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The frequencies of the types of LDLR mutations were: null-mutation (n = 40, 25.6%), defective-mutation (n = 59, 37.8%), and without an identified mutation (n = 57, 36.6%). Baseline total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were higher in patients carrying a null mutation (9.9 ± 1.9 mmol/L, 7.9 ± 1.7 mmol/L), compared to those with a defective (8.9 ± 2.2 mmol/L, 7.0 ± 2.0 mmol/L), or no mutation (7.9 ± 1.9 mmol/L, 5.8 ± 1.9 mmol/L) (p < 0.001). After treatment, the proportion of patients attaining an LDL-C<3.4 mmol/L was significantly different among groups: null (22.5%), defective (27.1%), and without mutations (47.4%) (p = 0.02). The presence of LDLR mutations was independently associated with higher odds of not achieving the LDL-C cut-off (OR 9.07, 95% CI 1.41-58.16, p = 0.02).
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The levels of serum endotoxin in the middle dose group (0.0225 +/- 0.0112 EU/l) were lower than those in high fatty diet model group (0.2249 +/- 0.0982 EU/l) at 12th week, the difference was significant (P < 0.01). In the middle dose group, mean values of serum TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels decreased dramatically (1.604 +/- 0.302 ng/ml and 0.052 +/- 0.024 ng/ml) compared with those in the high fatty diet model group (4.029 +/- 1.180 ng/ml and 14.944 +/- 0.491 ng/ml; P < 0.01 and P < 0.01). The expressions of CD14 and NF-kappaB in the middle dose group decreased compared with those in the high fatty diet model group. The expressions of LBP mRNA (0.284 +/- 0.105) and TLR-4 mRNA (0.290 +/- 0.123) in the middle dose group down regulated compared with those in the high fatty diet model group (1.060 +/- 0.158 and 1.261 +/- 0.368; P < 0.01 and P < 0.01). In the middle dose group MD-2 and iNOS gene expressions were 0.132 +/- 0.058 and 0.164 +/- 0.061, respectively, which were significantly lower compared with the high fatty diet model group (0.795 +/- 0.294 and 1.029 +/- 0.388; P < 0.01 and P < 0.01).
Lipid therapy with statins can reduce CVD morbidity and mortality as demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. Adding the indirect CVD costs associated with productivity losses at work and home can result in forecasted cost savings to society as a whole such that lipid therapy could potentially save lives and money.
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Given the higher risk of cardiovascular events associated with low adherence shown here, measures to improve adherence are an important part of the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
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Constrictive remodeling of the arterial wall was observed during plaque-stabilizing therapy with statin medications and appears related to their antiinflammatory effects.
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We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of atorvastatin on systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI). Ninety patients with SLE were consented and randomized to receive either atorvastatin, 20 mg/day, or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome was change in SLEDAI. Lipids, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed as secondary end points. Analysis was done by "intention to treat" (ITT) as the primary analysis and "treatment completed analysis" (TCA) as the supplementary analysis. Demographic features, baseline characteristics, and distribution of medications were not significantly different between the two groups. Mean SLEDAI score at baseline in both groups was 3 ± 0.5. By TCA and ITT, mean SLEDAI scores decreased to 1.7 ± 0.4 and 2.7 ± 0.5, respectively, in the atorvastatin group and 3 ± 0.4 and 3 ± 0.5, respectively, in the control group. The difference between the two groups after intervention was significant by TCA (P < 0.05) and nonsignificant by ITT analysis (P = 0.1). The effect of atorvastatin therapy on lupus activity was inconclusive.
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Study of Coronary Atheroma by Intravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin (SATURN) used serial intravascular ultrasound measures of coronary atheroma volume in patients treated with rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg for 24 months. The overall effect of high-intensity statins on the change in coronary percent atheroma volume and major adverse cardiovascular events (death/nonfatal myocardial infarction/coronary revascularization) were evaluated in this post hoc analysis. When compared with non-ACS patients (n=678), patients with ACS (n=361) were younger, actively smoking, and have had a previous myocardial infarction (all P<0.001). At baseline, patients with ACS exhibited lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (43.5±11 versus 45.8±11 mg/dL; P=0.002), a higher apolipoprotein B: apolipoprotein A-1 ratio (0.90±0.24 versus 0.83±0.24; P<0.001) and greater percent atheroma volume (37.3±8.5% versus 35.9±8.1%; P=0.01) when compared with non-ACS patients. Despite similar achieved levels of lipid and inflammatory markers after high-intensity statin therapy, patients with ACS demonstrated greater percent atheroma volume regression than non-ACS patients (-1.46±0.14 versus -0.89±0.13; P=0.003). After propensity-weighted multivariable adjustment, baseline percent atheroma volume (P<0.001) and an ACS clinical presentation (P=0.02) independently associated with plaque regression. The 24-month major adverse cardiovascular events-free survival was similar between patients with ACS and non-ACS (90.6 versus 92.9%; P=0.25).
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To treat high risk patients with atorvastatin in order to reach LDL-C goals (either primary or secondary prevention) of the Israel Atherosclerosis Society.
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In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing hemodialysis, atorvastatin significantly reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiac events and death from any cause if pretreatment LDL-cholesterol is >145 mg/dl (3.76 mmol/L).
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The susceptibilities of 21 parasite strains to combinations of atorvastatin with mefloquine, chloroquine or monodesethylamodiaquine were assessed using the in vitro isotopic microtest. Genotypes and gene copy number were assessed for pfmdr1, pfmdr2 and pfmrp genes.
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Recent studies have indicated that autophagy may be one of the important pathways induced by ionizing radiation. Atorvastatin (statin), an inhibitor of 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, may exhibit anticancer effects as an autophagy inducer. In our study, the cell killing and radiosensitizing effects of statin were analyzed in PC3 cell line. Activation of the autophagy pathway was analyzed using the GFP-LC3 assay and western blot to determine LC3-II expression. The radiosensitivity of PC3 cells was determined using the clonal survival assay, TUNEL assay, and the Annexin V apoptosis assay. The expression profiles of autophagy related genes were analyzed using a pathway specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Autophagic response was induced in PC3 cells after exposure to statin and/or gamma rays. Inhibition of the autophagic process using small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting Atg7 and/or Atg12 significantly reduced radiosensitivity of PC3 cells. Statin also exhibited a significant apoptosis-inducing effect in PC3 cells, which can be partially suppressed by Atg7 siRNA. Cells treated with statin and gamma irradiation showed significantly reduced colony forming efficiency and increased number of Annexin V positive early apoptotic cells. Analysis of autophagy and its regulatory gene profile showed that the expressions of 22 genes out of 86 genes assessed were significantly altered in the cells exposed to combined treatment or statin alone. The data indicate that activation of the autophagy pathway may be responsible for apoptosis inducing effect of statin. Furthermore, combined treatment with radiation and autophagic inducer, such as statin, may be synergistic in inducing cell death of PC3 cells.
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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a crucial co-modulator of cardiovascular, nervous, digestive and excretory systems function. The pleiotropic action of atorvastatin exceeds simple 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibition and involves multiple biological mechanisms. This study assesses the influence of atorvastatin on the H2S tissue concentration in mouse brain, liver, heart and kidney. Twenty-four female CBA strain mice received an intraperitoneal injection. The mice were given one of the following solutions: 0.1 mg atorvastatin (5 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)/day--group D1, n=8), 0.4 mg atorvastatin (20 mg/kg b.w./day--group D2, n=8) or a saline physiological control (0.2 ml--group C, n=8). A modified Siegel spectrophotometric method was used for the H2S tissue concentration measurements. There was a remarkable rise in the H2S concentration [μg/g] in the kidney (C: 5.26±0.09, D1: 5.77±0.11, p=0.0003; D2: 7.48±0.09, p<0.0001). There were also slight H2S tissue level changes in the brain (C: 1.61±0.01, D1: 1.75±0.03, p=0.0001; D2: 1.78±0.03, p<0.0001), the heart (C: 4.54±0.08, D1: 4.86±0.10, p=0.0027; D2: 4.56±0.07, p=0.6997) and the liver (C: 3.45±0.03, D1: 3.27±0.02, p=0.0001; D2: 3.31±0.02, p=0.0003). Our study supports the influence of atorvastatin on H2S tissue concentration in kidneys and other mouse organs.
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A retrospective study of 174 patients (mean age 68+/-12 years) with mild to moderate calcific aortic stenosis was conducted. Patients required normal left ventricular function, =2+ aortic regurgitation, and >/=2 echocardiograms performed at least 12 months apart. Fifty-seven patients (33%) received treatment with a statin; the remaining 117 (67%) did not. The statin group was older and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary disease. During a mean follow-up of 21 months, patients treated with statin had a smaller increase in peak and mean gradient and a smaller decrease in aortic valve area. When annualized, the decrease in aortic valve area for the nonstatin group was 0.11+/-0.18 cm(2) compared with 0.06+/-0.16 cm(2) for those treated with a statin (P=0.03). In multivariate analysis, statin usage was a significant independent predictor of a smaller decrease in valve area (P=0.01) and a lesser increase in peak gradient (P=0.02).
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Administration and withdrawal of atorvastatin caused changes in markers of oxidative stress which closely correlated with changes in marker of inflammation. Further, the salutary effects were of quick onset, but were rapidly reversed on withdrawal of atorvastatin.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, both in the United States and worldwide. It has become widely recognized that a high percentage of cardiovascular events, including sudden cardiac death, occur in previously asymptomatic individuals. Consequently, the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary artery disease (CAD), is an important objective of modern health-care policy. To identify and target high-risk individuals for lifestyle and therapeutic interventions, aggressive screening of the healthy population at risk of developing CAD (or other atherosclerotic disease) is necessary. Because of the complex and often synergistic relations between independent risk factors, it is also important that a multifactorial approach to the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors is adopted. Although treatment guidelines and goals for certain risk factors have been published by national and international organizations, recent evidence suggests that these recommendations are not always adopted in clinical practice. Therefore, considerable potential remains for primary care physicians to further reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in presymptomatic individuals.
Once daily atorvastatin calcium (80 mg; two 40 mg tablets) or placebo.
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In young patients with type I DM, improvement in endothelial dysfunction can be demonstrated after just six weeks of treatment with atorvastatin. In contrast to studies of hypercholesterolemia, however, L-arginine had no benefit. Treatment with atorvastatin at an early stage may have an impact on the progression of atherosclerosis in these high risk patients.
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The results of this brachytherapy investigation with the longest reported follow-up period to date suggest that statins, especially atorvastatin, may improve most clinical presentations with a nonsignificant improvement in 8-year biochemical progression-free survival.
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A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide (VACNT-GO) electrode is proposed, and its ability to determine atorvastatin calcium (ATOR) in pharmaceutical and biological samples by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV) is evaluated. VACNT films were prepared on a Ti substrate by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method and then treated with oxygen plasma to produce the VACNT-GO electrode. The oxygen plasma treatment exfoliates the carbon nanotube tips exposing graphene foils and inserting oxygen functional groups, these effects improved the VACNT wettability (super-hydrophobic) which is crucial for its electrochemical application. The electrochemical behaviour of ATOR on the VACNT-GO electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry, which showed that it underwent an irreversible oxidation process at a potential of +1.08 V in pHcond 2.0 (0.2 mol L(-1) buffer phosphate solution). By applying DPAdSV under optimized experimental conditions the analytical curve was found to be linear in the ATOR concentration range of 90 to 3.81 × 10(3) nmol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 9.4 nmol L(-1). The proposed DPAdSV method was successfully applied in the determination of ATOR in pharmaceutical and biological samples, and the results were in close agreement with those obtained by a comparative spectrophotometric method at a confidence level of 95%.
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Ferumoxtran-10 is an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle potentially useful as a contrast material in magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of inflammatory and degenerative disorders associated with high macrophage activity. In clinical trials, it is currently applied to monitor the effect of atorvastatin therapy on macrophage activity in human carotid plaques. A recent study reported the inhibition of iron oxide nanoparticle uptake in macrophages by lovastatin, an effect which could compromise the suitability of Ferumoxtran-10 as an MRI contrast material in patients on statin therapy. Therefore, we examined the effect of atorvastatin on human monocyte-macrophage uptake of Ferumoxtran-10 in vitro using biochemical assays, magnetic resonance imaging and transmission electron microscopy. Our study showed that non-toxic concentrations of atorvastatin did not affect the amount of Ferumoxtran-10 taken up by HMMs. Furthermore, the intracellular distribution of iron oxide nanoparticles and the resulting MRI signal intensities remained unchanged by statin treatment. These results were obtained using atorvastatin concentrations probably vastly exceeding those reached in patient plasma in vivo. Atorvastatin therapy itself is therefore unlikely to affect Ferumoxtran-10 based macrophage detection by MRI, a prerequisite for the use of this contrast material to monitor lesion macrophage burden during lipid-lowering therapy.
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Low on-treatment TG (<150 mg/dl) was associated with reduced CHD risk compared with higher TG in univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62 to 0.87; p < 0.001) and in adjusted analysis (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97; p = 0.025). For each 10-mg/dl decrement in on-treatment TG, the incidence of death, MI, and recurrent ACS was lower by 1.6% or 1.4% after adjustment for LDL-C or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other covariates (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). Lower CHD risk was also observed with TG <150 mg/dl and LDL-C <70 mg/dl (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94; p = 0.017) or low on-treatment TG, LDL-C, and C-reactive protein (<2 mg/l) (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.83; p = 0.002) compared with higher levels of each variable in adjusted analysis.
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We analyzed 2 large, randomized trials, PROVE IT-TIMI 22 and phase Z of the A to Z trial, which compared lower- versus higher-intensity statin therapy to evaluate whether higher-intensity statin therapy lowered the risk of AF onset during the 2 years of follow-up. We hypothesized that higher-intensity statin therapy would decrease the risk of AF when compared to lower-intensity statin therapy. From each trial, patients experiencing the onset of AF during follow-up were identified from the adverse event reports.
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Treatment with pharmacologically relevant concentrations (0.1-0.3 μM) of atorvastatin resulted in a 6-fold increase of telomerase activity (TA) (p < 0.0001) in human and mouse PBMCs and CD4 T cells, translating into moderate proliferation of T lymphocytes. In contrast, high doses of atorvastatin (2-5 μM) or the addition of LDL cholesterol completely inhibited proliferation, thereby abrogating telomerase activity. The proliferative effect of atorvastatin was ablated by the absense of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). Using transgenic GFP-mTert reporter mice, we observed a decrease in telomerase-positive lymphocytes from 30% to 15% during the first 5 months of age (p < 0.01). This suggests that the decrease in immune cell turnover during normal development and maturation is mirrored by a reduction in telomerase activity in lymphocytes in-vivo.
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Chitotriosidase, an enzyme involved in the degradation of chitin-containing pathogens with unclear function in humans, has been proposed as a marker of lipid accumulation in macrophages in different lipid-storage diseases, including atherosclerosis. To evaluate (1) if lipid-lowering treatment could modify serum chitotriosidase activity and (2) be useful in monitoring lipid-lowering treatment, we have analyzed this enzyme activity in the participants in the Atozvastatin Versus Bezafibrate in Mixed Hyperlipidemia (ATOMIX) study, a double-blind, comparative, and randomized study comparing the efficacy of atorvastatin and bezafibrate in mixed hyperlipidemia. Because a common genetic deficiency of chitotriosidase modifies serum quitotriosidase activity, this genetic variation was also studied. Seven subjects of 116 (6.03%) were homozygous, and 46 (39.6%) were heterozygous for the defective allele. Mean serum quitotriosidase activity correlated with allele dosage, as it was found to be of 0, 59.8 +/- 52.6 and 81.2 +/- 41.6 nmol/mL/h, in homozygotes for the defective allele, heterozygotes, and homozygotes for the wild-type allele, respectively (P =.0011 for the difference between the last 2 groups). However, this enzyme activity was not found to correlate with lipid levels before and after treatment with either atorvastatin or bezafibrate, and neither with the intensity of the lipid lowering. These results do not support the use of serum chitotriosidase activity as a biologic marker of atherosclerotic plaque modification related to hypolipidemic treatment.
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The ABCG2 c.421C>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was determined in 660 healthy Finnish volunteers, of whom 32 participated in a pharmacokinetic crossover study involving the administration of 20 mg atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. The frequency of the c.421A variant allele was 9.5% (95% confidence interval 8.1-11.3%). Subjects with the c.421AA genotype (n = 4) had a 72% larger mean area under the plasma atorvastatin concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) than individuals with the c.421CC genotype had (n = 16; P = 0.049). In participants with the c.421AA genotype, the rosuvastatin AUC(0-infinity) was 100% greater than in those with c.421CA (n = 12) and 144% greater than in those with the c.421CC genotype. Also, those with the c.421AA genotype showed peak plasma rosuvastatin concentrations 108% higher than those in the c.421CA genotype group and 131% higher than those in the c.421CC genotype group (P < or = 0.01). In MDCKII-ABCG2 cells, atorvastatin transport was increased in the apical direction as compared with vector control cells (transport ratio 1.9 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.1). These results indicate that the ABCG2 polymorphism markedly affects the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin and, even more so, of rosuvastatin-potentially affecting the efficacy and toxicity of statin therapy.
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As statin dose increased, higher percentages of patients achieved LDL-C <70 mg/dl or ≥ 50% LDL-C reduction. A greater percentage achieved this goal with rosuvastatin 10-40 mg (43.8-79.0%) than with equal or double milligram doses of atorvastatin (16.1-65.2%) or simvastatin (0-39.7%). Paired comparisons showed statistically significant differences for: rosuvastatin 10 mg vs. atorvastatin 10-20 mg and simvastatin 10-20 mg; rosuvastatin 20 mg vs. atorvastatin 20-40 mg and simvastatin 20-80 mg; and rosuvastatin 40 mg vs. atorvastatin 40-80 mg and simvastatin 40-80 mg (all p < 0.001).