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Previous studies established that a single daily dose of olmesartan remains effective for the entire 24 h without alteration of the day-night blood pressure (BP) pattern. On the other hand, the administration of valsartan or telmisartan at bedtime, as opposed to upon wakening, improves the sleep-time relative BP decline toward a greater dipper pattern without loss of 24 h efficacy. Yet to be determined is whether this administration-time-dependent efficacy is a class-related feature, characteristic of all angiotensin-receptor-blocker (ARB) medications. We studied 123 grade 1 and 2 hypertensive patients, 46.6+/-12.3 yrs of age, randomly assigned to receive olmesartan (20 mg/day) as a monotherapy either upon awakening or at bedtime for three months. BP was measured by ambulatory monitoring for 48 consecutive hours before and after treatment. The 24 h BP reduction was similar for both treatment times. Administration of olmesartan at bedtime, however, was significantly more efficient than morning administration in reducing the nocturnal BP mean. The sleep-time relative BP decline was slightly reduced with olmesartan ingestion upon awakening but significantly increased with ingestion at bedtime, thus reducing the prevalence of non-dipping from baseline by 48%. Olmesartan administration at bedtime, as opposed to in the morning, improved the awake/asleep BP ratio toward a greater dipper pattern without loss of 24 h efficacy. Nocturnal BP regulation was significantly better achieved with bedtime as compared to morning dosing of olmesartan. These effects are comparable to those previously reported for valsartan and telmisartan, thus suggesting that they may be class-related features of ARB medications in spite of differences in their half-life kinetics. These administration-time-dependent effects should be taken into account when prescribing ARB medications for treatment of essential hypertension.
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Restenosis or neointimal hyperplasia remains an important complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS) for carotid artery stenosis. The purpose of this study was to examine if an anti-hypertensive drug, angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), prevents post-CAS neointimal hyperplasia during the first 1-year period after CAS, and to clarify the possible mechanisms.
Depending on incubation conditions, circulating renin inhibitors interfere with the recognition of active renin molecules by the monoclonal antibodies used in commercially available assays. Careful consideration must therefore be given to the methodology used for quantifying immunoreactive plasma active renin when patients are treated with renin inhibitors, to avoid an overestimation of the magnitude of active renin release attributable to conformational changes in plasma prorenin.
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There have been case reports of taste disturbance for the angiotensin II receptor blockers losartan and valsartan, but not for candesartan. This study was undertaken to examine whether candesartan causes taste disturbance.
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In this study, we examined whether addition of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), candesartan or valsartan, to conventional antihypertensive treatment could improve blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients on peritoneal dialysis.
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Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The importance of lowering blood pressure for reducing the risk of stroke is well established. However, not all the benefits of antihypertensive treatments in stroke can be accounted for by reductions in BP and there may be differences between antihypertensive classes as to which provides optimal protection. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, such as amlodipine, and angiotensin receptor blockers, such as valsartan, represent the two antihypertensive drug classes with the strongest supportive data for the prevention of stroke. Therefore, when combination therapy is required, a combination of these two antihypertensive classes represents a logical approach.
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Angiotensin II significantly increased cell proliferation by about 30% at a concentration of 10(-6) M without significant changes at the lower concentrations 10(-7) and 10(-8) M. Valsartan at the dosages 10(-8) to 10(-6) M had no effect on serum-stimulated proliferation. Valsartan at the dosages 10(-6) and 10(-7) M inhibited the cell proliferation induced by 10(-6) M angiotensin.
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MTT assays showed valsartan significantly inhibited AT1-AA- induced decline of the viability of EPCs. DAPI staining and flow cytometry results indicated valsartan inhibited AT1-AA-induced decline of the viability of EPCs via inhibiting AT1-AA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the increasing of reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium and calpain activity induced by AT1-AA in EPCs were also recovered after pre-treated with valsartan. Meanwhile, the upregulation of p-ERK, p-eIF-2a and CHOP, downregulation of Bcl-2, and activation of Caspase-3 caused by AT1-AA were reversed after pre-incubated with valsartan.
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Pharmacological treatment of hypertension represents a cost-effective way of preventing cardiovascular and renal complications. To benefit maximally from antihypertensive treatment, blood pressure should be brought to below 140/90 mmHg in every hypertensive patient, and even lower (< 130/80 mmHg) if diabetes or renal disease co-exists. Such targets cannot usually be reached using monotherapies. This is especially true in patients who present with a high cardiovascular risk. The co-administration of two agents acting by different mechanisms considerably increases the blood pressure control rate. Such combinations are not only efficacious, but are also well tolerated, and some fixed low-dose combinations even have a placebo-like tolerability. This is the case for the preparation containing the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril (2 mg) and the diuretic indapamide (0.625 mg), a fixed low-dose combination that has been shown in controlled trials to be more effective than monotherapies in reducing albuminuria, regressing cardiac hypertrophy and improving the stiffness of large arteries. Using this combination to initiate antihypertensive therapy has been shown in a double-blind trial (Strategies of Treatment in Hypertension: Evaluation; STRATHE) to normalize blood pressure (< 140/90 mmHg) in significantly more patients (62%) than a sequential monotherapy approach based on atenolol, losartan and amlodipine (49%) and a stepped-care strategy based on valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide (47%), with no difference between the three arm groups in terms of tolerability. An ongoing randomized trial (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation; ADVANCE) is a study with a 2 x 2 factorial design assessing the effects of the fixed-dose perindopril-indapamide combination and of the intensive gliclazide modified release-based glucose control regimen in type 2 diabetic patients, with or without hypertension. A total of 11 140 patients were randomly selected. Within the first 6 weeks of treatment (run-in phase), the perindopril-indapamide combination lowered blood pressure from 145/81 +/- 22/11 mmHg (mean +/- SD) to 137/78 +/- 20/10 mmHg. Fixed-dose combinations are becoming more and more popular for the management of hypertension, and are even proposed by hypertension guidelines as a first-line option to treat hypertensive patients.
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Using historical clinical values to calculate diabetes risk reduces the accuracy of prediction. Diabetes risk calculations should be routinely updated to inform discussions about diabetes prevention at both the patient and population health levels.
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Our results indicate that age-related arterial changes, at least in middle-aged males, can be reversed. Short-term treatment with a low-dose fluvastatin/valsartan combination resulted in a large and long lasting improvement of arterial function.
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This study indicates that ARB administration induces unusual proliferative changes and a marked renin-producing cell increase in afferent arterioles more frequently in juveniles than adult rats. It is suggested that the treatment of ARB in juveniles might have a higher risk of changes in renal afferent arterioles.
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The VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion trial (VALIANT) enrolled 14 703 post-MI patients with left ventricular dysfunction and/or heart failure and followed them for a median of 24.7 months. In the present secondary analysis, times from baseline to first GI bleeding were identified from the VALIANT serious adverse event database. Potential risk factors were explored from medical history, demographics, clinical profile, and medications, both at baseline and during follow-up. We also explored the relationship between the occurrence of GI bleeding and subsequent mortality. During follow-up, 98 (0.7%) patients had a serious GI bleeding event. These patients were older, had more comorbidities, were more likely to be taking additional antiplatelet drugs, and had worse left ventricular systolic and renal function. The Kaplan-Meier estimated rate of GI bleeding at 6 months was 0.37% (95% CI 0.27-0.47). In a multivariable Cox model, dual antiplatelet therapy was the most powerful predictor of GI bleeding, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.18 (95% CI 1.91-5.29). Other predictors were non-white race, history of alcohol abuse, increasing age, worse New York Heart Association class, anticoagulant therapy, diabetes, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and male sex. Gastrointestinal bleeding was associated with increased risk of death [adjusted hazard ratio 2.54 (95% CI 1.66-3.89)].
Almost 5 million individuals in the United States have chronic heart failure (HF), which is increasing in prevalence. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are standard therapies for HF, although more than 10% of patients with HF are unable to tolerate these agents. Furthermore, ACE inhibitors may not provide complete blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the long term. Because angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may block the RAS more completely than ACE inhibitors and are better tolerated, several large-scale ARB trials have been performed exploring their potential role in treating patients with symptomatic HF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study (ELITE II) demonstrated no significant differences in morbidity and mortality between the ARB losartan and the ACE inhibitor captopril among elderly patients with HF. The Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT) demonstrated reductions in hospitalizations for HF with the ARB valsartan when added to standard HF therapy, with no effect on mortality. Both trials suggested a potential negative interaction between ARB and beta-blocker therapy. The Candesartan in Heart failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program demonstrated significant reductions in morbidity and mortality with the ARB candesartan in patients with HF due to systolic dysfunction, with or without ACE inhibitors and with or without beta blockers. Thus, the addition of ARBs to the treatment regimen of patients with symptomatic HF should be strongly considered.
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We investigated the effects of co-administration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in genetically hyperlipidemic rabbits with our newly developed NO sensor. A total of 36 myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits equally derived (n=6 per group) were treated with 1) vehicle (control), 2) hydralazine (15 mg/kg/d), 3) the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor pitavastatin (P: 0.5 mg/kg/d), 4) the ARB valsartan (V: 5 mg/kg/d), and 5) pitavastatin+valsartan (P+V) together without or 6) with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for 8 weeks. After treatment, acetylcholine (ACh)-induced NO production was measured as a surrogate for endothelium protective function, and vascular peroxynitrite (a product of superoxide and NO) was measured for assessing dysfunctional endothelial NO synthase activity. Plaque area was quantified by histology as well as optical coherence tomography (OCT). Intra-aortic infusion of ACh produced an increase in plasma NO concentration, which was significantly greater with all drug treatments than with the control. P+V increased ACh-induced NO by 4.1 nmol/L significantly more than either P or V singly. The vascular peroxynitrite concentration was 1.6 pmol/mg protein in the control group and significantly less than those in the P- and V-monotherapy-groups. The lowest peroxynitrite concentration was observed in the P+V group (0.4 pmol/mg protein), which was significantly lower than those in the P- and the V-monotherapy-groups. OCT and histology of the thoracic aorta revealed that the plaque area decreased significantly more with the combination than with the monotherapy. In conclusion, the combined treatment with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor and an ARB may have additive protective effects on endothelial function as well as atherosclerotic change.
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A highly efficient catalytic system for C-H activation has been worked out that involves inexpensive RuCl(3)·xH(2)O and a specific amount of PPh(3). This procedure has been successfully applied to a practical synthesis of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). The residual ruthenium that existed in the reaction mixture was thoroughly removed by treatment with properly selected metal scavengers. The new process permits ready access to the important class of drugs in a highly atom-economical and sustainable manner.
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Cardiovascular peptides such as angiotensin II (Ang II) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) have metabolic effects on adipose cells. These peptides might also regulate adipocyte proliferation and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) expansion. Well-differentiated and stabilized primary cultures of human visceral mature adipocytes (MA) and in vitro-differentiated preadipocytes (DPA) were used as a model to study regulation of VAT expansion.
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PAN in vivo impacts the expressions of miRNAs in renal tissues, intervenes the expressions of nephrin, podocin and synaptopodin in podocytes, damages podocyte structures and functions and generates proteinuria by means of differential expression of dicer enayme/miRNAs. LZC can reduce proteinuria in PAN nephropathy model rats. Its mechanism may intervene dicer enayme/miRNAs differential expression, regulate nephrin, podocin and synaptopodin in podocytes and improve podocyte structures and functions.
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Repolarization alternans, which can be detected clinically as microvolt-level T-wave alternans (TWA), is considered an important mechanism underlying the initiation of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) linked to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Recently, the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors have been suggested to have potential benefits in reducing SCD as well as heart failure death with chronic heart failure (CHF). In this study, we tested the acute effects of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), valsartan, on the development of TWA and the heart rate at which TWA appeared (onset heart rate; OHR). Fifty consecutive patients with CHF underwent TWA measurement. Patients with positive TWA were administered valsartan (80 mg/day) orally for 3 days. Alternans voltage in the vector magnitude lead (Valt) and the OHR were compared before and after the drug exposure. TWA was positive in 19 patients (38%), negative in 16 (32%), and indeterminate in 15 (30%). Nineteen patients with positive TWA received valsartan. However, 3 patients were withdrawn due to adverse drug reactions. In all the remaining 16 patients, markedly reduced Valt (6.1 +/- 3.8 microV to 2.5 +/- 1.9 microV; P = 0.002) and increased OHR (94 +/- 9 beats/min to 102 +/- 9 beats/min; p = 0.002) were observed. In particular, 3 patients became TWA negative. These results suggest that the RAS inhibitors prevent SCD by the improvement of repolarization abnormality.
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Mean age was 59.3 ± 12.0 years, 963 (62%) were men, and 1045 (67%) had longstanding hypertension. Clinic attendance dropped from 91 (week 6) to 83% (week 26) and pharmacological instructions were followed for 93% (baseline) to 61% at week 14 (uptitration failures commonly representing protocol deviations). Overall, 26-week BP levels and BP target attainment ranged from 132 ± 14/79 ± 9 and 51% to 141 ± 15/83 ± 11 mmHg and 19% in those participants subject to the highest (n = 270, 26%) versus least (n = 148, 14%) per protocol adherence, respectively; adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.22 per unit protocol adherence score, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.31; for achieving BP target (P < 0.001). Participants with a per protocol score of 4 or 5 (512/1038, 49.3%) were 1.54-fold (95% CI 1.31-1.81; P < 0.001) more likely to achieve their individual BP target compared with usual care. Clinics equipped with a practice nurse significantly influenced protocol adherence (adjusted RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.37; P = 0.004) and individual BP control (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04-1.41; P = 0.015).
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Subjects with hypertension (SBP>140 or DBP>90, n = 26 including 21 blacks) were studied in a 3-way, double-blind, randomized crossover study. After 4 weeks of each drug (V 320, N 40, or V/N 320/40 mg daily), ambulatory pulse wave analysis (IEM MobilOGraph) was performed every 20 min for 24-hour with primary (ACRPP) and secondary endpoints analyzed by sequential paired t-analysis. SL = ACRPP/heart rate.