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Eulexin (Flutamide)

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Eulexin is a medication which belongs to a class of drugs known as antiandrogens. Eulexin is used along with drugs such as leuprolide. Eulexin blocks the effect of the male hormone testosterone. Taking Eulexin with leuprolide, which reduces the body's testosterone levels, you can treat prostate cancer.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Flutamide.


Eulexin is a medication belongs to a class of drugs known as antiandrogens.

Eulexin is used along with drugs such as leuprolide to treat prostate cancer.

Eulexin blocks the effect of the male hormone testosterone. Giving Eulexin with leuprolide, which reduces the body's testosterone levels, you can treat prostate cancer.

Generic name of Eulexin is Flutamid.

Brand name of Eulexin is Eulexin.


Take Eulexin orally.

Eulexin is best taken at evenly spaced intervals, and may be taken with or without food.

Eulexin daily dosage is 750 mg.

The recommended dosage of Eulexin: 2 capsules 3 times a day at 8-hour intervals.

This medicine is only for men.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Eulexin suddenly.


If you overdose Eulexin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of overdosage: loss of appetite, vomiting, slow breathing, decreased activity, trouble walking.


Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Eulexin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Eulexin if you are allergic to Eulexin components.

Be careful with Eulexin if you have blood disorders, liver problems.

Be careful with Eulexin if you smoke.

Be careful with Eulexin if you take mibefradil, warfarin, sleep medicine, sedatives, tranquilizers, anti-anxiety drugs, narcotic pain relievers (e.g., codeine), psychiatric medicine, anti-seizure drugs, muscle relaxants, certain antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine).

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

Avoid exposuring to sunlight or artificial UV rays (sunlamps or tanning beds).

Avoid laboratory tests (e.g., liver function) are needed while taking Eulexin.

Do not stop taking Eulexin suddenly.

eulexin 500 mg

The effects of both androsterone and hemisuccinate of androsterone on the perfusion pressure and vascular resistance in isolated rat hearts (Langendorff model) were evaluated.

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We show that androgens, testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), acutely (approximately 40 min) provoke the mechanical potentiation of spontaneous and agonist-induced contractile activity in mouse colonic longitudinal smooth muscle. The results using flutamide, finasteride, cycloheximide, and actinomycin D indicate that androgen-induced potentiation is dependent on androgen receptors, requires reduction of testosterone to DHT, and occurs independently of transcriptional and translational events. Using permeabilized colonic smooth muscle preparations, we could demonstrate that mechanical potentiation is entirely due to calcium sensitization of contractile machinery. In addition, DHT (10 nm) increased phosphorylation of both 20-kDa myosin light chain (LC(20)) [regulatory myosin light chain, (MLC)] and CPI-17 (an endogenous inhibitor of MLC phosphatase). Paralleling these findings, inhibition of Rho-associated Rho kinase (ROK) and/or protein kinase C (PKC) with, respectively, Y27632 and chelerythrine, prevented LC(20) phosphorylation and abolished calcium sensitization. In addition, inhibition of ROK prevents CPI-17 phosphorylation, indicating that ROK is located upstream PKC-mediated CPI-17 modulation in the signalling cascade. Additionally, androgens induce a rapid activation of RhoA and its translocation to the plasma membrane to activate ROK. The results demonstrate that androgens induce sensitization of colonic smooth muscle to calcium through activation of ROK, which in turn, activates PKC to induce CPI-17 phosphorylation. Activation of this pathway induces a potent steady stimulation of LC(20) by inhibiting MLC phosphatase and displacing the equilibrium of the regulatory subunit towards its phosphorylated state. This is the first demonstration that colonic smooth muscle is a physiological target for androgen hormones, and that androgens modulate force generation of smooth muscle contractile machinery through nongenomic calcium sensitization pathways.

eulexin 125 mg

The myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells is induced by the novel androgen receptor (AR) partial agonist, (17α,20E)-17,20-[(1-methoxyethylidene)bis-(oxy)]-3-oxo-19-norpregna-4,20-diene-21-carboxylic acid methyl ester (YK11), as well as by dihydrotestosterone (DHT). YK11 is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), which activates AR without the N/C interaction. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism by which YK11 induces myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. The induction of key myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), such as myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD), myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) and myogenin, was more significant in the presence of YK11 than in the presence of DHT. YK11 treatment of C2C12 cells, but not DHT, induced the expression of follistatin (Fst), and the YK11-mediated myogenic differentiation was reversed by anti-Fst antibody. These results suggest that the induction of Fst is important for the anabolic effect of YK11.

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Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available.

eulexin 250 mg

The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of flutamide (Flu), when used alone, on the course of hirsutism and to assess its effect on hormonal secretion. Thirty-six hirsute women [11 patients were affected by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOs), and 25 were classified as having idiopathic hirsutism (IH)] were treated with Flu, 375 mg daily for a 4-month period. We found a marked clinical improvement in the degree of hirsutism in all patients. Testosterone and free testosterone fell significantly in both groups, while SHBG concentrations showed an increase in PCOs. In these patients, a reduction in androstenedione levels was also evident. Basal DHEAS concentrations showed a significant decrease only in PCO women. No significant modifications in gonadotropin response to LHRH nor in adrenal steroid response to ACTH stimulation were observed in 12 of the IH women before therapy and after the first month. Although the main action of flutamide is attributed to its peripheral antiandrogenic properties, the decrease in circulating androgen levels observed during treatment suggests that it can also modulate androgen production and/or metabolism.

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We tested the hypothesis that a combination of sex hormone suppression and inhibition of their target receptors might improve survival for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Eighty-five consequent, previously untreated HCC patients with inoperable disease, were randomized to receive the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LR-RH)-analogue triptorelin and the antiestrogen tamoxifen (33 patients) or triptorelin plus the antiandrogen flutamide (23 patients), or only placebo (29 patients) in a double blind fashion. All groups were comparable as to age, sex, tumor extension, underlying cirrhosis and biochemical parameters. The tamoxifen (TMX) group had a significantly longer survival (282 days) compared with flutamide (112 days) and with placebo (127 days) groups (P = .0238, log rank test). The upper quartile of patients in the TMX group lived 384 days or longer, and most of them (57.1%) were women (P < .0005), in contrast to the upper quartile of the placebo (170 days, 16.7% women) and the flutamide group (134 days, 33.3% women). The calculated tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) was significantly higher in the TMX group (296 days) than in the other two groups (99 and 101 days for placebo and flutamide groups, respectively, P = .023). In a Cox proportional hazards model, the TMX treatment, along with the baseline Okuda's HCC stage, the hepatitis B surface antigen, the portal vein diameter, the carcino embryonic antigen (CEA) and a self-assessment score of quality of life, were covariates predicting survival. Although the degree of serum sex hormone suppression was not a significant predictor of survival, the interaction of female sex and TMX treatment, it was (P = .0052).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Between January 1992 and July 1994, 160 men with prostate cancer underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RP) and bilateral pelvic node dissection (PLND). Forty men (mean age 64.2 years) with either a higher clinical stage or a significant increase in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (P < 0.001) received induction ADT with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue alone (six patients), or with an anti-androgen (34 patients), 3-20 months before undergoing RP. The remaining 120 men (mean age 64 years) underwent surgery alone and served as historical controls. Prostatectomy specimens were evaluated using step-sections at 2-3 mm intervals and whole-mount reconstruction. The clinical and pathological results were compared.

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To evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of flutamide therapy for hirsutism.

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Eighty-four women with hirsutism were recruited from patients presenting to our hospital. Each patient underwent a complete medical and gynecological examination as well as blood cell counts, biochemical and endocrine profiles. Hirsutism scores and laboratory tests were done during the 1st, 3rd and 6th months of therapy. Thirty-seven women in the flutamide group (taking 250 mg flutamide per day) and 32 women in the flutamide plus OC group (taking 250 mg flutamide plus 35 microg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate per day) regularly followed the therapy regimens.

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To clarify, whether uterine endothelial proliferation could be regulated via an autocrine estrogen producing mechanism or direct actions of testosterone.

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Twenty trials (n = 6320 patients) were included. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for overall survival with combined androgen blockade was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85 to 1.25; n = 4970 from 13 trials), 1.16 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.33; n = 5286 from 14 trials), and 1.29 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.50; n = 3550 from 7 trials) at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively. Progression-free survival was improved at 1 year (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.67; n = 2278 from 7 trials). Cancer-specific survival was improved at 5 years (OR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.37; n = 781 from 2 trials). When analysis was limited to studies identified as being of high quality, the pooled OR for overall survival progressively increased but was not significant at any follow-up interval.

eulexin 500 mg

The study was conducted at the Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, or the Turku University Hospital, Finland.

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Leuprorelin (leuprolide acetate) is a synthetic analogue of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) [luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)] which initially stimulates luteinising hormone (LH) and hence testicular androgen release; continuous administration then results in profound suppression of these hormones. Testosterone levels associated with castration are attained within 3 to 4 weeks. A biodegradable subcutaneous or intramuscular depot formulation of leuprorelin 3.75 or 7.5 mg, which releases the drug at a constant rate over 28 days, is available and may be preferred over daily subcutaneous injections. The progression of previously untreated advanced prostatic cancer is delayed in 70 to 90% of men receiving leuprorelin, with median survival of approximately 2 years. The efficacy of leuprorelin is equivalent to that of estrogen therapy, but the tolerability of the GnRH analogue is far better. In contrast to most other studies of GnRH agonists, a slight survival advantage has been reported for combined treatment with leuprorelin and the antiandrogen flutamide. Small noncomparative trials reveal that leuprorelin also causes regression of benign hyperplastic prostate tissue with corresponding relief of obstructive, but not irritative, symptoms although continuous treatment is necessary to maintain remission. Impotence and flushing occur in most leuprorelin recipients but, unlike diethylstilbestrol (stilboestrol), cardiovascular toxicity and gynaecomastia are not significant problems. Symptom flare, usually manifested as bone pain in prostate cancer patients and exacerbation of obstructive symptoms in those with benign prostatic hypertrophy, can occur in 4 to 29% at the beginning of treatment. Leuprorelin treatment is therefore an established effective palliative measure in men with previously untreated advanced prostatic cancer, and may have a role in those with benign hypertrophy who are unfit for surgery.

eulexin 125 mg

Thiazolyl blue cell viability assay, flow cytometry, scratch wound-healing assay, transwell invasion assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and reporter gene assay were performed in AR-positive (e.g., UMUC3, TCCSUP, and 647V-AR) and AR-negative (e.g., UMUC3-AR-short hairpin RNA [shRNA], TCCSUP-AR-shRNA, 647V) bladder cancer lines treated with dihydrotestosterone and each AR antagonist. We also used a mouse xenograft model for bladder cancer.

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Prostate carcinoma therapy with combined androgen blockade may result in high bone-turnover with significant bone loss. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antiosteoporotic efficacy of intravenous pamidronate in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

eulexin 250 mg

These findings demonstrate that some HCPSC have the ability to spontaneously and transiently elevate [Ca(2+)](i). The magnitude of these [Ca(2+)](i) peaks, along with resting levels of calcium and cAMP, appear to be regulated by androgens.

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The androgen receptor (AR) is a steroid hormone receptor which regulates transcription of androgen-sensitive genes and is responsible for the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics. Chemicals that interfere with AR activity may lead to pathological conditions in androgen-sensitive tissues. A variety of reporter systems have been developed, driven by androgen-sensitive promoters, which screen for chemicals that modulate androgenic activity. We have developed a flexible, high-throughput AR transcriptional activation assay, designated the Multifunctional Androgen Receptor Screening (MARS) assay, to facilitate the identification of novel modulators of AR transcriptional activity using flow cytometry. Androgen-independent human prostate cancer-derived PC3 cells were transiently cotransfected with an expression vector for the wild-type human AR and an androgen-sensitive promoter regulating the expression of destabilized enhanced GFP (dsEGFP). The transfected cells were stimulated with established androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds and assessed for increased or decreased dsEGFP expression. To screen for antagonists of AR transcription, the AR agonist R1881 was coadministered at submaximal concentrations with potential AR antagonists. The assay was formatted for high-throughput screening using the HyperCyt flow cytometry system. Agents with established androgenic and antiandrogenic activity were used for validation of the MARS assay. AR agonists were found to potently induce dsEGFP. Furthermore, AR agonists induced dsEGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner. Alternatively, AR antagonists blocked dsEGFP expression when coadministered with low-dose R1881, which also occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Modulators of AR transcriptional activity can be successfully identified by the MARS assay, utilizing a rapid, flexible, sensitive, and high-throughput format. Dose-response curves can be successfully generated for these compounds, allowing for an assessment of potency. Because of its simplicity and high-throughput compatibility, the MARS assay and HyperCyt system combined with flow cytometric analysis represents a valuable and novel addition to the current repertoire of AR transcriptional activation screening assays.

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A double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the antiandrogen compound flutamide in 30 patients with benign enlargement of the prostate is reported. The potency of the compound was indicated by the large percentage of patients suffering from gynecomastia or nipple pain. Flow rate recordings are probably the most reliable and useful examination in this type of investigation, and statistical analysis of the results showed evidence of significant improvement in patients receiving flutamide. No evidence of an effect as compared to the placebo was found when the residual urine, prostate size or histological changes in prostatic biopsies were examined. Subjective effects, when carefully analyzed, provided some evidence of a preference for the flutamide group, especially in the early weeks of treatment, but the fallaciousness of subjective observations is stressed. The various problems associated with the choice and measurement of parameters to be used in this type of investigation are discussed, and the absolute necessity of proper controls and statistical analysis in such a clinical study is illustrated.

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Initial prostate-specific antigen, N stage, extent of disease grades on bone scan and previous duration of response to combined androgen blockade were the significant predictors for efficacy of alternative antiandrogen as second-line hormone therapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. These findings might support that decision-making of when to start the new androgen receptor pathway inhibitors.

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To assess the pathological staging and biochemical progression-free survival (assessed using serum prostate-specific antigen level) of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer using neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP).

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The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) is 2 times larger in rams than in ewes. Sexual differentiation of the oSDN is produced by testosterone exposure during the critical period occurring between gestational day (GD)60 and GD90 (term, 147 d). We tested the hypothesis that testosterone acts through the androgen receptor to control development of the male-typical oSDN. In experiment 1, pregnant ewes received injections of vehicle, androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, or nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) propionate during the critical period. Fetuses were delivered at GD135. Both antagonist and agonist treatments significantly reduced mean oSDN volume in males but had no effects in females. Experiment 2, we analyzed the effect of treatments on the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to determine whether compensatory changes in hormone secretion occurred that could explain the effect of DHT. Pregnant ewes were injected with vehicle, flutamide, or DHT propionate from GD60 to GD84, and fetuses were delivered on GD85. Flutamide significantly increased LH and testosterone in males, whereas DHT significantly decreased both hormones. In females, LH was unaffected by flutamide but significantly reduced by DHT exposure. DHT significantly decreased pituitary gonadotropin and hypothalamic kisspeptin mRNA expression in males and females. These results suggest that androgen receptor mediates the effect of testosterone on oSDN masculinization, because this process was blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide in eugonadal males. In contrast, the reduction of oSDN volume observed after DHT exposure appears to be mediated by a negative feedback mechanism exerted on the hypothalamus to reduce LH and testosterone secretion. The reduced androgen exposure most likely accounted for the decreased oSDN volume. We conclude that, during the critical period, the male reproductive axis in long gestation species, such as sheep, is sufficiently developed to react to perturbations in serum androgens and mitigate disruptions in brain masculinization.

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Thirty-two adult female albino rats were divided into: group I (controls), group II (receiving anabolic steroids for two months) or group III (receiving anabolic steroids plus anti-androgen for two months).

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Prostate cancers respond to treatments that suppress androgen receptor (AR) function, with bicalutamide, flutamide, and cyproterone acetate (CPA) being AR antagonists in clinical use. As CPA has substantial agonist activity, it was examined to identify AR coactivator/corepressor interactions that may mediate androgen-stimulated prostate cancer growth. The CPA-liganded AR was coactivated by steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) but did not mediate N-C terminal interactions or recruit beta-catenin, indicating a nonagonist conformation. Nonetheless, CPA did not enhance AR interaction with nuclear receptor corepressor, whereas the AR antagonist RU486 (mifepristone) strongly stimulated AR-nuclear receptor corepressor binding. The role of coactivators was further assessed with a T877A AR mutation, found in LNCaP prostate cancer cells, which converts hydroxyflutamide (HF, the active flutamide metabolite) into an agonist that stimulates LNCaP cell growth. The HF and CPA-liganded T877A ARs were coactivated by SRC-1, but only the HF-liganded T877A AR was coactivated by beta-catenin. L-39, a novel AR antagonist that transcriptionally activates the T877A AR, but still inhibits LNCaP growth, similarly mediated recruitment of SRC-1 and not beta-catenin. In contrast, beta-catenin coactivated a bicalutamide-responsive mutant AR (W741C) isolated from a bicalutamide-stimulated LNCaP subline, further implicating beta-catenin recruitment in AR-stimulated growth. Androgen-stimulated prostate-specific antigen gene expression in LNCaP cells could be modulated by beta-catenin, and endogenous c-myc expression was repressed by dihydrotestosterone, but not CPA. These results indicate that interactions between AR and beta-catenin contribute to prostate cell growth in vivo, although specific growth promoting genes positively regulated by AR recruitment of beta-catenin remain to be identified.

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The endocrine-metabolic status of non-obese, young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is normalized more effectively by combined treatment with flutamide and metformin than by either of these drugs in monotherapy. In this follow-up study, we assess whether the endocrine-metabolic benefits of combined flutamide-metformin treatment are maintained in the presence of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC).

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Androgen receptor blocking agents have an established role in the treatment of disseminated prostate carcinoma. However, combined androgen blockade in elderly men with disseminated prostate carcinoma results in high bone turnover with significant cancellous bone loss. The results of this study show that adjuvant therapy with intermittent cyclic etidronate may prevent these changes and decrease the risk of spinal fractures.

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Mean baseline and maximally stimulated E(2), integrated E(2) response, and fold change in E(2) were not different before and after treatment. Levels of testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, estrone, and SHBG before and after treatment were unchanged. Baseline dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels declined significantly after flutamide therapy.

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Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 μg/L) and flutamide (33 μg/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100 dph) to perform testicular germ cell count (histology), measurements of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) by enzyme immunoassay and transcript quantification by quantitative real-time PCR. In general, treatments decreased the expression of several genes including testis-related transcription factors (dmrt1, sox9a and wt1), steroidogenic enzymes (11β-hsd2, 17β-hsd12 and P450c17), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and orphan nuclear receptors (nr2c1 and Ad4BP/SF-1). In contrast, the transcripts of cfGnRH and tph2 were elevated in the brain of all treated groups with maximum elevation in the endosulfan group. However, combination of endosulfan and flutamide (E+F) treatment showed minor antagonism in a few results of transcript quantification. Levels of T and 11-KT were elevated after flutamide and E+F treatments while no change was seen in the endosulfan group signifying the effect of flutamide as an androgen receptor antagonist. All the treatments modulated testis growth by decreasing the progression of differentiation of spermatogonia to spermatocytes. Based on these results, we suggest that the exposure to endosulfan and flutamide, even at low doses, impairs testicular development either directly or indirectly at the level of brain.

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eulexin dosage 2015-07-06

The buy eulexin purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of the resistance index (RI) of the prostate measured by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in Taiwanese prostate cancer patients to Gleason score, staging and prostate volume.

eulexin capsules 2015-01-30

AHR-active pharmaceuticals such as omeprazole that decrease breast cancer buy eulexin cell invasion and metastasis may have important clinical applications for late stage breast cancer chemotherapy.

eulexin dose 2016-07-17

Metastatic involvement of the pituitary gland is a very unusual presentation of prostatic cancer. We report a buy eulexin favorable response to medical treatment in such a patient.

eulexin 50 mg 2016-09-16

We developed a decision analytic model based on a clinical trial and literature review. The two interventions evaluated were: (i) monthly injection of degarelix and (ii) 3-monthly triptorelin therapy plus short-term flutamide, cyproterone or bicalutamide treatment. buy eulexin The model consisted of a decision tree monitoring a hypothetical cohort of patients aged 70 years from the start of hormonal treatment to the end of the first month, and a Markov model monitoring patients from the end of month 1 for a time horizon of 10 years (i.e. when 96% of patients are assumed to have died). The base-case analysis assumed patients present with asymptomatic metastatic prostate cancer. Costs and outcomes were collected over the model time horizon. Outcome measures were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Sensitivity analyses (one-way and multi-way) and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the uncertainties around the assumptions.

eulexin 250 mg 2017-07-01

• Of 383 selected patients, 173 had a PSA level below 4 ng/mL after 6 months of induction of ADT and were randomized. Median overall survival (52 vs 42 months, P= 0.75) and median progression buy eulexin -free survival (15.1 vs 20.7 months, P= 0.74) were not significantly different between continuous and intermittent ADT. • Although some differences in quality of life were observed, most of the functional and symptom scales showed no significant difference between the two groups. • Significantly fewer treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in the intermittent group (P= 0.042), with the incidence of headache and hot flushes also lower.

eulexin 125 mg 2015-03-08

The present study was performed to investigate in vitro the onset of steroidogenesis and the responsiveness to LH in rat fetal testes. The male buy eulexin gonads explanted on days 12.5, 13.5, and 14.5 of gestation in M199 produced testosterone from 15.5 days as is the case in vivo dcAMP (1 mM) induced an anticipated steroidogenesis on day 14.5 with secretions of testosterone (0.026 +/- 0.003 ng/gonad/24 h) and progesterone (0.078 +/- 0.005 ng/gonad/24 h), whereas LH (100 ng/ml) has no effect. Antiandrogens such as aminoglutethimide (2 mM), cyproterone acetate (1 microgram/ml), and hydroxyflutamide (1 microgram/ml) could not delay the responsiveness to LH on day 15.5. An anticipated production of testosterone on day 14.5 in presence of DHA (200 ng/ml) could not induce functional LH receptors. It would appear that: (a) the onset of testosterone production occurs without extrinsic stimulatory factors; (b) dcAMP initiates an early steroidogenesis; (c) the onset of functional receptors is likely free of the androgenic environment.

eulexin 500 mg 2017-02-08

Unconventional oil and gas operations using hydraulic fracturing can contaminate surface and groundwater with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We have previously shown that 23 of 24 commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen buy eulexin , androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors in a human endometrial cancer cell reporter gene assay and that mixtures can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on these receptors. In the current study, pregnant female C57Bl/6 dams were exposed to a mixture of 23 commonly used unconventional oil and gas chemicals at approximately 3, 30, 300, and 3000 μg/kg·d, flutamide at 50 mg/kg·d, or a 0.2% ethanol control vehicle via their drinking water from gestational day 11 through birth. This prenatal exposure to oil and gas operation chemicals suppressed pituitary hormone concentrations across experimental groups (prolactin, LH, FSH, and others), increased body weights, altered uterine and ovary weights, increased heart weights and collagen deposition, disrupted folliculogenesis, and other adverse health effects. This work suggests potential adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to these oil and gas operation chemicals, with adverse outcomes observed even in the lowest dose group tested, equivalent to concentrations reported in drinking water sources. These endpoints suggest potential impacts on fertility, as previously observed in the male siblings, which require careful assessment in future studies.

eulexin cost 2017-12-29

177 C3H/He male mice were divided into 7 groups. All mice were treated with 0.05% BBN for 10 weeks and were maintained over the subsequent 12 weeks with the following treatments. Group 1 was a control group; in group 2, castration was performed at the 11th week; in group 3, finasteride was administered starting the 11th week; in group 4, a LH-RH agonist depot was buy eulexin administered starting the 11th week; in group 5, flutamide was administered starting the 11th week; in group 6, both finasteride and a LH-RH agonist depot were administered simultaneously starting the 11th week; and in group 7, both flutamide and a LH-RH agonist depot were administered simultaneously starting the 11th week.

eulexin medication 2017-05-24

Flutamide was administered for up to 147 months; seven patients (17%) interrupted the treatment because of toxicity. There was an objective response in 17 (41%) patients; 20 (49%) had stable disease while four (10%) progressed. There were objective responses, lasting up to 150 months, in 82% of those with M0 and in 18% with M1 disease (P = 0.05). The median time to progression in patients with an objective response and stable disease was 45 and 16 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Thirty-one patients (76%) buy eulexin died from prostate cancer and 10 (24%) from unrelated diseases. The median survival was 67 and 36 months in patients with an objective response and stable disease, respectively (P < 0.001). There was an improvement in performance status in 85% and reduction in bone pain in 83% of the patients; sexual activity was maintained in 63%.

eulexin tablets 2016-01-28

This study examines rapid (5-60 s) effects of androgens on the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in human granulosa lutenizing cells. Cells were obtained from human preovulatory follicles, and [Ca2+]i was measured with the use of the Ca(2+)-responsive fluorescent dye fluo-3. Molar concentrations between 100 pmol/L and 1 mumol/L androstenedione increased [Ca2+]i within 5 s after buy eulexin addition to cells. This [Ca2+]i increase resulted from both Ca2+ influx, as shown by the effects of ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid and the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil, and Ca2+ mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum, as shown by the effects of thapsigargin. Treatment with pertussis toxin and U-73,122, a specific inhibitor of phospholipase C, abolished the effects of androstenedione on [Ca2+]i. Flutamide, a nuclear androgen receptor antagonist, did not block the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by androstenedione. Testosterone (100 pmol/L to 1 mumol/L) had no effect. This is the first report showing that androstenedione increases [Ca2+]i in granulosa cells. These data provide evidence for the presence in granulosa cells of a novel, short term mechanism of androstenedione action involving voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane and phospholipase C activation via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein.

eulexin drug 2017-01-02

The present study was designed to investigate the role of androgen in the medial amygdala (MeA) in the expression of sexual odor preference in male rats. Gonadally intact, sexually experienced male rats received bilateral administration of flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) blocker, aimed at either the posterior dorsal part (MePD) or the anterior dorsal part (MeAD) of the MeA through inner cannulae inserted into the implanted guide cannulae. Prior to flutamide administration, all subjects spent longer sniffing volatile odors from an estrous female than those from a sexually active male. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the preference for the female odors over the male odors was eliminated during flutamide administration into the MePD, but not into either buy eulexin the MeAD or outside MePD/MeAD. This elimination of the female-directed odor preference resulted from increase of time sniffing the male odors rather than decrease of time sniffing the estrous odors. In Experiment 2, odor discrimination tests confirmed that the flutamide administration into the MePD did not induce impairment in the ability of the subjects to discriminate the estrous odors from the male odors. These results demonstrated that activation of AR in the MePD plays a critical role in the expression of the preference for estrous odors over male odors. AR blockade, however, seemed to induce a preference for male odors rather than reduce the existing preference for estrous odors, suggesting a complicated regulation of sexual odor preference by sex steroids.

eulexin dosage 2016-08-12

After a median follow-up of 7.6 years, 79 men in the endocrine alone group and 37 men in the endocrine plus radiotherapy group had died of prostate cancer. The cumulative incidence at 10 years for prostate-cancer-specific mortality was 23.9% in the endocrine alone group and 11.9% in the endocrine plus radiotherapy group (difference 12.0%, 95% CI 4.9-19.1%), for a relative risk of 0.44 (0.30-0.66). At 10 years, the cumulative incidence for overall mortality was 39.4% in the endocrine alone group and 29.6% in the endocrine plus radiotherapy group (difference 9.8%, 0.8-18.8%), for a relative risk of 0.68 (0.52-0.89). Cumulative incidence at 10 years for PSA recurrence was substantially higher in men in the endocrine-alone group (74.7%vs 25.9%, p<0.0001; HR 0.16; 0.12-0.20). After 5 years, urinary, buy eulexin rectal, and sexual problems were slightly more frequent in the endocrine plus radiotherapy group.

eulexin capsules 2015-05-16

To investigate the involvement of NGF as buy eulexin a differentiation factor in prostate cancer cells.

eulexin dose 2015-01-03

There was a survival advantage in using adjuvant mitozantrone in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. buy eulexin Although the study comprised relative few patients, the follow-up period was long and the advantage significant. We recommend that the study be extended to include more patients.

eulexin 50 mg 2017-10-06

Structural luteolysis shows striking interspecies differences. Morphological changes in the corpus luteum (CL) of the cyclic hamster have been studied alongside the potential involvement of known luteolytic hormones. Ovaries from intact Syrian golden hamsters killed at 1100 h on days 1 and 2 and at 1100 and 1700 h on days 3 and 4 of the estrous cycle were dissected for histological study. The day of ovulation, the day of estrus, was arbitrarily designated day 1 of the estrous cycle. Steroidogenic cells in the CL were scarcely luteinized on day 1 and reached full luteinization on day 2. On the morning of day 3, initial regressive changes (accumulation of lipid droplets, invasion by neutrophils, and accumulation of phagocytic cells) were observed. These regressive changes increased progressively and apoptotic cells as well as phagocytic cells containing phagocytized apoptotic cells were abundant on the evening of day 3. On the morning of day 4, apoptotic cells/bodies and phagocytic cells containing phagocytized material were extremely abundant throughout the CL. However, steroidogenic cells with intact nuclei and well-preserved blood vessels were also found. Surviving cells in the CL showed progressive morphological changes. These cells showed morphological features intermediate between luteal and interstitial cells in the evening of day 4 and were virtually indistinguishable from interstitial cells on day 1 of the following cycle. Additional animals were injected at 1100 h on day 2 with: (a) the dopaminergic agonist CB154 (0.4 mg) to block prolactin secretion, (b) the anti-estrogen LY117018 (1.6 mg) or the anti-androgen Flutamide (3 mg) to block estrogen or androgen receptors, respectively, and (c) progesterone (2 mg) to prevent the fall in serum progesterone concentrations. Ovaries from these animals were collected at 1700 h on day 3 and at 1000 h on day 4. The luteolytic process was not affected by any treatment. These data indicate that, in contrast to its close relatives Deltasone White Pill (e.g., the rat), structural luteolysis in the hamster is independent of the apoptotic inducing luteolytic hormones. In addition, differences in the cellular mechanisms responsible for CL elimination were also present. In the hamster, part of the luteal cells do not undergo apoptosis and seemed to progress through another developmental path giving rise to interstitial-like cells.

eulexin 250 mg 2016-09-18

On univariate analysis black race was associated with lower overall and disease Hytrin 1 Mg specific survival (p = 0.04, RR = 1.24 and p = 0.016, RR = 1.41, respectively). After adjusting for risk group and treatment type (with or without short-term or long-term hormonal therapy) race was no longer associated with outcome (p >0.05). The trend for a persistent difference in survival was likely due to the higher tumor burden in black men, as reflected in higher PSA.

eulexin 125 mg 2016-04-24

Transgenic male mice that express human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) α and β subunits constitutively hypersecrete hCG and produce elevated levels of androgens. The aim of this study was to characterize the hypothalamic-pituitary function of these transgenic (hCGαβ+) males by focusing on FSH regulation. Serum FSH levels and Inderal 200 Mg pituitary mRNA expression of Fshb, Lhb, Cga, Gnrhr and Esr1 were reduced, whereas Fst expression was increased in prepubertal hCGαβ+ males as compared with wild-type. In the hypothalamus, Cyp19a1 expression, GnRH concentration and ex-vivo GnRH pulsatility were elevated in prepubertal hCGαβ+ mice, whereas Kiss1 expression was decreased prepubertally and Gad67 expression was elevated neonatally. The effect of androgens on the developmental programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of hCGαβ+ males was evaluated by perinatal and prepubertal antiandrogen (flutamide) administration. Our studies identified a critical window between gestational day 18 and postnatal day 14, during which chronically elevated androgens and/or their locally produced metabolites activate the hypothalamus and concomitantly shut-down the gonadotropin axis.

eulexin 500 mg 2016-03-07

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) measurement of tumor size and biopsy of extraprostatic space was used to stage patients into two main groups: confined (66.6%) versus nonconfined (19.3%). Radiation failures (14.1%) formed a separate group. Failure rates for the 131 men include all cancer diagnosed during Lexapro Brand Name the one year period following cryosurgery.

eulexin cost 2017-05-04

Actin cytoskeleton reorganization initiated by testosterone conjugates through activation of membrane androgen receptors (mAR) has recently been reported in colon tumor cells. This mAR-induced actin reorganization was recognized as a critical initial event, controlling apoptosis and inhibiting cell migration. The present study addressed the molecular signaling regulating the rapid actin remodeling initiated upon testosterone-induced mAR activation in Caco2 colon tumor cells. We report early phosphorylation of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), followed by substantial early phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), S6 kinase (p70S6K) and the actin regulating p21-activated kinase (PAK1). Pharmacological inhibition of FAK-sensitive phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI-3K), a known element of mAR-signaling, fully abrogated the testosterone-induced actin reorganization and the activation of mTOR, p70S6K and PAK1. Similarly, inhibition of mTOR blocked p70S6K and PAK1 phosphorylation and actin remodeling. Pretreatment of the cells with the intracellular androgen Seroquel Normal Dose receptor (iAR) antagonist flutamide or silencing iAR through siRNA did not influence mTOR phosphorylation and actin reorganization, indicating specific mAR-induced testosterone effects that are independent of iAR signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time a new mAR-governed pathway involving FAK/PI-3K and mTOR/p70S6K/PAK1-cascade that regulates early actin reorganization in colon cancer cells.

eulexin medication 2017-05-15

A sensitive, simple and rapid ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of 2-hydroxyflutamide in human plasma using tegafur as the internal standard. The plasma sample was pretreated with methanol for protein precipitation and the analytes were separated on an Ultimate C18 column (5 microm, 2.1 mm x 50 mm, MD, USA) with the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (2:1, v/v). Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer under a negative multiple reaction-monitoring mode (MRM). The mass transition ion-pair was followed as m/z 290.90-204.8 for 2-hydroxyflutamide and 198.9-128.8 for tegafur. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration Pamelor Dose Migraine range of 1.742-1452 ng/ml with a lower limit of quantification of 1.742 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-batch precision values were less than 8.1% and 5.6%, respectively. The established method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of two flutamide preparations (250 mg) in 20 healthy male volunteers.

eulexin tablets 2016-09-02

It has Crestor Y Alcohol been hypothesized that continuous androgen-suppression therapy produces hyperactivation of neuroendocrine (NE) cells and an increase in chromogranin A (CgA) in prostate carcinoma (PC). The aim of this study was to verify whether the intermittent administration of androgen deprivation (IAD) reduces the risk of CgA increase in PC cases treated with complete androgen deprivation (CAD).

eulexin drug 2016-12-29

The androgen receptor (AR) can be small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-ylated in its amino-terminal domain at lysines 385 and 511. This SUMO-ylation is responsive to several agonists, but is not induced by the pure antagonist hydroxyflutamide. We show that the main site of interaction of Ubc9, the SUMO-1 conjugating enzyme, resides in transcription activation unit 5. Overexpression of SUMO-1 represses the AR-mediated transcription, and this effect is abolished after mutating both SUMO-1 acceptor sites. On the other hand, the mutation of lysine 385 clearly affects the cooperativity of the receptor on multiple hormone response elements. Lysine 511 is not implicated in this function. Surprisingly, these effects on cooperativity clearly depend on the nature of the response elements. When selective androgen response elements, which are organized as direct repeats of 5'-TGTTCT-3'-like sequences, were tested, the lysine 385 mutation did not increase the androgen response. Point mutations changing the direct-repeat elements into inverted-repeat elements restored the effects of the lysine 385 mutation on cooperativity. In conclusion, SUMO-ylation of the AR might have a differential function in the control of cooperativity, depending on the conformation of the AR dimer bound to DNA.

eulexin dosage 2017-05-15

Exposure of neonatal testis, populated by fetal-type Leydig cells, to endocrine-active compounds may have far-reaching consequences. Our aim was to resolve the sensitivity of testosterone synthesis of infant rat (Sprague-Dawley) testis to diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.1-1.0 mg/kg), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 10-100 mg/kg), and Flutamide (FLU; 2.0-25 mg/kg) given by daily sc injections from birth to postnatal day 4. Testes and serum were collected on day 14 when body and testis weight, testicular histology, circulating testosterone, LH and FSH levels, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3beta-hydroxy-steroid-dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) protein levels were determined. DES at each dose and FLU at 25 mg/kg dose reduced testis weight and the diameter of seminiferous cords. FLU caused some Leydig cell hyperplasia. Plasma testosterone was reduced in all DES animals, LH elevated in DES 0.5 mg/kg and FLU 25 mg/kg animals, and FSH reduced in the DES 1.0 mg/kg group. Basal testicular ex vivo progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated testosterone production were decreased in DES animals. Despite a decrease in hCG-induced cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) production, intratesticular testosterone was increased in the FLU 10 and 25 mg/kg groups. OP 100 mg/kg elevated hCG-induced progesterone production only. No changes were seen in 3beta-HSD protein levels in any treatment group. StAR levels were reduced in DES animals. The results indicate the sensitivity of postnatal fetal-type Leydig cells to endocrine-active compounds. Suppression of StAR expression level was an early sign of the DES-induced steroidogenic lesion. FLU-induced changes suggest the importance of androgen receptor-mediated regulation of testosterone synthesis in the postnatal rat testis. Octylphenol appeared less effective in bringing about acute steroidogenic changes.