid not the 53A allele, to shear stress. Association between the 53G>A, and the previously published L125V polymorphism, and coronary atherosclerosis was examined in two angiographic studies. The frequencies of the rare alleles of the 53G>A and L125V polymorphisms were 0.01 and 0.49, respectively, in the Lopid Coronary Angiography Trial (LOCAT) study and 0.02 and 0.49, respectively, in the Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study (REGRESS) study. Compared with 53G homozygotes, carriers of the 53A allele showed less focal progression of disease in the LOCAT study and a similar trend in the diffuse progression of disease in the REGRESS study, whereas no association between L125V and coronary atherosclerosis was observed in either study. These data demonstrate that the PECAM-1 gene is responsive to shear stress in vitro and that decreased PECAM-1 gene expression in 53A carriers may influence reduced progression of vessel stenosis in patients with coronary artery disease.

lopid starting dose 2017-01-01

The study cohorts (N=1288 for buy lopid CHD follow-up, N=884 for SBP follow-up) consisted of industrially employed middle-aged men from the Helsinki Heart Study. Shiftwork status was obtained from a questionnaire, and other exposures were determined with the Finnish job-exposure matrix. SBP was measured in the Helsinki Heart Study, and CHD end points were obtained from official Finnish registers. The joint effects of baseline SBP, its change, and the exposure in question were estimated via Cox s regression models.

lopid dosage instructions 2015-05-08

patients were divided into 3 groups based on their therapeutic response: no HDL increase, mild HDL increase, and large HDL increase (% change in HDL ≤ 0, ≤ the lower 2 tertiles of HDL increase, and > the upper tertile of HDL increase, respectively). A progressive decrease in cardiovascular events was noted across these groups (30.4%, 19.4%, and 3.2%, respectively, P = .01). Kaplan-Meier analysis according to percentage change in HDL demonstrated a similar improvement in event-free survival (P = .01). Proportional hazards modeling also demonstrated that increasing HDL buy lopid predicted a lower hazard of cardiovascular events, even after adjusting for changes in low-density lipoprotein ([LDL] P < .01). For every 1% increase in HDL achieved, a 2% decrease in events was recognized.

lopid initial dose 2017-10-22

The effect of gemfibrozil (GEM) on composition and distribution of LDL subspecies in 10 hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients with triglyceride (TG) levels of 300-750 mg/dl and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) < 160 mg/dl, and 8 hypercholesterolemic (HC) patients with LDL-C > or = 190 mg/dl and TG < 200 mg/dl was investigated. Patients were randomized in a double-blind, crossover design to 12 week periods of placebo and 1200 mg/day GEM with an intervening washout period. All 7 LDL subspecies in the density range of 1.029 to 1.063 g/ml in the HTG group contained more TG (P < 0.01) and less free cholesterol (P < 0.05), while the proportion of cholesterol ester was lower only in LDL subspecies 1 to 3 (P < 0.05) as compared to the HC group. In HTG patients, GEM increased the proportion of cholesterol ester (P < 0.05) in all subfractions, while the proportion of free cholesterol was increased and TG was decreased in LDL subspecies 1 to 4 only (P < 0.05). GEM decreased the LDL subspecies score from 4.8 +/- 0.7 to 4.2 +/- 0.5, and the major LDL subclass density from 1.048 +/- 0.006 to 1.043 +/- 0.002 g/ml buy lopid (P < 0.01) in HTG patients. GEM decreased TG levels to mean of 228 +/- 52 mg/dl in HTG patients, but there was no change in LDL phenotype. No significant changes in composition and distribution of LDL subspecies were noted in HC patients with GEM. We conclude that GEM significantly altered the composition and distribution of LDL subspecies with a shift from small dense LDL particles to large, less dense particles in HTG patients.

lopid reviews 2017-03-30

The impact of four pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) introduced buy lopid both individually and in mixtures was ascertained on the performance of laboratory-scale wastewater treatment sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). When introduced individually at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 μM, no significant differences were observed with respect to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia removal. Microbial community analyses reveal that although similarity index values generally decreased over time with an increase in PhAC concentrations as compared to the controls, no major microbial community shifts were observed for total bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities. However, when some PhACs were introduced in mixtures, they were found to both inhibit nitrification and alter AOB community structure. Ammonia removal decreased by up to 45% in the presence of 0.25 μM gemfibrozil and 0.75 μM naproxen. PhAC mixtures did not however affect COD removal performance suggesting that heterotrophic bacteria are more robust to PhACs than AOB. These results highlight that the joint action of PhACs in mixtures may have significantly different effects on nitrification than the individual PhACs. This phenomenon should be further investigated with a wider range of PhACs so that toxicity effects can more accurately be predicted.

lopid drug 2016-12-07

Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the Cln2 gene that leads to deficiency or loss of function of the tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1) enzyme. TPP1 deficiency is known to cause the accumulation of autofluoroscent lipid-protein pigments in brain. Similar to other neurodegenerative disorders, LINCL is also associated with neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. Despite investigations, no effective therapy is currently available for LINCL. Therefore, we administered gemfibrozil (gem), an FDA-approved lipid-lowering drug, which has been shown to stimulate lysosomal biogenesis and induce anti-inflammation, orally, at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg body wt/day to Cln2 ((-/-)) mice. We observed that gem-fed Cln2 ((-/-)) mice lived longer by more than 10 weeks and had better motor activity compared to vehicle (0.1% Methyl cellulose) treatment. Gem treatment lowered the burden of storage materials, increased anti-inflammatory factors like SOCS3 and IL-1Ra, upregulated anti-apoptotic molecule like phospho-Bad, and reduced buy lopid neuronal apoptosis in the brain of Cln2 ((-/-)) mice. Collectively, this study reinforces a neuroprotective role of gem that may be of therapeutic interest in improving the quality of life in LINCL patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

lopid and alcohol 2015-05-18

Restenosis after balloon dilitation of atherosclerotic arteries reflects migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and infiltration of monocyte/macrophages. Hypercholesterolemia may contribute to this phenomenon. Accordingly, we used the lipid-lowering agent gemfibrozil to determine whether potentially detrimental effects of hypercholesterolemia on vascular remodeling after mechanical injury could be attenuated. New Zealand white rabbits fed either a chow diet (control), a 0.25% cholesterol-enriched diet, or a 0.25% cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with gemfibrozil (0.05%, 0.1%, or 0.02%) for one week were subjected to balloon-induced carotid injury and maintained on the same diet for an additional 4 weeks. Histology of the vascular wall was then characterized. Plasma triglycerides before and 4 weeks after injury did not change in any of the treatment groups (p = 0.24). Plasma cholesterol increased in all animals receiving the high cholesterol diet, and the increases remained unaffected by supplementation with gemfibrozil. In control rabbits, intimal thickening area [intima (mm2)/(intima + media (mm2))] 4 weeks after injury was 27.0 +/- 7.7% (n = 16). Values were the same in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (29.7 +/- 11.8%, n = 12; p = ns). However, in 16% the lumen was completely occluded by thrombus and intimal thickening could not be quantified. In hypercholesterolemic rabbits given gemfibrozil, intimal thickening was increased by 33% compared with controls (35.9 +/- 11.6%, n = 39, pound 0.05) and by 21% compared with hypercholesterolemic animals not given gemfibrozil (p = ns). None had thrombotic luminal occlusion. Macrophages detected immunohistochemically were only modest in number in vessels from control animals. In vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals and from animals whose diets were supplemented with gemfibrozil, macrophages were increased in number in buy lopid both intima and media. Thus, gemfibrozil did not appear to attenuate processes implicated in restenosis. Its attenuation of thrombotic occlusion may be related to effects we have noted it exerts on fibrinolytic systems independent of lipid metabolism.

lopid mg 2017-04-15

Outpatient specialty clinic of a large U buy lopid .S. military medical center.

lopid 450 mg 2017-07-23

In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 47 subjects with type 2 diabetes and hypertiglyceridemia were enrolled and divided in three treatment groups including Gemfibrozil 1200mg/d + placebo(group A), Ezetimibe10mg/d + Gemfibrozile 1200mg/d(group B) or Ezetimibe10mg/d + Atorvastatin10mg/d (group C) for a 6- week period. Oral fat loading test were performed in the buy lopid initiation and also at the end of the study and lipid profile and APOB were measured.

lopid tab 600mg 2015-01-19

A two-part, multicenter study to assess the clinical efficacy, side effects, and safety of gemfibrozil in 427 patients over treatment durations of up to 13 months showed that this drug markedly reduces the level of serum triglycerides, while moderately lowering total serum cholesterol levels. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level buy lopid was substantially increased, with concomitant decreases in low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The drug was generally well tolerated. However, a potential for increasing blood glucose levels was noted and careful monitoring during therapy is recommended.

lopid dosage forms 2017-09-21

Several aromatic compounds have been found to inhibit the gelling of sickle cell hemoglobin. We have tried to correlate the antigelling activity of such compounds with the stereo-chemistry of their binding sites in the hemoglobin molecule. This approach led to the discovery that two known antilipoproteinemia drugs, clofibrate and gemfibrozil, have antigelling activity. X-ray Anafranil Drug Reviews analysis showed that three pairs of molecules of clofibric acid, the active metabolite of clofibrate, bound to the walls of the internal cavity of deoxyhemoglobin A; only one pair bound to a quite different site, between helices A, E, and H of the alpha chains of carbon monoxide hemoglobin A. Unlike other antigelling agents, clofibric acid and related compounds decrease rather than increase the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin.

lopid missed dose 2017-09-05

Non-fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) and remnant cholesterol levels, cholesterol content of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, have been suggested to be an additional cause of cardiovascular diseases; thus, pharmacological TG-lowering with fibrates, activators of PPAR-alpha system, has been linked to risk reduction. Areas covered: This manuscript reviews available evidence on clinical trials involving highly selective PPAR-α agonists (i.e., pemafibrate) and drugs used in Cymbalta Generic Risk the pre-clinical and experimental setting (e.g., WY14,643). Original publications in English were selected, as well as Abstracts of international meetings' presentations. Clinical trials were identified using the clinicaltrial.gov database and the EU Clinical Trials Register (clinicaltrialsregister.eu). Expert opinion: In addition to the aim of improving lipid profile with fibrates, the interest in new PPAR-α activators stems from the need to overcome some of the clinical problems encountered with dose-dependent adverse events; a rise of plasma creatinine, gallstone formation, drug-drug interactions (i.e. gemfibrozil), and myopathy. New PPAR-α agonists improved TG and HDL-C levels as well as other parameters related to TG metabolism (remnant cholesterol and apoB), without raising liver enzymes. Although the use of fibrates is rated "second choice" by many clinicians, new PPAR-α agonists may offer a more accessible route to the management of hypertriglyceridemia, a frequent clinical condition.

lopid 60 mg 2017-06-04

Phenotypic modifications of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute to pathological changes in atherosclerosis where modulation of intracellular calcium plays an important role. In this study, three fibrate drugs, namely gemfibrozil (Gem), fenofibric acid (Fa) and bezafibrate (Beza), were revealed to relax thoracic aorta associated with their potency to reduce intracellular calcium ([Ca²⁺]i) in cultured VSMCs. Relaxation effect of Gem, Fa and Beza was assayed on precontracted rat aortic rings. [Ca²⁺]i level in VSMCs following addition of these fibrates was measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy or flow cytometry. Resultantly, three fibrates showed activity for vasodilation with potency order of Gem>Fa>Beza. Sustained potent reduction of [Ca²⁺]i was observed with Gem 50mg/L and mild reduction with Fa 400-600mg/L, while no effect had been detected for Beza under our current system. Thus, the potency of these fibrates to relax aortic rings correlate well with their effect on [Ca²⁺]i reduction, strongly implicating an underlying causal relationship. Considering that Gem potently reduces [Ca²⁺]i in its clinical concentration range, this study Cytoxan Tablet suggests an insight to in situ pharmacological effects of anti-atherosclerosis and clinical toxicity risk.

lopid capsules 2015-05-18

Many enveloped RNA viruses utilize lipid rafts for the assembly of progeny virions, but the role of cholesterol, a major component of rafts, on paramyxovirus budding and virion formation is controversial. In this study, we analyzed the effects of FDA-approved cholesterol-reducing agents, gemfibrozil and lovastatin, on raft formation and assembly of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) and Sendai virus (SeV). Treatment of the human airway epithelial A549 cells with the agents, especially when combined, significantly decreased production of infectious hPIV1 and SeV. Mechanistic analysis indicated that depletion of cellular cholesterol reduced cell surface accumulation of envelope glycoproteins and association of viral matrix and nucleocapsids with raft membrane, which resulted in impaired virus budding and release from the Requip Generic cells. These results indicate that cellular cholesterol is required for assembly and formation of type 1 parainfluenza viruses and suggest that cholesterol could be an attractive target for antiviral agents against hPIV1.

lopid dosage 2015-11-18

A method for the determination of bezafibrate, ciprofibrate, fenofibrate and gemfibrozil in pharmaceutical formulations by first-, second- and third- derivative spectrophotometry is described, using "peak-peak" and "peak-zero" measurements. The calibration graphs were linear in the range 2-20 microg x mL(-1) for all the compounds investigated. No interference was found from tablet excipients at the selected wavelengths and assay conditions. The developed methods were found to be validated and showed good precision and reproducibility (RSD = 1. Viagra 200mg Dose 57%, 0.78%, 1.45%, and 1.36%, respectively).

lopid tablets 600 2016-08-04

The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) conducted a survey in 2006 on emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) which included pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A (BPA). The survey collected 258 samples over a 16 month period from selected source waters and 17 drinking water systems (DWSs), and analyzed them for 48 EOCs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) for the highest precision and accuracy of analytical data possible. 27 of the 48 target EOCs were detected in source water, finished drinking water, or both. DWSs using river and lake source water accounted for>90% detections. Of the 27 EOCs found, we also reported the first detection of two antibiotics roxithromycin and enrofloxacin in environmental samples. The most frequently detected compounds (≥ 10%) in finished drinking water were carbamazepine (CBZ), gemfibrozil (GFB), ibuprofen (IBU), and BPA; with their concentrations accurately determined by using IDMS and calculated to be 4 to 10 times lower than those measured in the source water. Comparison of plant specific data allowed us to determine removal efficiency (RE) of these four most frequently detected compounds in Ontario DWSs. The RE of CBZ was determined to be from 71 to 93% for DWSs using granulated activated carbon (GAC); and was 75% for DWSs using GAC followed by ultraviolet irradiation (UV). The observed RE of GFB was between 44 and 55% in DWSs using GAC and increased to 82% when GAC was followed by UV. The use of GAC or GAC followed by UV provided an RE improvement of BPA from 80 to 99%. These detected concentration levels are well below the predicted no effect concentration or total allowable concentration reported in the literature. Additional targeted, site specific comparative research is required to fully assess the effectiveness of Ontario DWSs to Omnicef 80ml Dosage remove particular compounds of concern.

lopid drug classification 2015-08-07

Cerivastatin is the new 3rd-generation of the synthetic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, the 1st drugs of choice for treating Indocin 20 Mg hypercholesterolemia. A potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, it possesses a high affinity for liver tissue and decreases plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at microgram doses. Cerivastatin produces reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 31.3% and 36.1% at doses of 0.3 and 0.4 mg/day, respectively It is an uncomplicated agent with regard to its pharmacokinetic profile, low potential for interaction with other drugs, and suitability for use in those with impaired renal function. Most other statins have been implicated in causing rhabdomyolysis, either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. We report what to our knowledge is the most profound case yet in the literature of rhabdomyolysis in association with cerivastatin-gemfibrozil combination therapy, in regard both to the extreme elevation in serum creatinine kinase and to the patient's near-paralytic weakness.

lopid user reviews 2015-02-15

Myotoxicity due to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors commonly occurs in patients taking concomitant medication known to interact with metabolism of these agents, such as gemfibrozil or ketoconazole, or with an increase in dose. In addition, elderly patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypothyroidism appear to be at increased risk of developing myotoxicity.

lopid pill 2016-06-29

Repaglinide is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and 3A4. Gemfibrozil has the effect of increasing the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of repaglinide eightfold. We studied the effect of dosing interval on the extent of the gemfibrozil-repaglinide interaction. In a randomized five-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 0.25 mg repaglinide, with or without gemfibrozil pretreatment. Plasma repaglinide, gemfibrozil, their metabolites, and blood glucose were measured. When the last dose of 600 mg gemfibrozil was ingested simultaneously with repaglinide, or 3, 6, or 12 h before, it increased the AUC(0-infinity) of repaglinide 7.0-, 6.5-, 6.2- and 5.0-fold, respectively (P < 0.001). The peak repaglinide concentration increased approximately twofold (P < 0.001), and the half-life was prolonged from 1.2 h to 2-3 h (P < 0.001) during all the gemfibrozil phases. The drug interaction effects persisted at least 12 h after gemfibrozil was administered, although plasma gemfibrozil and gemfibrozil 1-O-beta-glucuronide concentrations were only 5 and 10% of their peak values, respectively. The long-lasting interaction is likely caused by mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8 by gemfibrozil glucuronide.