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Free radicals and other so-called 'reactive species' are constantly produced in the brain in vivo. Some arise by 'accidents of chemistry', an example of which may be the leakage of electrons from the mitochondrial electron transport chain to generate superoxide radical (O2*-). Others are generated for useful purposes, such as the role of nitric oxide in neurotransmission and the production of O2*- by activated microglia. Because of its high ATP demand, the brain consumes O2 rapidly, and is thus susceptible to interference with mitochondrial function, which can in turn lead to increased O2*- formation. The brain contains multiple antioxidant defences, of which the mitochondrial manganese-containing superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione seem especially important. Iron is a powerful promoter of free radical damage, able to catalyse generation of highly reactive hydroxyl, alkoxyl and peroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides, respectively. Although most iron in the brain is stored in ferritin, 'catalytic' iron is readily mobilised from injured brain tissue. Increased levels of oxidative damage to DNA, lipids and proteins have been detected by a range of assays in post-mortem tissues from patients with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and at least some of these changes may occur early in disease progression. The accumulation and precipitation of proteins that occur in these diseases may be aggravated by oxidative damage, and may in turn cause more oxidative damage by interfering with the function of the proteasome. Indeed, it has been shown that proteasomal inhibition increases levels of oxidative damage not only to proteins but also to other biomolecules. Hence, there are many attempts to develop antioxidants that can cross the blood-brain barrier and decrease oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants such as vitamin E (tocopherol), carotenoids and flavonoids do not readily enter the brain in the adult, and the lazaroid antioxidant tirilazad (U-74006F) appears to localise in the blood-brain barrier. Other antioxidants under development include modified spin traps and low molecular mass scavengers of O2*-. One possible source of lead compounds is the use of traditional remedies claimed to improve brain function. Little is known about the impact of dietary antioxidants upon the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease. Several agents already in therapeutic use might exert some of their effects by antioxidant action, including selegiline (deprenyl), apomorphine and nitecapone.
Platelet CoQ10 redox ratios (reduced CoQ10 to oxidized CoQ10) and the ratio of the reduced form, compared with total platelet CoQ10, were significantly decreased in de novo parkinsonian patients. Platelet CoQ10 redox ratios were further decreased by L-DOPA treatment (not significant), whilst selegiline treatment partially restored CoQ10 redox ratios. Monoamine oxidase activities in non-selegiline treated patients were similar to controls.
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The thermal behaviour of Selegiline (a chiral, non racemic pharmaceutical used in the therapy of Parkinson disease) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for determining the enantiomeric purity (e.p.) of the bulk substance. It has been found, that (i) the binary phase diagram (melting point phase diagram) of the R/S enantiomer mixtures is characteristic to that of the true racemic compounds; (ii) the melting behaviour of the R/S binary mixtures follows the thermodynamic laws (i.e. the Schröder-Van Laar and the Prigogine-Defay equations); (iii) the e.p. of the highly purified bulk substance can be expressed as "DSC purity" (this latter is obtained from the Van't Hoff equation) and the microcalorimetric method as above gives good reproducibility; (iv) due to the minor impurities (other than the S(-) enantiomer) the obtained e.p. (expressed as DSC purity) can be higher but not lower than the actual e.p. of the investigated substance.
Parkinson's disease, known also as striatal dopamine deficiency syndrome, is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by akinesia, muscular rigidity, tremor at rest, and postural abnormalities. In early stages of parkinsonism, there appears to be a compensatory increase in the number of dopamine receptors to accommodate the initial loss of dopamine neurons. As the disease progresses, the number of dopamine receptors decreases, apparently due to the concomitant degeneration of dopamine target sites on striatal neurons. The loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease results in enhanced metabolism of dopamine, augmenting the formation of H2O2, thus leading to generation of highly neurotoxic hydroxyl radicals (OH.). The generation of free radicals can also be produced by 6-hydroxydopamine or MPTP which destroys striatal dopaminergic neurons causing parkinsonism in experimental animals as well as human beings. Studies of the substantia nigra after death in Parkinson's disease have suggested the presence of oxidative stress and depletion of reduced glutathione; a high level of total iron with reduced level of ferritin; and deficiency of mitochondrial complex I. New approaches designed to attenuate the effects of oxidative stress and to provide neuroprotection of striatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease include blocking dopamine transporter by mazindol, blocking NMDA receptors by dizocilpine maleate, enhancing the survival of neurons by giving brain-derived neurotrophic factors, providing antioxidants such as vitamin E, or inhibiting monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) by selegiline. Among all of these experimental therapeutic refinements, the use of selegiline has been most successful in that it has been shown that selegiline may have a neurotrophic factor-like action rescuing striatal neurons and prolonging the survival of patients with Parkinson's disease.
Acute and delayed (hormonal imprinting) effect of (-) deprenyl and its derivative without MAO-B inhibitory activity (-) PPAP, were studied on cells of the peritoneal fluid (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and mast cells) by flow cytometric and confocal microscopic analysis. Thirty minutes after treatment of 6-week-old female animals, deprenyl was ineffective while PPAP significantly increased the serotonin level of these cells. Three weeks after treatment at weaning, deprenyl drastically decreased the serotonin level of each cell type, while PPAP moderately but significantly increased the serotonin level of monocytes, granulocytes and mast cells. This means that the two related molecules have different effects on the immune cells, which seem to be independent of MAO-B inhibition. The experiments emphasize the necessity of studying the prolonged effects of biologically active molecules, even if they are without acute effects. As serotonin is a modulator of the immune system, the influence on immune cells of the molecules studied can contribute to their enhancing effect.
We have obtained the intakes for L-dopa and selegiline between January and December, 1990 and we have calculated the DDD/1,000 inhab/day.
It is well established that nicotine activates brain dopaminergic systems and in addition has neuroprotective actions. Thus, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists might be beneficial in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and it is important to study the interactions of nicotine with drugs affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. We used brain microdialysis to study the effects of nicotine on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in the rat dorsal striatum in combination with drugs inhibiting either DA uptake (nomifensine), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; tolcapone), monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B; selegiline) or DA receptors (haloperidol). Nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) modestly increased DA output, and this effect was antagonised by mecamylamine but not by hexamethonium. Nomifensine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) substantially further enhanced the nicotine-induced increase in DA output and nomifensine+nicotine also evoked a strong mecamylamine-sensitive ipsilateral rotational behaviour in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Tolcapone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not alter DA output, but markedly decreased homovanillic acid (HVA) and increased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). Selegiline pretreatment (5 x 1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased extracellular DA and decreased DOPAC and HVA. Haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) slightly increased DA output and more clearly DOPAC and HVA. Tolcapone, selegiline or haloperidol did not enhance the nicotine-induced DA output. These results indicate that the activation of nigrostriatal nAChRs induces a significant DA release in the striatum, which is potentiated by DA uptake inhibition but not by COMT, MAO-B or presynaptic DA receptor inhibition. Our findings therefore agree with the notion that the termination of the effect of DA in the synapse mainly occurs via neuronal reuptake. Thus, selective nAChR agonists, possibly in combination with a DA uptake inhibitor, might improve dopaminergic transmission in Parkinson's disease.
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One hundred fifty-seven de novo PD patients were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 7 years' duration. In the monotherapy part, selegiline significantly delayed the initiation of levodopa therapy vs placebo. The authors now report the results from the combination part of the study, in which 140 patients received selegiline or placebo in addition to individually tailored levodopa therapy.
Selegiline (1-deprenyl) is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B. Because in the human brain, dopamine is metabolised mainly by MAO-B, selegiline increases dopamine content in the central nervous system. Besides the inhibition of MAO-B, selegiline also inhibits the uptake of dopamine and noradrenaline into presynaptic nerve and increases the turnover of dopamine. Thanks to these properties, selegiline significantly potentiates the pharmacological effects of levodopa. These favourable characteristics have been applied in the treatment of Parkinson's disease using selegiline both with levodopa and alone. Unlike earlier MAO-inhibitors, selegiline does not potentiate the hypertensive effects of tyramine. This is due to the selectivity to MAO-B, leaving intestinal MAO-A intact, and also due to the fact that selegiline inhibits the uptake of tyramine into neurons. Selegiline can prevent the parkinsonism caused by MPTP in animals; similar findings have been reported with other toxins like 6-OHDA and DSP-4, that destroys noradrenergic nuclei. Furthermore, selegiline reduces oxidative stress caused by degradation of dopamine and increases free radical elimination by enhancing superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. These findings may be important when considering the possible neuroprotective effects of selegiline. Besides the basic pharmacology also the interactions and pharmacokinetics of selegiline are reviewed in this article.
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In vivo electrophysiological recordings of serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the anaesthetized rat.
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Although safer and easier to use antidepressants (ie.,SSRIs/SNRIs) have largely displaced MAOIs, these medications still have a role in difficult to treat conditions. Efforts to improve MAOIs benefit-risk profile resulted on the reversible MAOI and in the first antidepressant patch (selegiline transdermal delivery system-STS). The later had been available in the US since 2006. Thus a review on its safety profile and comparative efficacy is timely.
A good correlation was seen between in vivo binding and in vitro data, with the correlation being equally good irrespective of whether metabolite corrected plasma or modified cerebellar uptake values were used as input function. The epileptic lobe was, compared to non-epileptic, characterized by a lower initial distribution and an enhanced late accumulation of the tracer. With the applied method, it was possible to correctly identify the epileptic side in all 6 unilateral patients and I probable bilateral case.
One group of monkeys was trained under a ten-response fixed-ratio (FR10) schedule of stimulus termination to discriminate between methamphetamine (0.32 mg/kg, i.m.) and saline. Other monkeys were trained to self-administer i.v. cocaine under either a simple FR10 schedule or a second-order fixed-interval 5-min schedule with FR10 components.
We report here the case of a patient with fluoxetine and selegiline induced serotonin syndrome, which presented as encephalopathy, generalized myoclonias, fever, stiffness and sweating, complicated with acute renal failure, rhabdomyolysis and disseminated intravascular coagulation findings. The patient died 6 days after admission. This syndrome is discussed, with an analysis of its causes, pathophysiology and therapy. A special emphasis is placed on the clinical issues and differential diagnosis with the malignant neuroleptic syndrome and other clinical entities with which it could be mistaken. General recommendations are provided to avoid this poorly characterized syndrome that, as in our patient, may have a fatal outcome.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) was characterized in tissue homogenates from pancreatic islets, exocrine pancreas, and liver from rats. Phenylethylamine was preferentially deaminated by pancreatic islet MAO while 5-hydroxytryptamine was preferentially deaminated by MAO from exocrine pancreas, and tyramine was a good substrate for both tissues. All three substrates were well deaminated by liver tissue. Clorgyline, a selective inhibitor of MAO-A, preferentially inhibited deamination of 5-hydroxytryptamine by all three tissue homogenates, while deprenyl, a selective inhibitor of MAO-B, preferentially inhibited deamination of phenylethylamine. In the case of pargyline, a less selective MAO-B inhibitor, the preference in favour of phenylethylamine was less pronounced. According to these results, MAO in pancreatic islets can be classified as predominantly type B enzyme species and MAO in exocrine pancreas as predominantly type A enzyme species while both types of the enzyme are present in the liver. Using the same three MAO substrates and compared with the effects of the selective enzyme inhibitors, clorgyline and deprenyl, tranylcypromine can be classified as a potent nonselective inhibitor of MAO in homogenates of all three tissues investigated with a slight preference in favour of the inhibition of the B-form of the enzyme, while in contrast amezinium can be classified as a weak nonselective inhibitor of MAO with a slight preference in favour of the inhibition of the A-form of the enzyme. All MAO inhibitors tested also inhibited insulin secretion by isolated incubated rat pancreatic islets, however only at IC50 which were two to three decimal powers higher than those necessary for the inhibition of the MAO activity, thus indicating that inhibition of MAO activity and inhibition of insulin secretion are apparently not closely related.
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C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a neurotrophic factor widely expressed in the central nervous system including the basal ganglia, limbic system and hypothalamus. Nothing is known of CNP's role in the human brain but in rodents CNP promotes axon growth and branching, and interacts with dopaminergic function in models of addiction. Because preliminary evidence showed reduced levels in Parkinson's disease (PD), we examined concentrations of CNP peptides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 146 PD patients from the DATATOP study to determine changes over time in relation to medication status and cognitive function. CNP and an aminoterminal product of proCNP (NTproCNP) were measured in extracts from stored CSF by radioimmunoassay. CSF samples were obtained twice-at enrolment and at the study's endpoint (requirement for levodopa treatment) after treatment with placebo or deprenyl. At enrolment, median baseline concentration of CSF NTproCNP (776 pmol/L, n = 146) was significantly lower than that in a reference group without neurological disorder (1,010 pmol/L, p < 0.001). Concentrations declined significantly during placebo (p = 0.02) and lower values at enrolment were associated with more rapid functional decline (p < 0.01). In contrast, deprenyl-a treatment which delayed the need for levodopa-nullified the time-dependent decline in CSF NTproCNP. In conclusion subnormal CSF NTproCNP which declines with time and associates with increasing functional disability implicates CNP in PD. Concordant clinical and peptide responses to deprenyl suggest that some of the benefits of monoamine oxidase inhibitors in PD are mediated by preserving tissue CNP activity.
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Visual motor control (VMC) of arm movements is disturbed in patients with Parkinson's disease. The effect of antiparkinsonian medications on VMC is unknown. To assess the effect of deprenyl, a monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor, on VMC in the early stages of parkinsonism. Fourteen recently diagnosed, unmedicated patients with primary degenerative parkinsonism, mean age 61.9 +/- 2.8 years, were assessed by a computerized VMC system for tracking and tracing on a sine wave, circle, and square. Score was given for total time of test performance, directional error, arm velocity, and number of interruptions in tracking. All patients performed the first VMC test at baseline, prior to any antiparkinsonian treatment. The second test was performed after a month of treatment with 2.5 mg/d of deprenyl, and the third test was done after an additional month of treatment with 10 mg/d of deprenyl. Results were compared with 15 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 63.1 +/- 1.2 years. Parkinsonian patients performed significantly poorer on the VMC when compared to controls. Tracing was more affected than tracking. Tracing total time was almost twice as long as for controls (p < .0005). Treatment with 2.5 mg/d and 10 mg/d of deprenyl improved performance significantly (p < .05 and p < .005, respectively). Velocity of arm movement was not affected by deprenyl treatment in either dose. Directional control (tracing), severely disturbed in the parkinsonian group, improved back to the performance of healthy controls after 10 mg/d of deprenyl. In recently diagnosed parkinsonian patients internally guided VMC tasks were disturbed more than externally guided ones. Deprenyl treatment selectively improved directional control of arm movement in a dose related manner.
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To search systematically for, and combine all evidence from, randomised trials relating to the effects of psychostimulants in myotonic dystrophy patients with hypersomnia.
The on-off phenomenon is an almost invariable consequence of sustained levodopa treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease. Phases of immobility and incapacity associated with depression alternate with jubilant thaws. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors are involved in its pathogenesis, but evidence is presented to indicate that the importance of levodopa handling has been underestimated and that progressive reduction in the storage capacity of surviving nigrostriatal dopamine terminals is not a critical factor. Re-distribution of levodopa dosage which may mean smaller, more frequent doses, or larger less frequent increments, may be helpful in controlling oscillations in some patients. Dietary protein restriction, the use of selegiline hydrochloride and bromocriptine may also temporarily improve motor fluctuations. New approaches to management include the use of subcutaneous apomorphine, controlled-release preparations of levodopa with a peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibitor and the continuous intra-duodenal administration of levodopa.
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DSP-4 is a potent and highly selective neurotoxin of noradrenergic axons of locus coeruleus origin. The authors found that in addition to depletion of the hippocampal noradrenergic terminals the histochemical reactivity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, NADPH-diaphorase) was lost from neurons in the subgranule zone and hilar region of the dentate gyrus 2 weeks after a systemic administration of this toxin. Pretreatment with R(-)-deprenyl and 2-HxMP (2-hexyl-N-methylpropargylamine, which protects hippocampal noradrenergic axons against DSP-4 neurotoxicity, led to a complete prevention of the loss of NADPH-diaphorase activity.
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Parkinson disease progression is associated with the development of levodopa short-duration responses and dyskinesias, as well as gait freezing. Levodopa dose adjustment and adjunctive treatment with dopamine agonists form the major therapeutic strategies. Catechol O-methyltransferase inhibitors are also appropriate considerations, whereas other drugs, including selegiline, amantadine, anticholinergic agents, and propranolol, have a more minor role.
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The ejaculatory response and other components of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) behavioural syndrome induced by 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) (3 mg kg-1, i.p.) were studied following single and repeated treatment of rats with eight different monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Single and repeated treatment with the 5-HT agonist 5-MeODMT, and with low doses of the potent releaser of 5-HT, p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) were also included in the study. Repeated but not single treatment with 5-MeODMT reduced strongly but reversibly the ejaculatory response and the behavioural responses. Repeated but not single treatment with the nonselective and irreversible MAO inhibitors nialamide and pargyline reduced markedly the ejaculatory response but only slightly the 5-HT behavioural responses. Repeated treatment with the irreversible MAO-B inhibitor (-)-deprenyl, with the irreversible MAO-A inhibitor, clorgyline, with the reversible MAO-A inhibitor moclobemide, and with low doses of PCA did not affect either of the responses. Repeated but not single combined treatment with clorgyline plus PCA caused an almost complete blockade of all the four responses. The selective and reversible MAO-A inhibitors (as well as 5-HT releasers) amiflamine, alpha-ethyltryptamine, and alpha-methyltryptamine reduced markedly the ejaculatory response after both single and repeated treatments. The behavioural responses were blocked only after repeated treatment. It is concluded that single and repeated treatments of rats with different MAO inhibitors do not produce a common alteration in 5-HT2 receptor functions. Repeated treatment with 5-MeODMT caused a blockade of 75-95% of the ejaculatory response and 5-HT behavioural responses. A similar strong blockade was only produced by the combined effect of MAO-A inhibition and 5-HT release.
50 de novo patients with Parkinson's disease were investigated in a retrospective study after selegiline (-)deprenyl monotherapy and a combination of (-)deprenyl and levodopa. The study involved subjects with different Hoehn-Yahr stages (I, II, III, IV). During the treatment period the distribution of age (below 60 yr or above 60 yr) among the Hoehn-Yahr stages was similar to that of the baseline period, while the clinical disability for the patients starting with hypokinesis meant a more severe state compared to the cases with tremor. The sex ratio was similar during the baseline period but later, during the administration of deprenyl, the progression of males was slower than that of females. (-)Deprenyl was effective in decreasing the hypokinesis, while the rigidity was improved less by this drug. The reduction of parkinsonian symptoms developed slowly and was independent of the severity of Parkinson's disease. The maintenance of deprenyl monotherapy showed a high individual variation but the average period was about one year. The termination of the effect of deprenyl was rapid, however, not progressive. The time of the appearance of the side effects of additional levodopa was not delayed by deprenyl treatment. After five years the severity of disease was similar to the baseline disability scores in spite of the combined therapy with levodopa and deprenyl.
We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Trials Register (January 2006), MEDLINE (from January 1966 to January 2006) and EMBASE (from January 1980 to January 2006) for randomised trials concerning psychostimulants in myotonic dystrophy, checked the bibliographies of identified papers and made enquiries of the authors of the papers. The search for relevant studies was updated in January 2006.
Pergolide is a dopamine agonist acting on D1 and D2 receptors and has been used as an adjunct therapy with levodopa. We have retrospectively investigated its role over a duration of upto six years in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients to study: (1) its influence on the progression of disability related to PD; (2) effect on blood pressure and weight during the treatment period; (3) whether the use of pergolide has a long term levodopa sparing effect; (4) and how is it tolerated during this period? We studied 43 patients who had been on adjunct therapy with pergolide in addition to levodopa for more than six months. Mean age was 66 years, mean duration of PD prior to adding pergolide was 8 years and final assessment was done after a mean duration of adjunct therapy of 29 (6-72) months. There was no progression of disease disability as assessed on Hoehn and Yahr stage (p=0.09) and Webster score (p=0.20), while there was an improvement in symptom score (p=0.001). There was an insignificant reduction in the dose of levodopa at final assessment from 630 to 535mg (p=0.06). A significant number of patients were able to discontinue taking selegiline (p=0.002). There was no change in the number of patients with hallucinations (p=0.15) and dyskinesia (p=0.09). There was a significant fall in weight (p=0.02), systolic (p=0.023) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.03). This fall did not correlate with age, dose of pergolide or levodopa or disease severity but was influenced by duration of treatment. Ten patients discontinued pergolide for minor reasons after a mean duration of therapy for 23 months. We conclude that pergolide is a valuable adjunct therapy with levodopa over a duration of upto six years to maintain control of motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
The aim was to investigate the effects of inhibition of monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) with selegiline alone and the combined inhibition of peripheral catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) with entacapone and MAO-B with selegiline on striatal 6-[18F]fluorodopa (FDOPA) accumulation, and whether the effect of entacapone + selegiline on FDOPA uptake differed depending on the severity of the presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction. Thus, eight healthy controls, eight de novo patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 18 levodopa-treated PD patients were investigated with positron emission tomography (PET). Half of the subjects in each population belonged to the selegiline group and half to the entacapone + selegiline group. Both groups were studied twice with PET using FDOPA. After the first (baseline) FDOPA PET investigation, both groups were on 2 weeks of selegiline treatment, 10 mg daily. Thereafter, the second FDOPA PET was performed for all subjects with a premedication administered 60 min before the PET imaging; one group received 10 mg of selegiline, and the other group received a single 400 mg dose of entacapone coadministered with 10 mg of selegiline. Selegiline treatment alone had no significant influence on striatal FDOPA metabolism. The FDOPA accumulation, expressed as striatal-to-occipital ratios and modified decarboxylation coefficients (k3R0), increased significantly after entacapone + selegiline administration in all subject populations. The FDOPA uptake rate constant (Ki) remained virtually unchanged in controls and in de novo patients but decreased significantly in levodopa-treated PD patients after entacapone + selegiline intake. Entacapone + selegiline administration did not influence significantly the unidirectional blood-to-brain clearance for FDOPA (K1D) or the relative dopadecarboxylase activity (k3D). The changes in the studied parameters after entacapone + selegiline administration probably reflect the effects of entacapone, since entacapone alone has caused similar changes in previous PET studies. Response in FDOPA accumulation to entacapone + selegiline was higher in controls and de novo patients compared with levodopa-treated PD patients. The milder response in levodopa-treated patients might reflect the reduced ability of the degenerated dopaminergic neurons to utilize the prolonged FDOPA availability, produced by entacapone.
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The factors that influence the initial phase of quitting smoking have been understudied. Although maintenance of change is the ultimate test of the efficacy of treatment, maintenance is a nonissue for those who fail to manage even brief periods of abstinence. We examined factors associated with smokers' ability to achieve a targeted 24-hr quit during a smoking cessation program. As a comparison, we also examine whether predictors of an initial quit are different from factors that predict smoking abstinence at 52-week follow-up.
Glial cells were greatly proliferated and activated in the substantia nigra and striatum of rats with PD, and eldepryl could prevent the progression of PD by inhibiting the proliferation and activation of glial cells.