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Indocin (Indomethacin)

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Indocin is an effective medication which helps to fight with pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis. Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Indomethacin.


Indocin is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis.

Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Indocin is also known as Indometacin, Indocid, Inmecin, Indochron E-R, Indocin-SR, Flexin Continus, Indolar, Indomax, Indomod, Pardelprin, Rheumacin, Rimacid, Slo-Indo.

It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.


Shake the liquid form of Indocin before using.

Take Indocin tablets and liquid form orally with water.

Take Indocin once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Indocin suddenly.


If you overdose Indocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Indocin overdosage: vomiting, migraine, lightheadedness, confusion, extreme tiredness, feeling of numbness, pricking, burning, creeping on the skin, convulsions, dyspepsia.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Indocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Indocin if you are allergic to Indocin components.

Do not take Indocin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Indocin if you are taking angiotensin ii receptor antagonists such as candesartan (atacand), eprosartan (teveten), irbesartan (avapro), losartan (cozaar), olmesartan (benicar), telmisartan (micardis), and valsartan (diovan); beta blockers such as atenolol (tenormin), labetalol (normodyne), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), nadolol (corgard), and propranolol (inderal); cyclosporine (neoral, sandimmune); digoxin (lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills') such as triamterene (dyrenium, in dyazide); lithium (eskalith, lithobid); methotrexate (rheumatrex); phenytoin (dilantin); and probenecid (benemid), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors such as benazepril (lotensin), captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), fosinopril (monopril), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), moexipril (univasc), perindopril (aceon), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace), and trandolapril (mavik).

It can be dangerous to use Indocin if you suffer from or have a history of seizures, parkinson's disease, depression or mental illness, or liver or kidney disease.

Be careful with Indocin if you are planning to use indomethacin suppositories.

Be careful with Indocin if you had proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) or have recently had rectal bleeding, asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful with Indocin if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

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There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications, nor were there any serious side effects attributable to any of the intravesically instilled agents. There was a statistically significant decrease in stent-related discomfort at the 1-hour time point in the group of patients who received intravesical ketorolac compared with the control group.

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The scuticociliatosis produced by the endoparasite Philasterides dicentarchi is a severe parasitic infection of farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) characterized by several histopathological effects including extensive inflammation. Indomethacin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that specifically inhibits synthesis of the proinflammatory mediator prostaglandins. The effect of indomethacin on the in vitro growth of P. dicentrarchi was investigated. In vitro growth of the scuticociliate was significantly inhibited by treatment with 100 microM indomethacin for 48 h. Higher concentrations of indomethacin (mM levels) did not affect the gelatinolytic activity of the cysteine proteinases of P. dicentrarchi. In vitro treatment with 25, 50 or 100 microM indomethacin for 3 days did not significantly affect the enzymatic activity of cysteine proteinases, as assayed with p-nitroanilide as substrate. Immunoblot analysis with anti-cysteine proteinase antibodies revealed an increase in proteinase expression (molecular weights of 80, 32 and 40-45 kDa) in parasite lysates originating from in vitro cultures incubated with 25 microM indomethacin for 72 h. Degradation of genomic DNA of the ciliates was observed in cultures incubated with 100 microM indomethacin for 1, 3 and 7 days. The results suggest that indomethacin is capable of inhibiting in vitro growth of the scuticociliate P. dicentrarchi by a mechanism related to the induction of programmed cell death, without affecting the enzymatic activation of parasite proteinases, which demonstrates the potential therapeutic use of this drug in the control of turbot scuticociliatosis.

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Combination therapies have long been used to treat inflammation while reducing side effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of combination treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and previously undescribed soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mice. NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and thereby decrease production of metabolites that lead to pain and inflammation. The sEHIs, such as 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid butyl ester (AUDA-BE), stabilize anti-inflammatory epoxy-eicosatrienoic acids, which indirectly reduce the expression of COX-2 protein. Here we demonstrate that the combination therapy of NSAIDs and sEHIs produces significantly beneficial effects that are additive for alleviating pain and enhanced effects in reducing COX-2 protein expression and shifting oxylipin metabolomic profiles. When administered alone, AUDA-BE decreased protein expression of COX-2 to 73 +/- 6% of control mice treated with LPS only without altering COX-1 expression and decreased PGE(2) levels to 52 +/- 8% compared with LPS-treated mice not receiving any therapeutic intervention. When AUDA-BE was used in combination with low doses of indomethacin, celecoxib, or rofecoxib, PGE(2) concentrations dropped to 51 +/- 7, 84 +/- 9, and 91 +/- 8%, respectively, versus LPS control, without disrupting prostacyclin and thromboxane levels. These data suggest that these drug combinations (NSAIDs and sEHIs) produce a valuable beneficial analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect while prospectively decreasing side effects such as cardiovascular toxicity.

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The greatest reduction of hyperalgesia was observed in the group of animals treated with morphine, followed by dexamethasone, indomethacin and atenolol. Reductions in hyperalgesia were observed after drug administration ceased, except for the group of animals treated with morphine, in which there was an increase in hyperalgesia after discontinuation of the treatment.

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Salicylaldehyde 2-chlorobenzoyl hydrazone (H(2)LASSBio-466), salicylaldehyde 4-chlorobenzoyl hydrazone (H(2)LASSBio-1064) and their complexes [Zn(LASSBio-466)H(2)O](2) (1) and [Zn(HLASSBio-1064)Cl](2) (2) were evaluated in animal models of peripheral and central nociception, and acute inflammation. All studied compounds significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing response. Upon coordination the anti-nociceptive activity was favored in the complex 1. H(2)LASSBio-466 inhibited only the first phase of the formalin test, while 1 was active in the second phase, like indomethacin, indicating its ability to inhibit nociception associated with the inflammatory response. Hence coordination to zinc(II) altered the pharmacological profile of H(2)LASSBio-466. H(2)LASSBio-1064 inhibited both phases but this effect was not improved by coordination. The studied compounds did not increase the latency of response in the hot plate model, indicating their lack of central anti-nociceptive activity. All compounds showed levels of inhibition of zymosan-induced peritonitis comparable or superior to indomethacin, indicating an expressive anti-inflammatory profile.

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Bone metastasis is one of the major causes of cancer-related pain, and not all bone cancer pain can be effectively treated. Recently, a mouse model of bone cancer pain was introduced. To test the analgesic effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on bone cancer pain, the authors examined the effects of oral administration of a cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) selective inhibitor (SC560), a COX-2 selective inhibitor (celecoxib), and a nonselective COX inhibitor (indomethacin) on bone cancer pain and compared these effects to the effect of orally administered acetaminophen and morphine.

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It appears that STW 5, which has a pronounced efficacy in functional gastro-intestinal diseases, has no effect on septic liver and lung damage in the CLP rat model.

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Preterm infants are delivered while glomerulogenesis is ongoing and may be exposed to insults, including medications that may affect renal development. Podocytes detected in the urine are an indicator of glomerular injury. The aims of this study were to determine whether preterm and term infants excrete podocytes in their urine and whether exposure to gentamicin and indomethacin increase podocyte excretion in their urine.

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The intestinal epithelium contains columnar epithelial cells (ECs) and M cells, and fucosylation of the apical surface of ECs and M cells is involved in distinguishing the two populations and in their response to commensal flora and environmental stress. Here, we show that fucosylated ECs (F-ECs) were induced in the mouse small intestine by the pro-inflammatory agents dextran sodium sulfate and indomethacin, in addition to an enteropathogen derived cholera toxin. Although F-ECs showed specificity for the M cell-markers, lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and our monoclonal antibody NKM 16-2-4, these cells also retained EC-phenotypes including an affinity for the EC-marker lectin wheat germ agglutinin. Interestingly, fucosylation of Peyer's patch M cells and F-ECs was distinctly regulated by α(1,2)fucosyltransferase Fut1 and Fut2, respectively. These results indicate that Fut2-mediated F-ECs share M cell-related fucosylated molecules but maintain distinctive EC characteristics, Fut1 is, therefore, a reliable marker for M cells.

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Rapid angiogenesis occurs as the ovulatory follicle is transformed into the corpus luteum. To determine if luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates angiogenesis in the ovulatory follicle, cynomolgus macaques received gonadotropins to stimulate multiple follicular development and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) substituted for the LH surge to initiate ovulatory events. Before hCG, vascular endothelial cells were present in the perifollicular stroma but not amongst granulosa cells. Endothelial cells entered the granulosa cell layer 24-36 h after hCG, concomitant with the rise in follicular PGE2 and prior to ovulation, which occurs about 40 h after hCG. Intrafollicular administration of the PG synthesis inhibitor indomethacin was coupled with PGE2 replacement to demonstrate that indomethacin blocked and PGE2 restored follicular angiogenesis in a single, naturally developed monkey follicle in vivo. Intrafollicular administration of indomethacin plus an agonist selective for a single PGE2 receptor showed that PTGER1 and PTGER2 agonists most effectively stimulated angiogenesis within the granulosa cell layer. Endothelial cell tracing and three-dimensional reconstruction indicated that these capillary networks form via branching angiogenesis. To further explore how PGE2 mediates follicular angiogenesis, monkey ovarian microvascular endothelial cells (mOMECs) were isolated from ovulatory follicles. The mOMECs expressed all four PGE2 receptors in vitro. PGE2 and all PTGER agonists increased mOMEC migration. PTGER1 and PTGER2 agonists promoted sprout formation while the PTGER3 agonist inhibited sprouting in vitro. While PTGER1 and PTGER2 likely promote the formation of new capillaries, each PGE2 receptor may mediate aspects of PGE2's actions and, therefore, LH's ability to regulate angiogenesis in the primate ovulatory follicle.

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A short term, prospective cohort study.

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All NSAIDs elicited mucosal necrotic lesions which were associated with neutrophil infiltration and reduction of PGE2 levels. Increments of MPO and MDA contents, as well as a decrease in GSH levels were detected in the gastric mucosa of indomethacin- or piroxicam-treated animals. Indomethacin enhanced mucosal cyclooxygenase-2 expression, while not affecting cyclooxygenase-1. At the oral dose of 18 micromol/kg lansoprazole partly counteracted diclofenac-induced mucosal damage, whereas at 90 micromol/kg it markedly prevented injuries evoked by all test NSAIDs. Lansoprazole at 90 micromol/kg reversed also the effects of NSAIDs on MPO, MDA and GSH mucosal contents, without interfering with the decrease in PGE2 levels or indomethacin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. However, both lansoprazole doses markedly inhibited acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. Lansoprazole concentration-dependently reduced the oxidation of LDLs in vitro.

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Endothelium plays an important role in mediating the function of transplanted organs. The widely used University of Wisconsin solution impairs the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated relaxation in coronary arteries, but little is known about effects of lung preservation on endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated endothelial function. This study examined the effect of organ preservation solutions on the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated relaxation in the pulmonary microarteries (diameter 200 to 450 microm).

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BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a class of nuclear transcription factors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. One of these, PPARgamma, regulates responsiveness to insulin in adipose cells, and PPARgamma-activating drugs such as pioglitazone are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PPARgamma acts in myeloid-lineage cells, including T-cells and macrophages, to suppress their activation and their elaboration of inflammatory molecules. PPARgamma activation also suppresses the activated phenotype in microglia, suggesting that PPARgamma-activating drugs may be of benefit in chronic neuroinflammatory diseases. Some, but not all, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (indomethacin and ibuprofen in particular) also have activating effects on PPARgamma. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest on the one hand a role for PPARgamma-activating drugs in the treatment of chronic neuroinflammatory diseases-as shown for a patient with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis by Pershadsingh et al. in this issue of the Journal of Neuroinflammation-and suggest on the other hand a possible explanation for confusing and contradictory results in trials of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents in Alzheimer's disease.

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The ethanolic root extract of Croton zambesicus was investigated for its potential to protect gastric mucosa against ulcers induced by indomethacin, ethanol and reserpine. The anticonvulsant activity of the root extract against pentylene tetrazol (PTZ)- and picrotoxin-induced convulsion in mice was also studied. The extract (27-81 mg/kg) produced a significant (P<0.005-0.001) dose-dependent effects against the ulcerogenic effect of different agents used; indomethacin, ethanol and reserpine. The effect of the extract was lower than that of the standard drug, cimetidine (100 mg/kg) in the indomethacin and reserpine-induced ulcer models and higher than that of propranolol (40 mg/kg) in ethanol-induced ulcer model. The extract (27-81 mg/kg) could not protect mice from convulsion in both PTZ--and picrotoxin-induced convulsion. The root extract significantly (P<0.01-0.001) delayed the onset and latency of convulsion caused by PTZ and picrotoxin. The root extract possesses antiulcer and anticonvulsant properties.

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Early fluid and electrolyte imbalances may be associated with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

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Triphala has a promising anti-inflammatory effect in the inflamed paw of arthritis-induced rats.

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The results indicate that I. sonchifolia (20 to approximately 160 g x L(-1) can contract the rat thoracic aortic rings with endothelium. The effect of contraction may enhance angiotensin converting enzyme activity and promote endothelium to synthesize angiotensin II. It has no relationship to endothelin or thromboxane A2.

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Healthy adults with body mass indices of 15-30 kg/m(2) were eligible for the study. Following intranasal ketorolac tromethamine dosing, blood samples (approximately 7 mL per sample) for pharmacokinetic assessment were obtained at 15, 30 and 45 min and 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 15 and 24 h after dosing. Plasma ketorolac concentration versus time data were analysed to determine maximum (peak) ketorolac concentration (C(max)) and time to reach C(max) (t(max)) and estimate pharmacokinetic parameters.

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We randomly assigned 100 patients to five study groups (20 per group): control group, no injection; intra-articular (IA) ropivacaine group, IA injection of ropivacaine alone; IA MDC group, IA injection of MDC; PA MDC group, PA injection of MDC; and IA + PA MDC group, IA and PA injections of MDC. The MDC consisted of ropivacaine, morphine, ketorolac, epinephrine, and cefuroxime. The five groups were compared in terms of pain levels during the first night after surgery and on postoperative days 1, 2, and 14; patient satisfaction was assessed on postoperative day 14.

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1. This study describes the effects of hypoxia on relaxing responses and cAMP production induced by the known vasodilator peptides: alphaCGRP, amylin (AMY) and adrenomedullin (AM) on isolated pig coronary arteries in vitro. 2. Hypoxic incubation increased the vasorelaxant effect of alphaCGRP (four-fold; P<0.05), AMY (3.2-fold; P<0.05), but not significantly for AM (two-fold; NS). 3. Whereas hypoxia had no effect on arterial cAMP levels, it significantly potentiated the production of cAMP stimulated of alphaCGRP and AMY, but not of AM. 4. The antagonist alphaCGRP(8-37) also exerted an increased effect in hypoxia. The Schild plot-derived pK(B) values revealed an increase in the apparent affinity of the antagonist for the CGRP(1) receptor from 7.0 to 7.2 under control conditions versus 8.0 in hypoxia. 5. Removal of endothelium, peptidase inhibitors, preincubation with the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist CSC (10(-3) M), the ATP-sensitive K-channel inhibitor glibenclamide (10(-5) M), the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-3) M) or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (10(-4) M) had no effect on the alphaCGRP-induced vasorelaxation in hypoxia; neither did hypoxia influence the levels of CGRP and AM receptor mRNA. 6. We conclude that hypoxic incubation increases the relaxation and cAMP production induced by alphaCGRP and AMY in rings of porcine coronary arteries in vitro. A concomitant release of adenosine, a cyclooxygenase product, an endothelium-derived substance, activation of vascular ATP-sensitive K-channels, peptidase inhibitors or changes in CGRP and AM receptor mRNA cannot account for the changes observed in hypoxia. Moreover, alphaCGRP(8-37) showed increased affinity at the CGRP(1) receptor during hypoxia, possibly due to a conformational change at the CGRP(1) receptor site.

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Clostridium difficile-associated disease causes diarrhea to fulminant colitis and death. We investigated the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors, aristolochic acid (AA), bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) and quinacrine (QUIN) on the C. difficile toxin A-induced disruption of epithelial integrity, histologic inflammatory damage and intestinal secretion. Toxin A caused severe hemorrhagic and inflammatory fluid secretion at 6-8 h in rabbit ileal segments, an effect that was significantly inhibited by QUIN (71%, P < 0.01), AA (87%, P < 0.000l) or by BPB (51%, P < 0.01). The secretory effect of toxin A was also inhibited in segments adjacent to those with AA (89%, P < 0.01). Furthermore, QUIN or AA substantially reduced the histologic damage seen after 6-8 h in rabbit ileal segments. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, also significantly inhibited (96%; n = 6) the secretory effects of toxin A in ligated rabbit intestinal segments. The destruction by toxin A of F-actin at the tight junctions of T-84 cell monolayers was not inhibited by AA or BPB. AA or QUIN had no effect on the T-84 cell tissue resistance reduction over 8-24 h after toxin A exposure. All the inhibitors were shown to be effective in the doses administered direct in ileal loops to inhibit PLA2 activity. The data suggest that PLA2 is involved in the major pathway of toxin A-induced histologic inflammatory damage and hemorrhagic fluid secretion.

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These findings support the hypothesis that the 20-HETE/CYP4A system modulates vessel responses to norepinephrine and vascular relaxation to reduced PO₂ in mesenteric resistance arteries of SS rats fed HS diet.

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From Jun. 2009 to Dec. 2011, we performed excision of ectopic ossification around the elbow in 78 stiff elbows. For each case, we used both medial and lateral approaches, and we performed both anterior and posterior capsulectomies and removal of ectopic ossification. In the lateral approach, we started proximally, the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus was exposed from the interval between extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and triceps, and then distally passed the interval between ECRL and extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB). With the medial approach, after releasing the ulnar nerve, the pronator teres muscle origin was reflected from the medial epicondyle, and then the common flexor-pronator tendon was split longitudinally distally and the brachalis and the anterior portion of the flexor-pronator group were dissected off the anterior humerus. If there was forearm rotation dysfunction, we used extensive lateral approach, the anconeus muscle was reflected from the ulna and the scar tissue and ectopic ossification around the proximal radioulnar joint were resected. The important structures, such as the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) and the anterior part of the medial collateral ligament (AMCL), should be carefully protected, because they were important for the elbow stability. Anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve depended on the patients' condition. We performed low dose radiotherapy 4 hours before operation, and we used indomethacin for 6 weeks after operation. In these patients, there were 46 males and 32 females, whose age averaged (35.8±7.9) years (16-65 years). According to Hastings-Graham classification, there were 56 IIA, 5 IIB, 6 IIC and 11 III before operation.

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A prospective clinical study was performed to compare the efficacy of low-molecular-weight heparin and indomethacin for the prevention of deep-vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty in Asian patients.

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We checked the hypothesis whether the non-classical estrogen receptor modulators genistein and raloxifene could affect platelet aggregation through their direct effect on vascular tissue by regulating the synthesis of vasoactive compounds. In rat aortic strips, 10nM genistein or 10nM raloxifene significantly increased nitric oxide synthesis, event prevented by ICI182780. Both agents exhibited an antiaggregatory action, dependent on the nitric oxide release from vascular tissue, since preincubation of aortic strips with L-NAME partially and completely suppressed the inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by genistein or raloxifene respectively. The phytoestrogen enhanced phospholipase A(2) and prostacyclin release into the incubation medium. Indomethacin reduced in half the inhibition of platelet aggregation elicited by genistein. Finally, genistein or raloxifene also inhibited platelet aggregation in aortic strips from ovariectomized rats. In conclusion, genistein and raloxifene exhibit an antiplatelet activity through their direct action on vascular tissue, in rats with or without ovarian activity.

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At 1 month follow-up, both treatment arms resulted in increased range of motion and decreased pain. The steroid group decreased in active abduction while the NSAID group increased (steroid: 134°, NSAID: 151°, P = .03). The mean improvement in the UCLA shoulder rating scale at 4 weeks was 7.15 for the NSAID group and 2.13 for the steroid group (P = .03). Subgroup analysis of the UCLA scale demonstrated an increase in both forward flexion strength (P = .04) and patient satisfaction (P = .03) in the NSAID group. No significant difference could be seen in all other outcome measures.

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Consistent with earlier studies, medially situated SVZ cells expanded after H/I. Contrary to our expectations, indomethacin significantly decreased both the initial reactive increase in these precursors and their ability to self-renew. By contrast, indomethacin increased proliferation in the SGZ and lateral SVZ. Indomethacin diminished the accumulation of microglia/macrophages and IL-6 production after H/I. In vitro IL-6 enhanced neurosphere growth, self-renewal, and tripotentiality and was more effective than LIF in promoting self-renewal. Enhanced precursor self-renewal also was obtained using prostaglandin E2, which is downstream of cyclooxygenase 2 and a target of indomethacin.

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Leaf methanol extract of C. orbiculata L. was investigated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid writhing and hot-plate tests and carrageenan-induced oedema test in mice and rats, respectively. C. orbiculata (100-400 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing and significantly delayed the reaction time of mice to the hot-plate-induced thermal stimulation. Paracetamol (300 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed the reaction time of mice to the thermal stimulation produced with hot plate. Leaf methanol extract of C. orbiculata (50-400 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly attenuated the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) also significantly attenuated the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. The LD(50) value obtained for the plant species was greater than 4000 mg/kg (p.o.). The data obtained indicate that C. orbiculata has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, justifying the folklore use of the plant species by traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions. The relatively high LD(50) obtained shows that C. orbiculata may be safe in or nontoxic to mice.

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indocin sr capsules 2016-08-20

The purpose of the study was to evaluate organogel nanoparticles as a drug delivery system by investigating their stability, according to the formulation strategy, and their release profile. The gelled nanoparticles were prepared by hot emulsification (above the gelation temperature) of an organogel in water, and cooling at room temperature. In the first step, we used DLS and DSC to select the most suitable formulations by optimizing the proportion of ingredients (HSA, PVA, castor oil) to obtain particles of the smallest size and greatest stability. Then, two lipophilic drug models, indomethacin and ketoconazole were entrapped in the nanoparticles made of castor oil gelled by 12-hydroxystearic acid. Thermal studies (DSC) confirmed that there was no significant alteration of gelling due to the entrapped drugs, even at 3% w/w. Very stable dispersions were obtained (>3 months), with gelled oil nanoparticles presenting a mean diameter between 250 and 300 nm. High encapsulation efficiency (>98%) was measured for indomethacin and ketoconazole. The buy indocin release profile determined by in vitro dialysis showed an immediate release of the drug from the organogel nanoparticles, due to rapid diffusion. The study demonstrates the interest of these gelled oil nanoparticles for the encapsulation and the delivery of lipophilic active compounds.

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We recently reported that activated normal human B lymphocytes express Cox-2. These findings prompted us to evaluate whether human B-CLL cells express Cox-2 and synthesize prostaglandins. In contrast to naive human B cells, B-CLL cells buy indocin constitutively expressed Cox-2 protein and produced PGE2, PGF2alpha, and TXA2. Elevated Cox-2 expression was seen in a subgroup of B-CLL cells that exhibit poor prognostic factors, including unmutated variable heavy chain status and increased CD38 expression. Furthermore, stimulation of B-CLL cells with CD40 ligand plus TNFalpha increased Cox-2 levels. The role of Cox-2 in promoting B-CLL survival was investigated using nonselective and selective Cox-2 inhibitors. Significant reductions in B-CLL survival occurred following Cox-2 inhibition. These new findings support that constitutive Cox-2 expression in B-CLL cells promotes their survival and possibly their expansion in vivo. It will therefore be important to evaluate drugs that inhibit Cox-2 as potential therapeutic agents in B-CLL in vivo.

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Celecoxib, indomethacin, and NS-398 inhibited ureteral contractility buy indocin and prostanoid release with similar efficacy and potency. All three compounds also reduced TNF-alpha-induced prostanoid release to control levels at concentrations as low as 0.1 microM.

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Aliskiren exerted its protective effects on stomach tissue by decreasing inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress as a result of inhibiting the RAAS, at a rate-limiting step, as well as its end product, angiotensin II. Aliskiren also significantly buy indocin increased protective factors such as PGE2, but not affect aggressive factors such as gastric acidity.

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During a 5-year period, the authors tracked demographic, surgical outcome, and follow-up information for 707 patients who underwent major gynecologic operations. All patients received the buy indocin same postoperative orders, including immediate feeding of a diet of choice and bowel stimulation with 30 mL of magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) twice daily until bowel movements occurred.

indocin gel 2017-04-05

We are reporting a synergistic effect of combined Eudragit E100 and PVP K90 in precipitation inhibition of indomethacin (IND) in solutions at low polymer concentration, a phenomenon that has significant implications on the usefulness of developing novel ternary solid dispersion of poorly soluble drugs. The IND supersaturation was created by cosolvent technique, and the precipitation studies were performed in the absence and the presence of individual and combined PVP K90 and Eudragit E100. The studies were also done with PEG 8000 as a noninteracting control polymer. A continuous UV recording of the IND absorption was used to observe changes in the drug concentration buy indocin over time. The polymorphic form and morphology of precipitated IND were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The change in the chemical shift in solution (1)H NMR was used as novel approach to probe IND-polymer interactions. Molecular modeling was used for calculating binding energy between IND-polymer as another indication of IND-polymer interaction. Spontaneous IND precipitation was observed in the absence of polymers. Eudragit E100 showed significant inhibitory effect on nuclei formation due to stronger interaction as reflected in higher binding energy and greater change in chemical shift by NMR. PVP K90 led to significant crystal growth inhibition due to adsorption on growing IND crystals as confirmed by modified crystal habit of precipitate in the presence of PVP K90. Combination of polymers resulted in a synergistic precipitation inhibition and extended supersaturation. The NMR confirmed interaction between IND-Eudragit E100 and IND-PVP K90 in solution. The combination of polymers showed similar peak shift albeit using lower polymer concentration indicating stronger interactions. The results established the significant synergistic precipitation inhibition effect upon combining Eudragit E100 and PVP K90 due to drug-polymer interaction.

indocin generic name 2016-11-02

The present study was aimed to investigate the pharmacological basis for the use buy indocin of Loranthus ferrugineus in hypertension.

indocin drug 2017-11-20

This study confirms that anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of S. khuzistanica are comparable to those of indomethacin and morphine. Presence of flavonoids, steroids, essential oil, mainly carvacrol and tannin might be responsible for anti-inflammatory and buy indocin anti-nociceptive activities of this plant.

indocin oral suspension 2015-07-26

VSN16 is an agonist at a novel cannabinoid receptor of the vasculature. It acts on the endothelium to release nitric oxide and activate KCa and TRPV1. As it is water-soluble it might be useful in bringing about peripheral cannabinoid-like effects buy indocin without accompanying central or severe cardiovascular responses.

indocin gout dose 2015-09-05

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress ( buy indocin a cyclooxygenase-2-independent mechanism) and consequent autophagic cell death are responsible for NSAID-associated gastric damage. Therefore, alleviating cytotoxicity executed via ER stress and autophagy can be a strategy to prevent NSAID-associated gastric damage. Here, we explored whether genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy can mitigate NSAID-associated gastric damage in in vitro and in vivo models. To examine the effects of genetic inhibition of NSAID-associated autophagy, we administered indomethacin to RGM1 gastric mucosal cells transfected with shPERK, siLC3B, or shATG5 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B knock-out (LC3B(-/-)) mice. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ) was used for pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy in both models. Indomethacin administration increased the expression of ER stress proteins including GRP78, ATF6, and CHOP. Indomethacin provoked the appearance of autophagic vesicles with the increased expression of ATG5 and LC3B-II. Genetic ablation of various ER stress genes significantly attenuated indomethacin-induced autophagy and apoptosis (p < 0.01), whereas knock-down of either ATG5 or LC3B significantly reduced indomethacin-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.01). Testing each of the genes implicated in ER stress and autophagy showed that indomethacin leads to gastric cell apoptosis through autophagy induction consequent to ER stress. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy with either 3-MA or CQ in rats or genetic ablation of LC3B in mice all had a significant rescuing effect against indomethacin-associated gastric damage (p < 0.01) and a decrease in molecular markers of autophagic and apoptotic gastric cells. In conclusion, preemptive autophagy inhibition can be a potential strategy to mitigate NSAID-associated gastric damage.

indocin max dosage 2015-03-26

Using a series of fluorescent probes in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study, we found that Indo induced separation between gel domains and fluid domains in the mixed model membrane, possibly by enhancing the formation of gel-phase domains. This effect originated from the ability of Indo to specifically target the ordered domains in the mixed membrane. These findings were further confirmed by measuring the ability of buy indocin Indo to affect the fluidity-dependent fluorescence quenching and the level of detergent resistance of membranes.

indocin 75 mg 2016-06-18

Recent evidence has shown that an increase in CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells may contribute to stroke-induced immunosuppression. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this increase in Treg cells remain unclear. Here, we used a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model in mice and specific pathway inhibitors to demonstrate that stroke activates the sympathetic nervous system, which was abolished by 6-OHDA. The consequent activation of β2-adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in bone marrow. β2-AR antagonist prevented the upregulation of PGE2. PGE2, which acts on prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4), upregulated the expression of receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in CD4(+) T cells and mediated the increase in Treg cells in bone marrow. Treatment of MCAO mice with RANKL antagonist OPG inhibited the increase in percent of bone marrow Treg cells. PGE2 also elevated the expression of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase in CD11C(+) dendritic cells and promoted the development of functional Treg cells. The effect was neutralized by treatment with indomethacin. Concurrently, stroke reduced production of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) via β3-AR signals in bone marrow but increased the expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 in Treg and other bone marrow cells. Treatment of MCAO mice with β3-AR antagonist SR-59230A reduced the percent of Treg cells in peripheral blood after stroke. The disruption of the CXCR4-SDF-1 axis may facilitate mobilization of Treg cells and other CXCR4(+) cells into peripheral buy indocin blood. This mechanism could account for the increase in Treg cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in peripheral blood after stroke. We conclude that cerebral ischemia can increase bone marrow CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells via signals from the sympathetic nervous system.

indocin 40 mg 2016-10-29

Enteric microparticles were prepared by a novel microencapsulation method in order to improve the oral bioavailability of lipophilic drugs. This method involved the addition of an aqueous polymer solution to an organic enteric polymer solution containing lipophilic drugs. In contrast to classical coacervation microencapsulation methods, the drugs were initially also dissolved and not dispersed in the organic polymer solution. The hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), hydroxypropyl buy indocin cellulose (HPC) and Poloxamer 407) was dissolved in the aqueous phase and acted as a stabilizer for the coacervate droplets, preventing their coalescence and leading to the formation of enteric microparticles. The size of the enteric microparticles decreased with higher concentrations of the hydrophilic polymers, a higher pH of the aqueous polymer solution, a higher content of carboxyl groups of the enteric polymer and with better polymer solvents. Amide-containing lipophilic drugs, such as carbamazepine, lidocaine and cyclosporine A, were successfully encapsulated in the enteric microparticles in a non-crystalline state and were physically stable for 5 months. The high solubility of carbamazepine in the enteric polymer (>30%, w/w), a high partition coefficient between polymer-rich/-poor regions and strong drug/polymer interactions contributed to the high drug encapsulation efficiency (90%, w/w). In contrast, carboxyl-containing drugs (indomethacin, ibuprofen) and hydroxyl-containing drug (17beta-estradiol hemihydrate) crystallized inside or outside the polymeric matrix due to their low solubility in the enteric polymer.

indocin pain medication 2017-10-24

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from rats were isolated, cultured and purified by whole bone marrow adherence method. The rat BMSCs were induced to differentiate into adipocytes with dexamethasone, insulin and indomethacin. Blockage of the buy indocin differentiation process was induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC).

indocin drug label 2016-04-04

Free ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, and indomethacin rapidly cross the BBB, with ibuprofen exhibiting a saturable component of transport. Plasma protein binding limits brain NSAID uptake by reducing the free fraction of Daily Dose Coumadin NSAID in the circulation.

indocin cost 2016-05-16

This paper is concerned with the solid-state characterization of dehydrated calcium salts as well as Cefixime Dosing the effect of dehydration on the physical properties of these salts.

indocin gout medication 2016-12-23

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been conducted using an assembly consisting of 105 indomethacin (IMC) molecules and 12 water molecules to investigate the underlying dynamic (e.g., rotational and translational diffusivities and conformation relaxation rates) and structural properties (e.g., conformation, hydrogen-bonding distributions, and interactions of water with IMC) of amorphous IMC. These properties may be important in predicting physical stability of this metastable material. The IMC model was constructed using X-ray diffraction data with the force-field parameters mostly assigned by analogy with similar groups in Amber-ff03 and atomic charges calculated with the B3LYP/ccpVTZ30, IEFPCM, and RESP models. The assemblies were initially equilibrated in their molten state and cooled through the glass transition temperature to form amorphous solids. Constant temperature dynamic runs were then carried out above and below the T(g) (i.e., at 600 K (10 ns), 400 K (350 ns), and 298 K (240 ns)). The density (1.312 ± 0.003 g/cm(3)) of the simulated amorphous solid at 298 K was close to the experimental value (1.32 g/cm(3)) while the estimated T(g) (384 K) was ~64 degrees higher than the experimental value (320 K) due to the faster cooling rate. Due to the hindered rotation of its amide bond, IMC can exist in different diastereomeric states. Different IMC conformations were sufficiently sampled in Trileptal Epilepsy Medication the IMC melt or vapor, but transitions occurred rarely in the glass. The hydrogen-bonding patterns in amorphous IMC are more complex in the amorphous state than in the crystalline polymorphs. Carboxylic dimers that are dominant in α- and γ-crystals were found to occur at a much lower probability in the simulated IMC glasses while hydrogen-bonded IMC chains were more easily identified patterns in the simulated amorphous solids. To determine molecular diffusivity, a novel analytical method is proposed to deal with the non-Einsteinian behavior, in which the temporal evolution of the apparent diffusivity D(t) is described by a relaxation model such as the KWW function and extrapolated to infinite time. The diffusion coefficient found for water diffusing in amorphous indomethacin at 298 K (2.7 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s) compares favorably to results obtained in experimental IMC glasses (0.9-2.0 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s) and is mechanistically associated with β-relaxation processes that are dominant in sub-T(g) glasses.

indocin and alcohol 2015-01-10

This is a randomized controlled trial performed at a single tertiary care hospital between March 2010 and November 2012. Women older than 18 years of age with a singleton pregnancy between 16 0/7 and 23 6/7 weeks of gestation undergoing an examination-indicated cerclage were eligible. Women were randomly assigned to receive either perioperative indomethacin and Viagra Online Buy antibiotics or no perioperative prophylactic medications. The primary outcome was gestational latency after cerclage placement. Fifty women were required to be randomized to show, with 80% power, a 28-day improvement in latency assuming a latency without intervention of 50±35 days.

indocin 150 mg 2015-12-08

Among women receiving an examination-indicated cerclage in Naprosyn Otc Dose the second trimester, gestation was significantly more likely to be prolonged by 28 days among women who received perioperative indomethacin and antibiotics.

indocin generic 2016-12-11

The cell viability was determined by Trypan blue staining and the state of cell proliferation was analyzed; DNA ladder pattern and AO/EB staining were applied to identify the cell apoptosis; the apoptotic signal proteins including caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP and the proteins of JNK signal pathway such as MEK4, JNK, P-JNK, and P Suprax Buy Online -C-Jun, were detected by Western blotting.

indocin medicine 2016-07-23

There were no significant differences between the animals previously subjected to in utero anaemia and the control animals regarding the percentage infarct size and the area-at-risk to the left ventricle. The ventricular function (dP/dt) was preserved. The percentage infarct size of the area-at-risk (70.7 +/- 3.5%) was larger than that in the controls (49.8 +/- 4.5%) (P = 0.006). The vascular responses were not altered. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin (96.0 +/- 2.6% vs. 98.8 +/- 1.0%) was not affected by PGI(2) inhibitor (94.6 +/- 2.6% vs. 98.5 +/- 1.0%) but significantly reduced by the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) in both anaemic (P < 0.05) and control (P < 0.001) groups with a significant right shift of EC(50) (P < 0.01). The non-NO-non-PGI(2)-mediated relaxation was slightly potentiated in anaemic animals.

indocin reviews 2016-08-08

Older GA, male gender and higher platelet count at time of treatment of hemodynamically significant PDA are predictors of successful ductal closure with indomethacin.

indocin gout dosage 2015-03-12

The vasodilatory effect of cinnamaldehyde was investigated for its mechanism of action using isolated rings of rat aorta. Cinnamaldehyde relaxed aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner, was not affected by either the presence or removal of the endothelium. Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one could not block vasodilation by cinnamaldehyde, indicating that nitric oxide signaling is not involved. Potassium channel blockers, such as glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, and BaCl2, had no effect on the relaxation produced by cinnamaldehyde. In addition, treatment with either indomethacin or propranolol did not affect cinnamaldehyde-induced vasodilatation. On the other hand, pretreatment of endothelium-denuded rings with cinnamaldehyde significantly inhibited vasoconstriction induced by endogenous vasoconstrictors, including angiotensin II, 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, endothelin-1, and phenylephrine. In a Ca2+-free experimental setting, this natural vasodilator not only blocked Ca2+ influx-dependent vasoconstriction by either phenylephrine or KCl, but also inhibited phenylephrine-induced tonic contraction, which relies on intracellular Ca2+ release. This study shows that endothelium-independent, Ca2+ influx and/or an inhibitory release mechanism contributes to the vasodilatory effect of cinnamaldehyde.

indocin medication 2017-07-09

BI did not exert gastroprotective effect, in contrast to HE (500mg/kg, p.o.) that decreased (p<0.05) the severity of gastric damage induced by HCl/ethanol (52%), indomethacin/bethanechol (51%), stress (52%) or pylorus ligature experiments (54%). HE increased (p<0.05) the pH and decreased acid output of gastric juice. This extract promoted increase of mucus amount (3.62mg/wt. tissue vs. 5.81mg/wt. tissue), healing action (67%) and displayed anti-Helicobacter pylori effect.

indocin tablets uses 2017-10-14

Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction characterized by decreased vasorelaxation. Crocetin, a bioactive compound of saffron, exhibits favorable cardiovascular properties. We analyze the vasomodulatory effects of crocetin in hypertension.

indocin 50mg capsules 2015-02-22

Bradykinin produced a dose-dependent, reversible contraction of isolated tracheal smooth muscle. Montelukast significantly reduced the bradykinin-induced tracheal smooth muscle reactivity and shifted the bradykinin curve to the right and downwards, in the presence of both concentrations of montelukast. The mean magnitude of response achieved with 77 μg of bradykinin in the absence of montelukast was 39 mm ± 6.26, in the presence of 0.5 μg/ml of montelukast it was 24.17 mm ± 4.11, and in the presence of 1 μg/ml of montelukast it was 13 mm ± 2.6.