Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for Momordica charantia L. to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure within and between M. charantia and its four related species (Cucurbita pepo L., Luffa cylindrical L., Lagenaria siceraria L., and Cucumis sativus L.). •
Data on the relative importance and research status of commercially relevant African medicinal plants are needed for developing new research strategies in order to stimulate much-needed ethnopharmacological research and to promote the commercialization of African plants.
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This study demonstrated the significance of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K up-regulation by Momordica charantia in augmenting the glucose uptake and homeostasis.
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Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively.
Natural products have long been used in traditional systems of medicine for diabetes. Products in common use include nopal (prickly pear cactus), fenu-greek, karela (bitter melon), gymnema, ginseng, tronadora, chromium, and alpha-lipoic acid. The popularity of these products varies among people of different ethnicities. Nopal is the most commonly used herbal hypoglycemic among persons of Mexican descent. Karela is more commonly used by persons from Asian countries. Some of these agents have gained universal appeal. For a select number of products, studies have revealed single or multiple mechanisms of action. For several of these, high soluble fiber content is a contributing factor.
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We investigated the blood glucose lowering effect of the methanolic fruit extract of the Ugandan variety of M. charantia L. in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats.
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Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a normal control group and five diabetic groups of ten rats each. Intravenous streptozotocin (50mg/kg) was given to induce diabetes in the diabetic groups. Full thickness excision wounds were created on the thoracodorsal region of the animals, and these wounds were then treated with vehicle, MC powder, MC ointment and povidone ointment or ointment base for ten days. Wound healing was determined by the rate of wound closure, total protein content and TGF-β expression in the wounds, and histological observation.
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a common tropical vegetable that has been used in traditional or folk medicine to treat diabetes. Wild bitter gourd (WBG) ameliorated metabolic syndrome (MetS) in animal models. We aimed to preliminarily evaluate the effect of WBG supplementation on MetS in Taiwanese adults.
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Thai bitter gourd protein (MRK29) was isolated from Momordica charantia ripe fruit and seed. The purification was performed by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration chromatography. MRK29 possessed one isoelectric point of (pI) > or = 9, and the time of flight mass spectrum (TOFMS) indicated its molecular weight at 28.6 kD. The twenty amino acid sequence from the N-terminus was in the following order: 1Asp Val Asn Phe Arg Leu Ser Gly Ala 10Asp Pro Arg X Tyr Gly Met Phe Ile Glu 20Asp. MRK29 inhibited the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with 50% IR at the concentration of 18 micrograms/ml. MRK29 was concentrated in the 30-60% salt precipitated fraction, at which the concentration of 0.175 microgram/ml exerted 82% reduction of viral core protein p24 expression in HIV-infected cells. MRK29 might have modulatory role on immune cells, because it increased 3-fold TNF activity.
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Ulcer inhibition rates were as follows: famotidine -91.54%, oily extract (5 ml/kg) -53.80%, oily extract (10 ml/kg) -98.04%, vehicle (olive oil -5 ml/kg) -18.40%, and vehicle (olive oil -10 ml/kg) -88.02%. According to polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration, oily extract (10 ml/kg) and vehicle (10 ml/kg) had similar effects to famotidine.
In vivo radiotracer experiments using 14C-labeled acetate, oleate, linoleate, and linolenate were conducted to investigate the biosynthesis of [alpha]-eleostearic acid in the seeds of Momordica charantia. With the exception of [14C]linolenate, all of these precursors radioactively labeled [alpha]-eleostearate. Kinetics of the time course of metabolism of the radioactive precursors indicate that linoleate is the acyl precursor of [alpha]-eleostearate and that its conversion to [alpha]-eleostearate occurs while the acyl moiety is esterified to PC. Pulse-chase experiments with 14C-labeled acetate or linoleate provided additional corroborative evidence that linoleoyl PC is the precursor of [alpha]-eleostearoyl PC.
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In an effort to establish and document the hypoglycaemic activity of Momordica charantia in validated models of diabetes, the alcoholic extract of the pulp was studied. In the normal glucose primed rat model, M. charantia fruit extract, 500 mg kg-1, depressed the plasma glucose levels by 10-15% at 1 h. Under similar conditions, tolbutamide (100 mg kg-1) caused approximately 40% reductions in plasma glucose both at 1 and 2 h. At 500 mg kg-1, the efficacy of M. charantia was 25-30% of tolbutamide. The reduction in plasma glucose in normal glucose primed rat was not accompanied by increased insulin secretion. There was no evidence of tachyphylaxis to the effect of M. charantia extract on repeated dosing. In streptozotocin diabetes rats, it improved the oral glucose tolerance causing significant (P < 0.002) reduction in plasma glucose of 26% at 3.5 h while metformin caused 40-50% reduction at 1, 2 and 3.5 h. M. charantia extract (500 mg kg-1) caused a 4-5-fold increase in the rate of glycogen synthesis from U-14C-glucose in the liver of normally fed rats. These data suggest that the mechanism of action of M. charantia could be partly attributed to increased glucose utilization in the liver rather than an insulin secretion effect. This is the first report on the effect of M. charantia in characterized and validated animal model systems known to respond to oral hypoglycaemic drugs.
Bitter melon, the fruit of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), is a widely-used treatment for diabetes in traditional medicine systems throughout the world. Various compounds have been shown to be responsible for this reputed activity, and, in particular, cucurbitane triterpenoids are thought to play a significant role. The objective of this study was to investigate the gastrointestinal transport of a triterpenoid-enriched n-butanol extract of M. charantia using a two-compartment transwell human intestinal epithelial cell Caco-2 monolayer system, simulating the intestinal barrier. Eleven triterpenoids in this extract were transported from the apical to basolateral direction across Caco-2 cell monolayers, and were identified or tentatively identified by HPLC-TOF-MS. Cucurbitane triterpenoids permeated to the basolateral side with apparent permeability coefficient (P app) values for 3-β-7-β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al and momordicines I and II at 9.02 × 10(-6), 8.12 × 10(-6), and 1.68 × 10(-6)cm/s, respectively. Also, small amounts of these triterpenoids were absorbed inside the Caco-2 cells. This is the first report of the transport of the reputed antidiabetic cucurbitane triterpenoids in human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers. Our findings, therefore, further support the hypothesis that cucurbitane triterpenoids from bitter melon may explain, at least in part, the antidiabetic activity of this plant in vivo.
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PGO) contains more than 70% cis(c)9,trans(t)11,c13-18:3 as conjugated linolenic acids (CLN). Our previous short-term experiment demonstrated that seed oil from bitter melon (Momordica charantia) (BMO), which is rich in c9,t11,t13-CLN, inhibited the occurrence of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by azoxymethane (AOM). In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary PGO on the development of AOM-induced colonic malignancies and compared it with that of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). To induce colonic tumors, 6-week old male F344 rats were given subcutaneous injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 2 weeks. One week before the AOM treatment they were started on diet containing 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1% PGO or 1% CLA for 32 weeks. Upon termination of the bioassay (32 weeks) colon tumors were evaluated histopathologically. AOM exposure produced colonic adenocarcinoma with an incidence of 81% and multiplicity of 1.88 +/- 1.54 at week 32. Administration of PGO in the diet significantly inhibited the incidence (AOM + 0.01% PGO, 44%, P < 0.05; AOM + 0.1% PGO, 38%, P < 0.01; AOM + 1% PGO, 56%) and the multiplicity (AOM + 0.01% PGO, 0.56 +/- 0.73, P < 0.01; AOM + 0.1% PGO, 0.50 +/- 0.73, P < 0.005; AOM + 1% PGO, 0.88 +/- 0.96, P < 0.05) of colonic adenocarcinomas, although a clear dose-response relationship was not observed at these dose levels. CLA feeding also slightly, but not significantly, reduced the incidence and multiplicity of colonic adenocarcinomas. The inhibition of colonic tumors by PGO was associated with an increased content of CLA (c9,t11-18:2) in the lipid fraction of colonic mucosa and liver. Also, administration of PGO in the diet elevated expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma protein in the non-tumor mucosa. These results suggest that PGO rich in c9,t11,c13-CLN can suppress AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis, and the inhibition is associated in part with the increased content of CLA in the colon and liver and/or increased expression of PPARgamma protein in the colon mucosa.
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Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO) method, 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified in 36 individuals of M. charantia. Across all the M. charantia samples, the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to eight. Seven primers successfully amplified in the four related species. •
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In this study, we evaluated the extract of M. charantia for its antiepimastigote, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities.
Extracts of Momordica charantia fruit pulp, seed, and whole plant were tested for their hypoglycemic effects on normal and diabetic rat models. The results show that during the oral glucose tolerance test the peak blood glucose values in rats are obtained much earlier (15-45 min) than in human subjects (around 60 min). Pulp juice of M. charantia lowered fasting blood glucose levels in normal rats (p < 0.05 at 120 min); the effect was more pronounced with the saponin-free methanol extract of the pulp juice (p < 0.05 at 60 min and p < 0.01 at 120 min). The pulp juice also had a significant hypoglycemic effect in the glucose-fed normal rats when the extract was fed 45 minutes before the oral glucose load [percentage increments over basal value (M +/- SE): 85 +/- 10 in the control group vs. 54 +/- 7 in the pulp juice group, p < 0.01]. In the IDDM model rats the pulp juice had no significant effect on blood glucose levels either in fasting or postprandial states. In the NIDDM model rats the saponin-free methanol extract of juice produced a significant hypoglycemic effect both in fasting (p < 0.05 at 120 min) and in postprandial states (sum of percentage increments over basal value: 140 +/- 26 in the control vs. 71 +/- 7 in the pulp juice group, p < 0.05). Methanol extracts of seed and of whole plant, and saponin-free methanol extract of whole plant produced no hypoglycemic effects in normal or IDDM model rats either in fasting or in postprandial states.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection.
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This explorative survey emphasizes the need to preserve and document the traditional healing practices for managing DSD inviting for more imminent scientific research on the plants to determine their efficacy as well as safety. With the help of statistical analysis (DCI), we propose 10 priority plants for DSD in present work. Systematic pharmacological study with these plants may contribute significant result.
A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing.
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A method for determination of metrafenone residues in bitter gourd and soil was developed. All samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, purified with the glass column of florisil and NH2-SPE column, analyzed by gas chromatography with electronic capture detector (GC-ECD). The results showed that it had good linearity in the range of 0.01-2 mg/L and the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9999. The average recoveries of metrafenone in bitter gourd and soil were 83.51-91.75% and 84.76-91.72% with the relative standard deviation of 3.48-9.18% and 4.23-7.25%, respectively. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.005 mg/kg, the minimum concentration of detection in bitter gourd and soil was 1 × 10(-2) mg/kg.
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The efficacy of Momordica charantia (MC), Eugenia jambolana (EJ), Tinospora cordifolia (TC) and Mucuna pruriens (MP) was assessed in the prevention of murine alloxan dibetic cataract. Alloxan (120 mg/kg) was used as the diabetogenic agent. While controls and diabetic controls did not receive any plant extract, treated rats received lyophilized aqueous extract of MC and EJ (200 mg/kg p.o.), alcohol extract of TC (400 mg/kg) and MP (200 mg/kg p.o.) every day until 4 months. Serum glucose concentration was assessed and cataracts examined with both the naked eye and through a slit lamp. Of the eight animals in the diabetic control group, four developed cortical cataract (stage IV) by day 90 while the remaining four developed it by day 100. The incidence rate of cataract in MC, EJ, TC and MP treated groups at 120 days was only 0, 0, 1 and 2. Oral feeding of MC, EJ, TC and MP extracts for 1 month produced a fall of 64.33%, 55.62%, 38.01% and 40.17%, respectively, in the serum glucose levels in comparison with the 48 h level. After 2 months of treatment, the respective values were 66.96%, 59.85%, 40.41% and 45.63%. MC and EJ prevented the development of cataract while the protective effect was less with TC and MP along with a significant reduction of plasma glucose levels (p < 0.001).
The ribonuclease MC1 (RNase MC1) from the seeds of the bitter gourd belongs to the RNase T2 family. We evaluated the contribution of 11 amino acids conserved in the RNase T2 family to protein folding of RNase MC1. Thermal unfolding experiments showed that substitution of Tyr(101), Phe(102), Ala(105), and Phe(190) resulted in a significant decrease in themostability; the T(m) values were 47-58 degrees C compared to that for the wild type (64 degrees C). Mutations of Pro(125), Gly(127), Gly(144), and Val(165) caused a moderate decrease in thermostability (T(m): 60-62 degrees C). In contrast, mutations of Asp(107) and Gly(173) did little effect on thermostability. The contribution of Tyr(101), Phe(102), Pro(125), and Gly(127) to protein stability was further corroborated by means of Gdn-HCl unfolding and protease digestions. Taken together, it appeared that Tyr(101), Phe(102), Ala(105), Pro(125), Gly(127), Gly(144), Leu(162), Val(165), and Phe(190) conserved in the RNase T2 family play an important role in the stability of the proteins.
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Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation leads to photo-damage of the skin, which in turn induces expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and reduces type I procollagen. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) has been widely used as a traditional medicine. In this study, we tested the photo-protective effects of methanol extracts of bitter melon pulp (BM) and the mechanism of these effects in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The effects of BM were investigated by measuring the levels of MMP-1, -3 and -9, and type I procollagen following UVB irradiation. We found that BM alleviates UVB-induced MMP-1, -3 and -9 expression at 100 µg/mL (down to 52.0%, 73.5%, and 55.6%, respectively). However, cells treated with 100 µg/mL BM had weakly stimulated type I procollagen expression (up to 130.0%). Moreover, treatment with BM significantly reduced UVB-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 phosphorylation, which resulted in decreasing UVB-induced phosphorylation of c-Fos and c-Jun. Therefore, our results suggest that BM is a potential agent for regulating skin photoaging. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thirteen cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides, including eight new compounds named charantosides I (6), II (7), III (10), IV (11), V (12), VI (13), VII (16), and VIII (17), and five known compounds, 8, 9, 14, 15, and 18, were isolated from a methanol extract of the fruits of Japanese Momordica charantia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods. On evaluation of these triterpene glycosides and five other cucurbitane-type triterpenes, 1-5, also isolated from the extract of M. charantia fruits, for their inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, these compounds showed inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction with IC(50) values of 200-409 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA. In addition, upon evaluation of compounds 1-5 for inhibitory effects against activation of (+/-)-(E)-methyl-2[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexemide (NOR 1), a nitrogen oxide (NO) donor, compounds 1-3 showed moderate inhibitory effects. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited marked inhibitory effects in both 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)- and peroxynitrite (ONOO-; PN)-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis tests.
MAP30 is a 30 kDa single-stranded, type-I ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) possessing anti-tumor and anti-HIV activities. It binds both ribosomal RNA and the HIV-1 long-terminal repeat DNA. To understand the structural basis for MAP30 activities, we undertook the study of MAP30 by solution NMR spectroscopy. We report nearly complete 1H, 13C, and 15N chemical shift assignments of its 263 amino acids. Based upon an analysis of secondary 13C chemical shifts, 3J(HNHA) coupling constants, hydrogen exchange data, and nuclear Overhauser effect patterns, we find that the secondary structure and beta-sheet topology of MAP30 are very similar to those of the ricin A chain, a subunit of the well-known type-II RIP, even though two proteins display distinct activities. We therefore suggest that MAP30 and ricin A chain share a similar three-dimensional fold, and that the reported functional differences between two proteins arise primarily from differences in local three-dimensional structure and other structural properties such as surface electrostatic potentials.