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Two male infants with hyperpigmentation, vomiting, lethargy and weight loss were reported. Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis were suggestive diagnosis of salt losing adrenocortical insufficiency. The absence of ambiguous genitalia, low 24 hour urinary 17 KS and pregnanetriol excretion precluded congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Low basal levels of plasma aldosterone and cortisol and low 24 hour urinary 17 OHCS excretion with disability to increase their corticosteroid secretions after ACTH stimulation as well as furosemide and theophylline infusions were supportive for the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hypoplasia. The definitive diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonogram and computerized tomography. Family histories suggested X-linked recessive inheritance in these reported cases. Evidence of progressive postnatal adrenocortical degeneration was documented by progressive deterioration of adrenocortical functions beginning from mineralocorticoid to total corticosteroid deficiencies. The increased brain serotonin synthesis as the associated pathology of X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia was proposed on the basis of elevated basal plasma GH and PRL levels in the reported cases, taken together with an incidence of congenital LH deficiency and persistent ACTH hypersecretion in corticosteroid treated patients reported elsewhere.
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This study suggests that nedocromil and furosemide provide a comparable effect in preventing exercise-induced asthma in children. The combined administration of the two drugs significantly increases the protective effects, suggesting a potential therapeutic use.
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The practice of emergency medicine has the primary mission of evaluating, managing and providing treatment to those patients with unexpected injury or illness. Instituting appropriate therapy is necessary for safety of the patients and to decrease mortality and morbidity. The objectives were to study the drug utilization pattern and direct cost of therapy in emergency medicine department of a tertiary care teaching hospital.
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Irreversible electroporation is a fast-growing liver ablation technique. Although safety has been well documented in small ablations, our aim is to assess its safety and feasibility when a large portion of liver is ablated. Eighty-seven mice were subjected to high voltage pulses directly delivered across parallel plate electrodes comprising around 40% of mouse liver. One group consisted in 55 athymic-nude, in which a tumor from the KM12C cell line was grown and the other thirty-two C57-Bl6 non-tumoral mice. Both groups were subsequently divided into subsets according to the delivered field strength (1000 V/cm, 2000 V/cm) and whether or not they received anti-hyperkalemia therapy. Early mortality (less than 24 hours post-IRE) in the 2000 V/cm group was observed and revealed considerably higher mean potassium levels. In contrast, the animals subjected to a 2000 V/cm field treated with the anti-hyperkalemia therapy had higher survival rates (OR = 0.1, 95%CI = 0.02-0.32, p < 0.001). Early mortality also depended on the electric field magnitude of the IRE protocol, as mice given 1000 V/cm survived longer than those given 2000 V/cm (OR = 4.7, 95%CI = 1.8-11.8, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that ionic disturbances, mainly due to potassium alterations, should be warned and envisioned when large volume ablations are performed by IRE.
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According to the rules of GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) subunit assembly, alpha4 and alpha6 subunits are considered to be the natural partners of delta subunits. These GABA(A)Rs are a preferred target of low, sobriety-impairing concentrations of ethanol. Here we demonstrate a new naturally occurring GABA(A)R subunit partnership: delta subunits of hippocampal interneurons are coexpressed and colocalized with alpha1 subunits, but not with alpha4, alpha6 or any other alpha subunits. Ethanol potentiates the tonic inhibition mediated by such native alpha1/delta GABA(A)Rs in wild-type and in alpha4 subunit-deficient (Gabra4(-/-)) mice, but not in delta subunit-deficient (Gabrd(-/-)) mice. We also ruled out any compensatory upregulation of alpha6 subunits that might have accounted for the ethanol effect in Gabra4(-/-) mice. Thus, alpha1/delta subunit assemblies represent a new neuronal GABA(A)R subunit partnership present in hippocampal interneurons, mediate tonic inhibitory currents and are highly sensitive to low concentrations of ethanol.
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Exudative pericarditis, and in particular a purulent type, is a rare condition which requires emergency medical intervention. In our paper we present a case report concerning a patient with purulent pericarditis.
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Ten percent hydroxyethyl starch is an efficient plasma expander. It is safe, biohazard free and cost-effective. It seems to effectively control severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and to overcome acute prerenal failure. Larger prospective studies are necessary to further evaluate its role in the treatment of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
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A total of 1,502 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) over a 15 year period were reviewed to see which, if any, went on to experience this complication. Of these cases, 48 developed TUR syndrome. The case records were reviewed retrospectively and the presenting clinical features were analysed. All TURPs were routinely performed under spinal anesthesia and followed a standardised set up. The irrigation fluid used in all operations was Glycine 1.5%.
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Furosemide loaded chitosan coated liposomes were prepared by the evaporation-sonication method to improve pharmaceutical characteristics of drug. Formulations were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, cell viability and permeability on Caco-2 cells. Cytotoxic effect was evaluated by using MTT test. The encapsulation efficiency, zeta potential and particle size of liposomes were increased when they were coated with chitosan. An eight fold increase on Furosemide permeability was obtained for coated liposomes when compared to uncoated formulations. In addition, Cytotoxicity of chitosan coated liposomes was decreased towards Caco-2 cell line. Obtained results suggest that prepared formulations have potential to be used as carriers of poorly soluble drugs and they may improve their bioavailability after oral administration.
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The rats were maintained on a normal sodium (NS) diet (0.6% NaCl) or fed a high sodium (HS) diet (2% NaCl) for 4 days or were sodium depleted by administration of 40 mg furosemide per liter drinking water overnight followed by 3 days of low sodium diet (0.01% NaCl) (LS + F). ANG II levels were determined by radioimmunoassay.
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Primary aldosteronism (PA) is common in young or middle-aged hypertensive patients, but PA among the elderly has recently become more common. As salt sensitivity increases with age, plasma renin activity (PRA) tends to decrease, whereas the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) tends to increase in the elderly. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of aging on the diagnosis of PA. We retrospectively evaluated 155 consecutively admitted patients who were not taking antihypertensive medications or calcium channel blockers and α blockers that underwent PRA and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) measurements. The study subjects included 13 PA and 69 essential hypertensive (EHT) patients aged over 65 years, and 32 PA and 41 EHT patients under aged 65 years. Our study clarified the influence of aging through screening and confirmatory tests for the diagnosis of PA. Our results showed the ARR cutoff value for a screening test to be 556 (area under the curve: AUC=0.906), its sensitivity and specificity to be 84.6% and 89.9%, respectively, and the likelihood ratio to be 8.34 in the elderly, whereas the ARR cutoff value was 272 in the non-elderly. In the saline infusion test, the mean PAC was 86.6 ± 41.8 pg ml(-1) in the elderly and 158.1 ± 116.5 pg ml(-1) in the non-elderly (P = 0.04). There was no influence from age in both the captopril challenge test and the furosemide upright test. Aging may influence PA screening and saline infusion tests; thus, we should consider the influence of aging in the diagnosis of elderly subjects with PA.
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Of the 33 renal units with a single postoperative study at 3 months 32 (97%) had halftime less than 20 minutes on diuretic renography. The remaining patient in this group with half-time greater than 20 minutes showed 60% improvement in half-time and did not require reoperation. Excluding those without delayed followup, surgical success was obtained in 93 of the 94 (99%) renal units. Among the 60 renal units evaluated with 2 postoperative renal scans success was noted in 48 (80%) and 59 (98%) at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Stenosis did not recur in 48 renal units with half-time less than 20 minutes 3 months after repair. In 1 case that had been treated for postoperative urinoma half-time was greater than 40 minutes at 3 months and repeat pyeloplasty was required.
The influence of acute appendicitis (AA) on the right kidney and urinalysis was investigated. Permanent damage of the urinary tract and abnormal urinalysis have been previously reported in AA.
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We have studied the pharmacokinetics of phenprocoumon with and without co-administration of frusemide and probenecid in two groups of 17 healthy volunteers. Frusemide 40 mg b.i.d. for 7 days did not interact with phenprocoumon to a significant extent. Probenecid 500 mg q.i.d. for 7 days significantly accelerated the overall elimination of phenprocoumon, as indicated by a decrease in AUC from 295 to 157 micrograms.h.ml-1, and a reduction in the fraction of the dose excreted by the kidneys. The data are consistent with inhibition of the glucuronidation of phenprocoumon by probenecid. Its accelerated elimination may be a consequence of the increased formation of hydroxylated metabolites.
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Intracellular hydration may play a role in the regulation of protein and nitrogen metabolism. The hepatic removal of nitrogen by urea synthesis has a key regulatory role in nitrogen balance. The purpose of the present study was to establish the acute effects of dehydration on the hepatic kinetics of urea synthesis, quantified by functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC), in healthy volunteers. Seven healthy men were studied twice in random order. On both study days, a primed continuous infusion of alanine was given. On the day of dehydration an intravenous bolus injection of a loop diuretic (furosemide, 1 mg/kg) was superimposed. FHNC was calculated as the ratio between measured synthesis rates of urea nitrogen and blood alanine concentrations. Furosemide induced a weight loss of 1 kg. During dehydration, FHNC decreased by approx. 25% (41+/-11 to 54+/-10 litres/h; P<0.02). On both occasions individual FHNC and glucagon values were positively correlated (r(2)>0.6). In addition, dehydration more than halved the linear slope of the relationship (P<0.05). The FHNC values were correlated with the urinary excretion of both potassium and sodium (r(2)=0.68, P<0.01 and r(2)=0.62, P<0.02 respectively). Changes in the reactivity of urea synthesis to glucagon (i.e. the ratio between FHNC and glucagon concentration) was negatively correlated with an indirectly estimated change in intracellular water (r(2)=0.79, P<0.05). We conclude that acute moderate dehydration down-regulates both total urea synthesis and its sensitivity to glucagon. The latter was related to estimated intracellular water loss. Dehydration may thus have nitrogen-saving consequences with regard to the hepatic contribution to whole-body nitrogen homoeostasis. The mechanism of this effect and the relationship with sodium and potassium fluxes is not known.
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The pressure transducer of a telemetric transmitter was implanted in the dome of the urinary bladder. After a recovery period of at least 1 month, several investigations of urodynamic parameters were performed after diuresis activation by a pulse of furosemide. The model was characterized by tolterodine and mirabegron under physiological conditions and same animals were reused to evaluate the modification of the voiding pattern under bladder inflammation induced by cyclophosphamide.
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Unilateral pulmonary edema is an uncommon clinical situation that may be difficult to distinguish from other conditions that cause lung infiltrates. Most cases occur in the right lung, and there are no reports about cardiogenic unilateral pulmonary edema as a complication of an endoscopic procedure of gastrointestinal tract. The authors describe a case of a 79-year-old woman with acute cardiac heart failure that developed soon after a diagnostic upper and lower digestive endoscopy. Continuous positive airway pressure, intravenous nitroglycerin, and furosemide treatment resulted in rapid improvement of symptoms and the progressive resolution of left-sided infiltrates on chest radiography. This case is of particular importance because of the rarity of cardiogenic unilateral edema in the left lung. This clinical finding was associated with the prolonged rest on the left side during the gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure.
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215 uretero-pelvic obstruction syndrome among 194 adult patients are analysed. 56.8% of them are of stage III or IV. Lithiasis is a frequent complication (41.8% of cases). The other congenital anomalies are very rare. The diagnosis is based on intravenous pyelography with use of furosemide test when the obstruction is moderate. 178 uretero-pelvic plasties are performed, the resection-anastomosis has retrained our choice. It was done in 119 cases with good results in 85.6 cases. Failure are due to error of indication or technical defect. The high level of nephrectomies (25%) is explained by the very important number of advanced and complicated cases. Among the less symptomatic patients, 37 haven't been operated on and were controlled. All except one remained stable.
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Furosemide (1 mg/h) or placebo was administered to 121 consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit after major abdominal, chest or vascular surgery and continued throughout the intensive care treatment period. Enrollment was performed during a 6 months period. No patient was excluded. Renal function was determined serially by measuring creatinine clearances and plasma creatinine concentrations.
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In patients with cirrhosis and type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), systemic vasodilation, which is mainly attributable to splanchnic vasodilation, plays a critical role in the activation of endogenous vasoconstrictor systems, resulting in renal vasoconstriction and functional renal failure. It has been suggested that the use of splanchnic (and systemic) vasoconstrictors such as terlipressin (a vasopressin analog) or alpha-1-adrenoceptor agonists (midodrine or noradrenaline) may improve renal function in patients with type 1 HRS. Six studies (with only one randomized study in a small series of patients) have shown that terlipressin improves renal function in these patients. However, there is evidence that terlipressin alone may be less effective than terlipressin combined with intravenous albumin in improving renal function. Future randomized studies should confirm this difference and evaluate the impact of terlipressin therapy (with or without intravenous albumin) on survival. Interestingly, in nonrandomized studies, the use of alpha-1 agonists combined with other therapies (octreotide and albumin for midodrine; furosemide and albumin for noradrenaline) has been shown to improve renal function in patients with type 1 HRS. The efficacy and safety of combined therapies including alpha-1 agonists should be confirmed in randomized studies. Finally, preliminary evidence suggests that vasoconstrictor administration may be a novel therapeutic approach targeting vasodilation involved in the mechanism of: (1) renal failure in type 2 HRS; (2) paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction; and (3) arterial hypotension induced by byproducts of gram-negative bacteria. Further studies are needed in all these fields.
To estimate the risk of acute liver injury associated with the use of drugs.