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Imdur (Isosorbide Mononitrate)

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Generic Imdur is an effective medication which helps in the treatment of angina attacks. Generic Imdur acts as nitrates.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Nitrostat, Nitro-Bid, NitroQuick, Nitro-Dur, Isordil, Ranexa


Also known as:  Isosorbide Mononitrate.


Generic Imdur is a perfect remedy, which helps to treat angina attacks.

Generic Imdur acts as nitrates.

Imdur is also known as Isosorbide Mononitrate.

Generic name of Generic Imdur is Isosorbide Mononitrate.

Brand names of Generic Imdur are Imdur, ISMO, Monoket.


Take Generic Imdur tablets orally with or without food.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Generic Imdur at the same time with water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Imdur suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Imdur and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Imdur are difficult or slow breathing, muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, high temperature, fainting, abnormal heartbeat, changes in vision, flushing, convulsions, severe throbbing migraine, lightheadedness.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Imdur are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Imdur if you are allergic to Generic Imdur components.

Do not take Generic Imdur if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Be careful using Generic Imdur if you take dihydroergotamine (D.H.E. 45); or any other heart medicines, especially those used to treat high blood pressure or irregular heartbeats.

Be careful using Generic Imdur if you suffer from or have a history of congestive heart failure, have low blood pressure; a stroke, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, or mini-stroke), have anemia; have an allergy to nitrates; have closed-angle glaucoma; migraines, kidney disease; liver disease, heart attack, a serious head injury.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Generic Imdur suddenly.

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To assess the acute and chronic effects of propranolol, and the effect of the acute addition of isosorbide-5-mononitrate, on splanchnic circulation.

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Asymmetric dosage regimens of isosorbide mononitrate provide better antianginal efficacy and quality of life in patients with stable angina pectoris than the daily administration of multiple small doses of the compound. It is not known whether certain patient characteristics contribute to this improved benefit.

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Early treatment with converting enzyme inhibitors and nitrates in acute myocardial infarction may limit infarct expansion and prevent left ventricular dilation.

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Isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMO) has been shown to be effective in reducing the risk of variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. However, recent studies have suggested that this drug compromises renal function. The present study was conducted to assess the acute and chronic effects of ISMO on effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and the renin-aldosterone profile in cirrhotic patients.

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12 patients with coronary heart disease were studied to see whether high doses of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN, Corovliss) or isosorbide 5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN, Ismo) increase the erythrocyte methemoglobin production in an acute experiment and after 4 days of medication. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (6 patients) was given a single dose of 80 mg ISDN on the morning of day 1 and Group 2 (6 patients) was given 80 mg IS-5-MN as a single oral dose. Under the influence of the IS-5-MN no change was observed from the initial methemoglobin (met-Hb) value (0.81% of the total Hb) at measurements performed 1 and 2 h after the administration of the drug. In Group 1 (ISDN) the initial met-Hb value was 0.58% of the total Hb, a slight increase to 0.70% being observed after 1 h and to 0.77% after 2 h (p less than 0.05). The patients were then treated as follows for a further 4 days: Group 1 480 mg ISDN/d, Group 2 480 mg IS-5-MN/d. On day 5 the initial met-Hb values in both groups were unchanged compared to day 1. The patients were then given first 80 mg ISDN (Group 1) or 80 mg IS-5-MN (Group 2) and 4 h later a single dose of 160 mg of the appropriate substance. In Group 2 (IS-5-MN) the met-Hb content remained unaffected. In Group 1 a slight increase of the met-Hb to 0.79% occurred 1 h after 80 mg ISDN and to 0.9% after 2 h (p less than 0.05). The dose of 160 mg ISDN gave rise to a further slight increase to 1.00% (after 1 h) and 1.13% (after 2 h) (p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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It is clearly established that beta-blockers decrease the risk of a first variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. We have recently shown that the addition of isosorbide mononitrate to nadolol decreases the rate of variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis and varices, compared with nadolol alone, after a median follow-up of 30 months. It is not established if the long-term treatment with the combination continues to be beneficial. Therefore, we assessed the long-term effect of this combination on first variceal bleeding, complications, and death. One hundred forty-six cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices included in a previously published multicenter, randomized study comparing nadolol (40-160 mg/d) with the combination nadolol plus isosorbide mononitrate (10-20 mg 3 times per day) were followed up for up to 7 years (median follow-up, 55 months). The primary end-point was variceal bleeding of any severity. Twenty-four patients (16 in the nadolol group, and 8 in the combination group) experienced variceal bleeding (log rank test, P =.02). Cumulative risk of bleeding was 29% and 12%, respectively (95% CI for the difference, 1%-23%). Two and 4 patients, respectively, had bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy (log rank test, P =.20). Thirty and 25 patients, respectively, died during follow-up (log rank test, P =.13). Twelve and 10 patients, respectively, had de novo occurrence of ascites during follow-up (log rank test, P =.29). In conclusion, nadolol plus isosorbide mononitrate is significantly more effective than nadolol alone in the long-term use. Side effects are few, and no deleterious effects on ascites occurrence or on survival occur after long-term use of this combination.

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Bioconversion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) into nitric oxide (NO) by aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH-2) is a crucial mechanism which drives vasodilatory and antiplatelet effect of organic nitrates in vitro and in vivo. Oxidative stress generated by overproduction of free radical species, mostly superoxide anions and NO-derived peroxynitrite, has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the development of nitrate tolerance, though the mechanism still remains unclear. Here we studied the free radical-dependent impairment of ALDH-2 in platelets as well as vascular tissues undergoing organic nitrate ester tolerance and potential benefit when using the selective peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst Mn(III) tetrakis (4-Benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP). Washed human platelets were made tolerant to nitrates via incubation with GTN for 4h. This was expressed by attenuation of platelet aggregation induced by thrombin (40U/mL), an effect accompanied by GTN-related induction of cGMP levels in platelets undergoing thrombin-induced aggregation. Both effects were associated to attenuated GTN-induced nitrite formation in platelets supernatants and to prominent nitration of ALDH-2, the GTN to NO metabolizing enzyme, suggesting that GTN tolerance was associated to reduced NO formation via impairment of ALDH-2. These effects were all antagonized by co-incubation of platelets with MnTBAP, which restored GTN-induced responses in tolerant platelets. Comparable effect was found under in in vivo settings. Indeed, MnTBAP (10mg/kg, i.p.) significantly restored the hypotensive effect of bolus injection of GTN in rats made tolerants to organic nitrates via chronic administration of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN), thus confirming the role of peroxynitrite overproduction in the development of tolerance to vascular responses induced by organic nitrates. In conclusion, oxidative stress subsequent to prolonged use of organic nitrates, which occurs via nitration of ALDH-2, represents a key event in GTN tolerance, an effect counteracted both in vitro and in vivo by novel peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst.

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Although nitrates were introduced more than 100 years ago and have been used for the treatment of angina pectoris, there are still some open questions concerning the mechanism of their action on myocardial ischemia. There are also insufficient data regarding the influence of any anti-ischemic medication on the results of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

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To investigate whether isosorbide-5-mononitrate (Is-5-Mn) given with propranolol reduces hepatic portal pressure more than does propranolol alone in patients with cirrhosis.

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In 117 patients with stable II-III functional class angina we analyzed frequency of angina attacks, exercise tolerance, data of 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring and brachial artery Doppler study.

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A comparative, randomised, 12-week (two periods of six weeks) cross-over study including 150 patients (mean age: 63.4 years) suffering from stable but symptomatic (a minimum of three attacks per week) angina pectoris was performed in order to compare the effect on quality of life of two discontinuous nitrate treatments: transdermal 10 mg nitroglycerine patch (12 hours) and long-acting oral 40 mg isosorbide-5-mononitrate (once a day). The efficacy and safety were also compared. The two treatments equally and significantly improved patients' quality of life. The number of attacks and sublingual nitrate consumption significantly decreased under treatment. Attack severity was lower under nitroglycerine than isosorbide-5-mononitrate treatment. Finally, even though nitroglycerine more frequently induced headache than did isosorbide-5-mononitrate (13 cases versus 8), patients, and in particular those having received nitroglycerine treatment in the second period of the study, preferred the transdermal nitroglycerine treatment. In conclusion, results did not show any relevant difference in terms of efficacy or tolerability between the two treatments. Nevertheless, the facility of use and the feeling of protection were better under transdermal nitroglycerine patch than oral isosorbide-5-mononitrate treatment.

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In patients with compensated or slightly decompensated liver cirrhosis 5-isosorbide mononitrate, propranolol or the association of both did not produce detectable worsening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy or renal function.

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In the whole series, no significant correlation was found between hepatic venous pressure gradient and duplex Doppler parameters, but, when the 12 patients with a patent para-umbilical vein were excluded, significant linear correlations were found between hepatic venous pressure gradient and portal blood velocity (r=-0.39; p=0.05) or congestion index (r=0.37; p=0.05). Considering together the changes induced by nadolol and nadolol plus isosorbide-5-mononitrate, no correlation was apparent between changes in duplex Doppler parameters and in hepatic venous pressure gradient. Agreement between hepatic venous pressure gradient and duplex Doppler parameters in defining good and poor responders was insufficient.

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In some but not all arterial beds, smooth muscle cell calcium-activated K+ channels (KCa channels) play a central role in the mediation of the vasodilator response to nitric oxide (NO) and other nitrates. We investigated the effect of nitrates on KCa channels in the relaxation of human coronary arteries by means of isometric contraction experiments in arterial rings. We also measured whole-cell currents in freshly isolated human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells via the patch-clamp technique. Sodium nitroprusside, diethylamine-nitric oxide complex sodium salt and isosorbide mononitratre completely relaxed rings preconstricted with 5 microM serotonin and produced dose-dependent relaxations of 5 microM serotonin-preconstricted human rings. The relaxations were inhibited by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-oxyl 3-oxide (10 microM), which neutralizes nitric oxide. The KCa channel blockers iberiotoxin (100 nM) and tetraethylammonium ions (1 mM) significantly inhibited SNP-induced relaxations of human coronary arteries. Moreover, in the patch-clamp experiments, SNP (1 microM) stimulated KCa currents and spontaneous transient outward K+ currents carried by Ca spark activated KCa channels. The SNP-induced (1 microM) KCa current was strongly inhibited by iberiotoxin (100 nM). These data show that activation of KCa channels in smooth muscle cells contributes to the vasodilating actions of nitrates and nitric oxide in human coronary arteries. This finding may have unique clinical significance for the development of antianginal and antihypertensive drugs that selectively target K+ channels and Ca sparks.

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Organic nitrate vasodilators (ORN) exert their pharmacologic effects through the metabolic release of nitric oxide (NO). Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is the principal enzyme responsible for NO liberation from nitroglycerin (NTG), but lacks activity towards other ORN. Cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1a1) can produce NO from NTG, but its activity towards other ORN is unknown. Using purified enzymes, we showed that both isoforms could liberate NO from NTG, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and nicrorandil, while only ALDH1a1 metabolized isosorbide-2-mononitrate and isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN). Following a 10-min incubation with purified enzyme, 0.1 mM NTG and 1 mM ISDN potently inactivated ALDH1a1 (to 21.9% ± 11.1% and 0.44% ± 1.04% of control activity, respectively) and ALDH2 (no activity remaining and 4.57% ± 7.92% of control activity, respectively), while 1 mM IS-5-MN exerted only modest inactivation of ALDH1a1 (reduced to 89% ± 4.3% of control). Cytosolic ALDH in hepatic homogenates incubated at the vascular EC(50) concentrations of ORN was inactivated by NTG (to 45.1% ± 8.1% of control activity) while mitochondrial ALDH was inactivated by NTG and nicorandil (to 68.2% ± 10.0% and 78.7% ± 19.8% of control, respectively). Via site-directed mutagenesis, the active sites of ORN metabolism of ALDH2 (Cys-319) and ALDH1a1 (Cys-303) were found to be identical to those responsible for their dehydrogenase activity. Cysteine-302 of ALDH1a1 and glutamate-504 of ALDH2 were found to modulate the rate of ORN metabolism. These studies provide further characterization of the substrate selectivity, inactivation, and active sites of ALDH2 and ALDH1a1 toward ORN.

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The patients were randomly assigned to three groups: 0.1% ISMN gel (21 patients), 0.1% GTN gel (21 patients) and a placebo group (ten patients). The ethic committee of our hospital approved the protocol and informed consent was obtained from all participants. All patients underwent clinical examination, visual inspection of the fissure and anal manometry prior to and after therapy.

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To compare the efficacy and safety of vaginal applications of three different principles of cervical priming prior to first trimester curettage, isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), misoprostol and Dilapan-S, a hygroscopical cervical dilator.

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Pharmacokinetics of 20 mg isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) after single and multiple administration of two different tablet formulations were investigated in twelve healthy human subjects using an open, randomized, two-way crossover experimental design. Pentacard 20 mg tablets were compared with Ismo 20 mg tablets. After single-dose administration, both preparations caused a rapid increase in IS-5-MN plasma levels with the peak plasma concentration occurring between 0.5 and 1.5 h. For both formulations, the mean plasma half-life was found to be approximately 5 h after a single dose. In steady state during multiple dosing (t.i.d. at 8 h dosing intervals), a reduced elimination rate was observed. In line with this observation, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for one 8 h dosing interval during multiple dosing was higher than the extrapolated AUC after a single dose. Based on statistical evaluation of the various relevant pharmacokinetic parameters calculated from the plasma concentrations occurring after single and multiple dosing, the tablet formulations are judged to be bioequivalent.

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Over a 6-year period, 172 patients with cirrhosis, grade II or III esophageal varices that had never bled, were recruited; 44 into VBL, 66 into PPL, and 62 into ISMN. Baseline patient characteristics: age, 55 +/- 11 years; Child-Pugh score, 8 +/- 2; 65% alcohol-induced cirrhosis; follow-up period, 19.7 +/- 17.6 months (range, 0.13-72.1 months), were comparable in the 3 groups.

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1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of preventive and curative isosorbide-5-mononitrate (Is-5-Mn) treatment on the development of hypertension, cGMP content, thromboxane (TX) A(2)/prostaglandin (PG) I2 balance, the peripheral serotonergic system, platelet activation, lipid peroxidation and plasma lipids in cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced hypertensive rats. 2. Control, CsA (5 mg/kg per day) and Is-5-Mn (150 mg/kg per day, b.i.d.) rat groups were treated orally over a period of 7 weeks. The preventive Is-5-Mn group (Is-5-Mn + CsA) was first treated for 2 weeks with Is-5-Mn, followed by 7 weeks with both drugs; the curative Is-5-Mn group (CsA + Is-5-Mn) was treated for a period of 7 weeks with CsA and with both drugs for an additional 5 weeks. The control group received oral vehicle. 3. Whereas in the group undergoing preventive treatment the CsA-induced increase in blood pressure (BP), compared with the control group, was avoided, in the group undergoing curative treatment, the increase in BP was even higher. The decreased arterial cGMP content in the CsA group was prevented and reverted when Is-Mn was administered either preventatively or curatively with CsA. Platelet TXA2 production, although unaffected in the Is-5-Mn + CsA group, was significantly higher in the CsA + Is-5-Mn group compared with the group receiving CsA alone. Furthermore, plasma TXA2 was reduced following preventive Is-5-Mn treatment, but was worsened in the group undergoing curative therapy. Aortic PGI2 synthesis was identical in all groups. Consequently, the TXA2/PGI2 ratio was only altered in the CsA + Is-5-Mn group, demonstrating a markedly higher value. In both groups treated simultaneously with CsA and Is-5-Mn, a higher platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content was obtained compared with CsA treatment alone, but only preventive treatment with Is-5-Mn resulted in a significant reduction in plasma 5-HT. Changes in ADP and collagen-induced platelet aggregation paralleled those of plasma 5-HT and TXA2: the hyperaggregation profile of the CsA group, although partially prevented, was not reverted by simultaneous treatment with Is-5-Mn and CsA. Lipid peroxidation and lipid profile values also worsened in the CsA + Is-5-Mn group compared with the group administered CsA alone. 4. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of concomitant Is-5-Mn and CsA treatment were demonstrated when Is-5-Mn was administered preventatively because not only was arterial hypertension prevented, but platelet aggregation and plasma TXA2 and 5-HT levels were also reduced. In contrast, following curative treatment, the BP, platelet/vascular vasoconstrictor balance, lipid peroxidation and plasma lipids were aggravated, recommending a judicious evaluation of the impact of nitrate therapy throughout the period of its administration.

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During the night/morning hours, healthy controls demonstrated faster HF max. velocity (P=0.002) and higher HF gradient (P=0.011) than angina patients. Metoprolol and IS-5-MN increased the HF gradient (P=0.008 and P=0.003, respectively), and metoprolol tended to increase the max. velocity (P=0.02). Metoprolol substantially decreased the LF/HF gradient (P=0.001), velocity (P=0.008) and max. velocity (P=0.0001).

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Nitric oxide (NO) donors are capable of ripening the human cervix during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine how NO donors may be involved in this process. Cervical biopsies were obtained from pregnant women randomized to receive isosorbide mononitrate (n = 10) or no treatment (n = 10) prior to suction termination. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed on culture supernatant for interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prostaglandin metabolites. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize these cytokines, cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and prostaglandin dehydrogenase in cervical tissue and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify COX-1 and COX-2 expression. Biopsies treated with the NO donor isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) produced significantly greater amounts of prostaglandin F(2alpha) in culture and lower amounts of thromboxane B(2) than controls (572.8 versus 34.9 pg/ml, P < 0.05; 53.3 pg/ml versus 530.9 pg/ml, P < 0.01 respectively). The release of other prostaglandins and of cytokines was not affected by treatment with NO. Inflammatory mediators were localized to cervical tissue and COX-1 and COX-2 expression was confirmed by RT-PCR. In conclusion, the mechanism of NO donor-induced cervical ripening during pregnancy may be mediated in part via increased prostaglandin F(2alpha) synthesis.

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imdur 120 mg 2016-01-31

The organic nitrates have been used for more than a century in the management of patients with myocardial ischemia. The most commonly used agents at this time include nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, and isosorbide-5-mononitrate. These agents all exert their therapeutic effects through biodegradation to nitric oxide, which stimulates buy imdur guanylate cyclase in vascular smooth muscle cells with the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The latter induces vasodilation by reducing the availability of ionized calcium to the contractile proteins. Tolerance to the organic nitrates occurs when the agents are administered in an attempt to provide therapeutic effects throughout 24 hours each day. There are probably several mechanisms responsible for nitrate tolerance, but there is no evidence at this time that concurrent medications will modify the development of tolerance. The only available method at this time is to give these agents intermittently to provide a period of washout. In so doing, it is possible to provide therapeutic nitrate effects for approximately 12 hours throughout each 24-hour period.

imdur drug class 2017-03-04

We studied the hemodynamic effects of lisinopril and isosorbide-5-mononitrate in rats with permanent coronary occlusion. Rats (n = 35) underwent left coronary occlusion, and ECGs were recorded before and after occlusion. Ventricular arrhythmias were observed in 57% (20 of 35) of animals. Treatment was given immediately after coronary occlusion and for 2 subsequent days. The control group received 100 mg/kg lactose (i.e., 80% vehicle for isosorbide-5-mononitrate). Lisinopril (100 mg/kg body weight) and isosorbide-5-mononitrate (400 mg/kg body weight) reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 134 +/- 9 to 115 +/- 9 mm Hg (p less than 0.05) and from 137 +/- 9 to 126 +/- 9 mm Hg, respectively; the hypotensive effect lasted 2-3 days. No effect on BP was noted in the control group. Overall mortality was 23%; 8 of 35 animals died within 10-15 min of coronary occlusion. Survival after 4 weeks was similar in each group (approximately 80%). Left ventricular pressure (LVP) was measured 4 weeks after coronary artery occlusion and was similar in each group. However, dP/dt was lower in hearts with infarction than in buy imdur hearts with none (12,608 +/- 906 vs. 8,992 +/- 1,242 mm Hg/s). The extent of the infarction was the same in groups with coronary artery occlusion. Lisinopril is more effective than isosorbide-5-mononitrate in reducing BP after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Medium-term survival (4 weeks) is not jeopardized by effective treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or long-acting nitrates.

imdur 90 mg 2015-03-09

Nitric oxide (NO) is present in exhaled air in humans and its level may decrease in heart diseases. Nitrates are metabolised to NO. In the present study we prospectively investigated how coronary disease treated with oral nitrates and physical exercise influence the exhaled NO concentration (exNO). The study was performed in 44 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with oral nitrates (31 nonsmokers and 13 smokers). End-tidal concentration of exhaled NO was measured by the use of a chemiluminescence method. The Bruce protocol of an exercise test was performed in 21 coronary patients and 11 volunteers. NO was measured before and 2-5 min after the test. We found no significant differences in the exNO level between healthy controls and CAD patients as analyzed either for the whole groups or non-smoker and smoker subgroups (6.01 parts per billion (ppb) vs. 4.91 ppb; 7.02 ppb vs. 5,89 ppb; 3.62 ppb vs. 3.33 ppb, respectively). However, the coronary patients group, as a whole, had lower exNO after exercise (4.22 ppb vs. 3,84 ppb, P<0.01). The difference persisted after division of this group into non-smokers and smokers; 5.19 ppb vs. 4,79 ppb, P<0.05 and 3.63 ppb vs buy imdur . 3.27 ppb, P<0.05, respectively). The level of exNO changed inappreciably after exercise in control subjects. We conclude that coronary disease and oral nitrates, in themselves, do not influence the exhaled NO concentration. Physical exercise, on the other side, lowers the exhaled NO level in coronary patients.

imdur er generic 2015-07-26

To evaluate the prescription buy imdur patterns of oral nitrates in terms of appropriateness and cost in a community setting.

imdur mg 2015-05-09

We have studied 20 patients, all males, with a history of infarction (11 with inferoposterior infarction and 9 with anterior infarction) and having a positive effort test by electrocardiographic criteria (ischemic S-T depression > 1 mm). The study was designed in two parts, first crossover with placebo, double-blind and then open during 100 days; until day 20, 40 mg/12 hours of IS-5-MN were administered and from then on 40 mg/8 hours of buy imdur the drug. Effort tests were carried on days, 1, 20, 34 and 100, first basal ones and then at 3 and 6 hours after the administration of the medication.

imdur daily dose 2016-02-27

Two large-bore capillary columns, one with dimethyl polysiloxane (HP-1) as the stationary phase and the other with phenyl (50 per cent) methyl (50 per cent) polysiloxane (DB-17), were used to develop gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) assays for measuring isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), and their metabolites. ISDN, isosorbide-2-mononitrate (2-ISMN), and isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) in plasma, ranging in concentration from 1 to 300 nM, and GTN, glyceryl-1,2-dinitrate (1,2-GDN), and glyceryl-1,3-dinitrate (1,3-GDN), ranging in concentration from 3 to 60 nM in plasma, were analysed on both columns. GLC analysis yielded baseline resolution of the analytes. The method using the dimethyl polysiloxane column gave a lower limit of detectability for GTN of 0.75 nM (signal/noise (s/n) = 2), and the procedure using the phenyl-methyl column provided a lower limit of detectability for ISDN of 81 pM (s/n = 2). The large-bore column GLC procedures exhibited shorter retention times for both ISDN and GTN than those previously reported for capillary-column assays. The chromatographic resolution of analytes and column efficiency of the large-bore capillary columns were comparable to the results previously found using capillary-column GC. The assays for ISDN and GTN have been shown to be appropriate for pharmacokinetic studies in volunteers and patients. We determined that buy imdur the HP-1 column is appropriate for the analysis of GTN and metabolites, and the DB-17 column is suitable for analysis of ISDN and its metabolites. We conclude that the use of large-bore capillary columns provides rapid and reliable GLC assays for organic nitrates.

imdur generic 2016-01-09

In a self-controlled, 6-month study, the effects on symptoms and quality of life of multiple-dose and once-daily nitrate therapy were evaluated in 1212 patients with stable angina pectoris. Quality of life buy imdur was assessed by a test battery based on the exercise-tolerance index of Wiklund, the psychological well-being index of Dupuy, and the Short Form 36 questionnaire of Stewart. The internal consistency and reliability of the multi-item scales were estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficients.

imdur tablet 2015-10-18

We calculated clinical outcomes (all-cause mortality, bleeding-related mortality, upper gastrointestinal bleeding) as well as haemodynamic outcomes (hepatic venous buy imdur pressure (HVPG) reduction, haemodynamic response rate, post-treatment arterial blood pressure (mean arterial pressure; MAP) and adverse events).

imdur 180 mg 2017-04-14

We performed an observational, descriptive, and longitudinal study of pregnant patients indicated for labor induction and with a Modified Bishop Score (MBS) lower than six. For cervical ripening, 40 buy imdur mg of vaginal IMN was administered at 0, 16, and 24 hours after the initiation of cervix preparation.

imdur 20 mg 2017-03-24

The plasma concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and its two pharmacologically active metabolites isosorbide 2-mononitrate (IS-2-MN) and isosorbide 5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) were determined after oral administration of 20 mg ISDN and 20 mg of each of the mononitrates. The mean concentration-time curve of ISDN showed a peak of 51.6 ng/ml 15 min after drug intake, and declined bi-exponentially with a terminal half-life of 36.5 min. The mean concentrations of the simultaneously measured metabolic products IS-2-MN and IS-5-MN reached a maximum of 40.5 ng/ml and 144.4 ng/ml, respectively. In contrast, after the direct ingestion of isosorbide mononitrates, peaks of 409.1 ng/ml (IS-2-MN) and 483.2 ng/ml (IS-5-MN) were observed in the corresponding buy imdur mean curves. Mean half-lives of 1.72 h for IS-2-MN and 4.20 h for IS-5-MN were calculated. The mean apparent volumes of distribution were 44.5 l (IS-2-MN) and 34.4 l (IS-5-MN), suggesting that the isosorbide mononitrates are distributed throughout the whole body fluid. After ISDN administration, it was estimated that 3.0 mg IS-2-MN and 7.8 mg IS-5-MN reached the systemic circulation. This corresponds to 63% of the ISDN dose being converted to isosorbide mononitrates by metabolic processes.

imdur tablets uses 2015-11-05

The present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of buy imdur isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) and misoprostol for cervical ripening in termination of pregnancy between 8 and 12 weeks.

imdur 15 mg 2017-07-01

Prescription of drugs is a fundamental care component of the elderly. Elderly patients often take multiple drugs, and it is known that polypharmacy may lead to drug interactions and adverse events. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term drug use and the prevalence of polypharmacy among the elderly population in the Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. METHODS; A retrospective study of outpatient drug use in 2005 and 2010 was conducted, analyzing prescriptions for patients aged ≥ 65 years reimbursed by the Health Insurance Fund. The study population was stratified by gender and buy imdur age. Long-term drug use was defined as continuous drug dispensing for a whole year or at least two thirds of the year. Polypharmacy was defined as the use of 5 or more different reimbursed drugs.

imdur medication uses 2016-05-29

In functioning valued efficiency an [symbol: see text] of the form [symbol: see text]-5-[symbol: see text] Mono Poppy 50[symbol: see text] for the treatment within 3 months beside three groups sick: under saving angina pectorises after operations of [symbol: see text] bypassing (6 persons), after the heart attack [symbol: see text] (5 persons) and under stable angina pectorises (11 persons). Beside majorities sick to manage to obtain stabilizations of the condition an [symbol: see text] Mo[symbol: see text]a Poppy 50[symbol: see text] in the dose 25-50 mgs/cym on length 3 months of observations. Herewith noted increasing [symbol: see text] to the physical load, reduction of the frequency of receiving a nitroglycerine at buy imdur the average with 8 before 2 at a week once. Side effects In the manner of the denominated headache noted beside one patient only that has required a reduction of the dose in two times. As a whole, made output on that that Mono Poppy 50[symbol: see text] possesses a good [symbol: see text] and [symbol: see text] effect, in many events allows to obtain to abandon to using of other [symbol: see text] preparations that not only reduces a total [symbol: see text] load on the organism of the patient, as well as reduces overall value of the treatment.

imdur dosage range 2016-06-19

Forty patients aged 61 (40-72) years, 30 buy imdur (75%) male, were randomized to receive on a double blind fashion, 20 mg of ISMN or placebo. The two groups had similar baseline characteristics. Quantitative coronary arteriography [by cardiovascular measurement system (CMS)] and SAP were compared before and after ISMN. We also observed the cardiac rhythm.

imdur and alcohol 2017-07-13

At the time of diagnosis of cirrhosis, varices are present in about 60% of decompensated and 30% of compensated patients. The risk factors for the first episode of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients are the severity of liver dysfunction, a large size of the varices and the presence of endoscopic red colour signs, but only a third of patients who suffer variceal haemorrhage demonstrate the above risk factors. The only treatment that does not require sophisticated equipment or the skills of a specialist, and is immediately available, is vasoactive drug Bactrim 60 Mg therapy. Hence, drug therapy should be considered to be the initial treatment of choice and can be administered while the patient is transferred to hospital, as has been done in one recent study. Moreover, drug therapy is no longer considered to be only a 'stop-gap' therapy until definitive endoscopic therapy is performed. Several recent trials have reported an efficacy similar to that of emergency sclerotherapy in the control of variceal bleeding. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that those patients with high variceal or portal pressure are likely to continue to bleed or re-bleed early, implying that prolonged therapy lowering the portal pressure over several days may be the optimal treatment. Pharmacological treatment with beta-blockers is safe, effective and the standard long-term treatment for the prevention of recurrence of variceal bleeding. The combination of beta-blockers with isosorbide-5-mononitrate needs further testing in randomized controlled trials. The use of haemodynamic targets for the reduction of the HVPG response needs further study, and surrogate markers of the pressure response need evaluation. Ligation has recently been compared with beta-blockers for primary prophylaxis, but there is as yet no good evidence to recommend banding for primary prophylaxis if beta-blockers can be given.

imdur 30mg generic 2015-04-18

The purpose of the work was a comparison of the effectiveness of representatives of two subgroups of nitrates: Olicard 40 (isosorbide mononitrate) and Cardonit 40 (isosorbide dinitrate) Generic Periactin 4mg in the treatment of ischaemic heart disease. The studied group consisted of 52 patients with stable coronary heart disease who were given for 30 days according to "blind trial" rules either Cardonit 40 or Olicard 40 in single daily dose. The effects of the treatment were monitored, assessing the parameters during three exercise tests and two 24-hour records by the Holter method. The advantage of Olicard 40 was demonstrated, expressed by higher effectiveness in the treatment of coronary heart disease (especially its "silent" form) without development of tachyphylaxis and with lower per cent of adverse reactions.

imdur tablets 60mg 2017-01-31

Fifteen patients with coronary artery disease and stable angina pectoris were included in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. The patients received 25, 50 and 100 mg isosorbide 5-mononitrate, as well as a placebo, for subsequent 1-week periods. On the 7th day of each treatment period, 8 h after medication application, an exercise test was performed. A highly significant (p less than 0.001) and dose-dependent reduction of the sum of the ST-segment depression was observed at similar workloads: 28.6, 46 and 63.5% decreases occurred at the 25, 50 and 100 mg isosorbide 5-mononitrate doses, respectively. Compared to placebo, the frequency of anginal attacks and the consumption of nitroglycerin likewise decreased highly significantly (p less Geodon Starting Dose than 0.001) with all three doses. Isosorbide 5-mononitrate plasma levels (8 h post-application) increased linearly with the dose; amounting to 228 +/- 53, 485 +/- 93 and 991 +/- 177 ng/ml at the 25, 50 and 100 mg doses of the sustained release medication forms, respectively.

imdur 50 mg 2015-01-08

Isolated strips were precontracted by carbachol 10(-6) mol/l for 30 minutes (100% carbachol maximal contraction). 8-bromo-cGMP 10(-4) mol/l evoked a relaxation to 86.7% +/- 1.4% (n = 8) in ciliary muscle and 58.6% +/- 5.4% (n = 7 Zetia Drug Cost ) in trabecular meshwork. Inhibition of NO-synthase by L-NAG increased the carbachol-induced contraction. The organic nitrovasodilators ISDN and 5-ISMN produced significant relaxations. The non-nitrates SNP and SNAP were the most potent relaxants. SNP 10(-4) mol/l relaxed the isolated ciliary muscle to 55.5% +/- 3.5% and the trabecular meshwork to 38.6% +/- 3.6%. ISDN and SNP were also tested on isolated strips without carbachol-induced precontraction. Both vasodilators had significant relaxing activity under these conditions.

imdur 60mg tablets 2017-08-12

Large UK maternity Neurontin 100 Mg hospital.

imdur tablets 2017-03-10

The majority of patients (85%) using regular-release ISMN were taking the medication in an inappropriate fashion, while most patients taking sustained-release preparations were using them properly. More than half the patients treated with regular-release ISMN were treated with doses exceeding the recommended dose. In addition, most patients experiencing effort angina had not been instructed regarding the prophylactic use of nitrates. These findings suggest that both physicians and pharmacists must be Imitrex Drug Ingredients reminded of the continuing need to properly counsel patients regarding appropriate drug use.

imdur 30 mg 2015-05-01

The pharmacokinetics of a new sustained release tablets (40 mg, qd) of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) was investigated together with a conventional preparation (20 mg, bid) after multiple oral administration in ten healthy human subjects using an open, randomized two-way crossover experimental design. Based on three statistical analyses of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), the two tablet formulations are judged to be bioequivalent (P > 0.1), with a relative bioavailability of 108.95% for the IS-5-MN sustained release formulation. Pharmacokinetic data showed that the sustained release formulation reached mean peak plasma levels significantly later and lower minimum plasma concentration (Cmin), compared with the conventional preparation. But no statistically significant difference was found for other pharmacokinetic parameters including peak plasma levels Valtrex Dosing Shingles (Cmax), AUC, elimination constant (Ke), elimination half-life (T1/2) and fluctuation index (FI) between the two preparations (P > 0.05).

imdur tab 2015-07-31

The median follow-up period was 21 months. A total of 35 patients in the ligation group and 24 in the medication group had recurrent bleeding. The probability of Singulair Tablet 4mg recurrence was lower in the medication group, both for all episodes related to portal hypertension (P=0.04) and for recurrent variceal bleeding (P=0.04). There were major complications in nine patients treated with ligation (seven had bleeding esophageal ulcers and two had aspiration pneumonia) and two treated with medication (both had bradycardia and dyspnea) (P=0.05). Thirty patients in the ligation group died, as did 23 patients in the medication group (P=0.52). The probability of recurrent bleeding was lower for patients with a hemodynamic response to therapy, defined as a decrease in the hepatic venous pressure gradient of more than 20 percent from the base-line value or to less than 12 mm Hg (18 percent, vs. 54 percent in patients with no hemodynamic response at one year; P<0.001), and the probability of survival was higher (94 percent vs. 78 percent at one year, P=0.02).

imdur overdose symptoms 2015-05-14

The addition of drug therapy Famvir Generic Equivalent to EVL improves the efficacy of EVL alone. However, the addition of EVL to β-blockers and ISMN achieves a non-significant decrease of rebleeding with no effect on mortality. Although combination therapy with EVL plus β-blockers ± ISMN is adequate to prevent rebleeding, β-blockers + ISMN alone may be a valid alternative.

imdur brand name 2016-03-24

We did a randomised multicentre study to compare the non-selective beta-blocker, nadolol, with nadolol plus isosorbide mononitrate in 146 relatively well (Child-Pugh score < or = 11) patients who had oesophageal varices at risk of bleeding. Patients on nadolol alone received a single oral 40 mg daily dose. Every second day the dose was titrated to achieve 20-25% decrease in resting heart rate (maximum dose 160 mg daily). Patients receiving both drugs received nadolol as above then isosorbide mononitrate was added starting with 10 mg orally twice daily, which was increased to 20 mg unless hypotension or severe headache occurred. The main endpoint was the occurrence of variceal bleeding of any severity. Patients were followed up for up to 40 Neurontin 300mg Capsules months.

imdur bid dosing 2015-09-13

When administered immediately prior to reperfusion with continuous infusion for 24 h, the combination of NAC + IS5MN reduced infarct size (29 +/- 6 vs. 59 +/- 4% area-at-risk, p < 0.01) and the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (226 +/- 15 vs. 315 +/- 18 cells mm(-2) of area-at-risk, p = 0.002) and monocytes/macrophages (118 +/- 8 vs. 194 +/- 22 cells mm(-2), p = 0.012), compared to vehicle. NAC or IS5MN alone did not reduce infarct size at 24 hours of reperfusion. The same dose regimen of NAC and IS5MN did not reduce infarct size with permanent ischemia for 24 hours not followed by reperfusion. After 7 days of reperfusion (3 days of treatment with NAC + IS5MN or vehicle and 4 days of wash-out), infarct size was Micronase Cost similar in the vehicle and NAC + IS5MN groups, but LV end-diastolic pressure and diastolic LV chamber wall stress were significantly lower in the animals treated with NAC + IS5MN (5 +/- 1 mmHg and 62 +/- 7 dyne mm(-2), respectively) compared to vehicle (9 +/- 1 mmHg and 123 +/- 18 dyne mm(-2), p < 0.05).

imdur pill picture 2015-04-26

A controlled-release formulation of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) can be administered once daily to lower the peak plasma concentration of 5-ISMN to avoid peak-related side-effects, prolong duration of action and produce predictable and reproducible plasma concentrations of 5-ISMN. This study was undertaken to compare the anti-anginal and anti-ischemic efficacy of controlled-release 5-ISMN 60 mg administered once daily and conventional 5-ISMN 20 mg given twice daily in patients with stable angina pectoris.