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This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of taspoglutide versus pioglitazone in subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with sulphonylurea ± metformin.
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The present study involves preparation and evaluation of floating microballoons with metformin as model drug for prolongation of gastric residence time. The microballoons were prepared by the solvent evaporation method using polymers hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose. The shape and surface morphology of prepared microballoons were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. In vitro drug release studies were performed and drug release kinetics was evaluated using the linear regression method. Effects of stirring rate during preparation, polymer concentration, solvent composition and dissolution medium on the size of microballoons, and drug release were also observed. The prepared microballoons exhibited prolonged drug release (8 hours) and remained buoyant for >10 hours. The mean particle size increased and the drug release rate decreased at higher polymer concentration. No significant effect of the stirring rate during preparation on drug release was observed. In vitro studies demonstrated diffusion-controlled drug release from the microballoons.
TRAMP mice were randomly divided into three groups: normal diet group, HFD group and metformin-HFD (Met-HFD) group. Mortality rate and tumor formation rate were examined. TRAMP mice were sacrificed and sampled on the 20th, 24(th), and 28th week, respectively. Serum levels of insulin and IGF-1 were tested by ELISA. Prostate tissue of TRAMP mice was used for HE staining.
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A range of databases including EBSCOhost online research database were used to access articles based on PICO (Population, Interventions, Comparative Interventions, Outcomes) framework and Boolean operators.
Worldwide, diabetes mellitus presents a high burden for individuals and society. In Latin America, many people with diabetes have limited access to health care, which means that indirect costs may exceed direct health care cost. Diabetes is Mexico's leading cause of death.
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The new GLP-1RAs may have the benefit of requiring less frequent subcutaneous dosing or being active by oral administration. However, cardiovascular outcome trials have shown that DPP4 inhibitors are neutral for cardiovascular events and the first cardiovascular outcome trial with lixisenatide reported similar results, whereas the trial with the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin showed a reduction in cardiovascular events. These findings in patients with high cardiovascular risk may favor the use of SGLT2 inhibitors as a second line treatment after metformin but there should still be an important role for novel GLP-1RAs, especially when weight reduction is required.
Diabetes, in particular type 2, is associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Although the mortality attributable to cancer in type 2 diabetes is overshadowed by that due to cardiovascular disease, emerging data from epidemiologic studies suggest that insulin therapy may confer added risk for cancer, perhaps mediated by signaling through the IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) receptor. Co-administered metformin seems to mitigate the risk associated with insulin. A recent series of publications in Diabetologia addresses the possibility that glargine, the most widely used long-acting insulin analogue, may confer a greater risk than other insulin preparations, particularly for breast cancer. This has led to a heated controversy. Despite this, there is a consensus that the currently available data are not conclusive and should not be the basis for any change in practice. Further studies and more thorough surveillance of cancer in diabetes are needed to address this important issue.
This study was conducted in outpatient clinics within a university hospital setting.
To compare the efficacy of add-on antihyperglycemic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes that is not controlled with metformin and a sulfonylurea.
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Adiponectin is able to induce NO-dependent vasodilation in Zucker lean (ZL) rats, but this effect is clearly alleviated in their diabetic littermates, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. ZDF rats also exhibit hypoadiponectinemia and a suppressed expression of APPL1, an adaptor protein of the adiponectin receptors, in mesenteric resistance arteries. Whether an antidiabetic treatment can restore the vasodilatory effect of adiponectin and improve endothelial function in diabetes mellitus type 2 is not known.
Metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent commonly used for the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. However, its effects on patients are derived usually from clinical experiments. In this study, a dynamic model of Type II diabetes mellitus with the treatment of metformin is proposed. The Type II diabetic model is a modification of an existing compartmental diabetic model. The dynamic simulation of the metformin effect for a Type II diabetic patient is based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship with a human body. The corresponding model parameters are estimated by optimization using clinical data from published reports. Then, the effect of metformin in both intravenous and oral administration on a Type II diabetes mellitus model are compared. The combination treatment of insulin infusion plus oral metformin is shown to be superior than the monotherapy with oral metformin only. These results are consistent with the clinical understanding of the use of metformin. For further work, the model can be analyzed for evaluating the treatment of diabetes mellitus with different pharmacological agents.
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Compare the addition of weekly dulaglutide versus the addition of placebo to titrated glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with sub-optimal HbA1c .
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Baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups. V and G similarly and significantly (p < 0.0001) improved glucose control. At 12 months, V significantly increased EPC number (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced (C-term) SDF-1α plasma levels (p < 0.01) compared to G, with no differences in inflammatory biomarkers.
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LA was more common than in published analyses based on hospital coding of diagnoses. The incidence of LA was greater in diabetes than in the nondiabetic population but with no further increase in patients taking metformin. Lactate levels were no greater in patients on metformin than in patients with type 2 diabetes not on metformin even if patients with acute cardiorespiratory disturbance (Cohen and Woods class A) were excluded. Acidosis was greater in diabetes (hydrogen ion 94·9 ± 4·6 vs 83·2 ± 2·3 10(-9) m, P = 0·027) but factors besides lactate contributed. Acute cardiorespiratory illness, acute renal impairment and sepsis were the most common of the recognized precipitating factors. Age (P = 0·01), acute renal failure (P = 0·015) and sepsis (P = 0·005) were associated with mortality.
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Eligible patients identified in the General Electric (GE) electronic medical record (EMR) research database from 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2007 were > or =18 years old with type 2 diabetes. Patients had prescription orders in the previous 395 days for metformin, a sulfonylurea, or a thiazolidinedione as monotherapy or in combination, and had at least 6 months of follow-up activity. Baseline clinical measures were documented from 45 days prior up to 15 days after exenatide initiation and follow-up measures documented at 6 months +/- 45 days.
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Metformin induced single-cultured RAW264.7 macrophages with an M2 phenotype but attenuated the M2 macrophage differentiation and inhibited monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion in a co-culture system. The co-cultured group of metformin pretreatment activated Notch signalling in macrophages but repressed it inHepG2 cells. Co-culture also promoted the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells. However, along with the enhanced apoptosis, the proliferation and the migration of HepG2 cells were remarkably inhibited in another co-culture system with metformin pretreatment.
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Clinical data, demographic variables, and TSH levels before and after treatment with metformin were extracted. Data were analyzed according to the underlying thyroid disease.
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No randomised controlled trials were identified.
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In a randomized, open label, parallel group, multicenter study, 209 Korean type 2 diabetic patients (HbA1c 7.0-10.0%, on metformin 500-1,000 mg/day) received glimepiride/metformin fixed-dose combination (G/M FDC) or metformin uptitration treatment (Met UP). The primary end-point was the change in HbA1c from baseline to week 24.
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Use of metformin in people with type 2 diabetes and a serum creatinine concentration greater than 530 μmol/L is associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with non-users. Metformin use should not be encouraged in this patient group.
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, complex endocrine disorder for women on reproductive age. A high incidence of ovulation failure is observed in PCO women and perhaps linked to insulin resistance related to metabolic features In the last few years some studies assessed hyperinsulinimea and insulin resistance attenuation effects, by insulin sensitizing agents such as metformin, in PCOS women suggesting potential scope for these drugs in CC ovulation induction quality improvement.
This review discusses the current data on various antidiabetic medications and their effects on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Diabetes mellitus is a potent independent risk factor for MACE, and this risk increases in proportion to the elevation of hemoglobin A1c. Available data suggest that tight glycemic control in patients with diabetes reduces microvascular complications, but has limited effect or may even increase the risk of MACE and other macrovascular complications. For individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drugs that reduce postprandial glucose (α-glucosidase inhibitors, incretin mimetics, quick-acting bromocriptine, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and colesevelam) are associated with a decrease in MACE. Drugs that directly reduce insulin resistance (pioglitazone and metformin) are also associated with lesser but still significant decreases in MACE. Insulin, rosiglitazone (but not pioglitazone), and sulfonylureas (especially with glyburide and particularly the glyburide + metformin combination) are associated with increases in MACE. In summary, drugs that reduce postprandial glucose and improve insulin resistance without predisposing patients to hypoglycemia appear to both control hyperglycemia and improve cardiovascular prognosis. However, many of the traditional agents used for treating T2DM, such as insulin and sulfonylureas, do not improve cardiovascular prognosis despite improving hyperglycemia.
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7,406 patients met inclusion criteria. For 223 (3%) patients with MDDD, 253 independent events were identified. In terms of frequency per category, antihypertensive agents topped the list, followed, in descending order, by anticonvulsants, antilipemics, antidiabetics, and anticoagulants. Nine medications accounted for 59% (150 of 253) of all MDDD events; these included (again in descending order): gabapentin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, lisinopril, warfarin, furosemide, metformin, and metoprolol. Mail-service pharmacies accounted for the highest incidence (5.3%) of MDDD, followed by mass merchandisers (4.6%) and small chains (3.9%). The total cost attributable to MDDD was $9,397.74.
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In euthyroid obese subjects, FT4 seems more closely related than TSH levels to parameters of cardiometabolic risk. TSH levels did not differ between metformin-treated and untreated subjects, while they were lower in patients with incident diabetes mellitus compared to normoglycaemic ones.
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Concomitant with the rise in global pediatric obesity in the past decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of children and adolescents with clinical signs of insulin resistance. Given insulin resistance is the important link between obesity and the associated metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk, clinicians should be aware of high risk groups and treatment options. As there is no universally accepted biochemical definition of insulin resistance in children and adolescents, identification and diagnosis of insulin resistance usually relies on clinical features such as acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Treatment for reducing insulin resistance and other obesity-associated comorbidities should focus on changes in health behaviors to achieve effective weight management. Lifestyle interventions incorporating dietary change, increased physical activity, and decreased sedentary behaviors, with the involvement of family and adoption of a developmentally appropriate approach, should be used as the first line treatment. Current evidence suggests that the primary objective of dietary interventions should be to reduce total energy intake and a combination of aerobic and resistance training should be encouraged. Metformin can be used in conjunction with a lifestyle intervention program in obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance to achieve weight loss and to improve insulin sensitivity. Ongoing evaluation and research are required to explore optimal protocol and long-term effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, as well as to determine whether the improvements in insulin sensitivity induced by lifestyle interventions and weight loss will lead to a clinical benefit including reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
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The economic costs of hyperglycemia are substantial. Early detection would allow management to prevent or delay development of diabetes and diabetes-related complications. We investigated the economic justification for screening for pre-diabetes/diabetes.
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In previous studies, we found that endometriotic stromal cells lose the ability to regulate cell survival signaling in endometriotic epithelial cells. Here, we invested the effect of Metformin on the stromal-epithelial cells crosstalk in endometriosis and explored the pathway that might be involved. We found that ectopic endometriotic stromal cells (ESC) expressed and secreted higher Wnt2 protein compared with normal endometrial stromal cells (NSC). Conditioned medium (CM) from ESC supplemented with Wnt2 antibody significantly inhibited the growth of normal endometrial epithelial cells (NEC), while CM from ESC per se showed no significant effect on the growth of NEC. Metformin decreased the expression and secretion of Wnt2 in ESC. CM from Metformin-pretreated ESC significantly inhibited the growth of NEC. In conclusion, Wnt2/β-catenin signaling was involved in stromal-epithelial cells interaction in endometriosis. Metformin might regulate the stroma-epithelium communication via Wnt2-mediated signaling in endometriosis.
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The objective of this case-control study was to identify any association of metformin intake with the survival of patients with ovarian cancer.