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In total, 146 patients [placebo (n = 23), WLT (n = 39), tolterodine (n = 41) and WLT plus tolterodine (n = 43)] completed 8 weeks of treatment. Compared to those treated with placebo, patients in three intervention groups showed significant improvements in the OABSS, voiding frequency, average voided volume and urgency incontinence. WLT had a slower onset than tolterodine or combination therapy in reducing urgency incontinence. Compared with tolterodine, WLT had a weaker effect in improving OABSS (P = 0.022) and daily voiding frequency (P = 0.034). The combination therapy had better efficacy than WLT or tolterodine alone in improving the OABSS, voiding frequency and voided volume. No significant differences in the changes in quality of life scores were observed among the three intervention groups. Residual urine increased significantly in tolterodine group (P = 0.004), but not in combination group. WLT resulted in fewer adverse effects than tolterodine such as dry mouth (P = 0.002), weak stream (P = 0.002) and less residual urine (P < 0.001).
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The aim of the present study was to use an animal model of interstitial cystitis (IC) in order to investigate the histology and function of the bladder, with a particular focus on mast cell degranulation and response to detrusor overactivity (DO) to tolterodine. A total of 18 female Sprague‑Dawley rats were used. In 12 rats, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was intravesically instilled following the induction of IC by protamine sulfate (PS) and six rats were subjected to sham instillations. Following 1 month, cystometry was performed. The effects of tolterodine were tested in half of the animals with IC. All rats in the IC group demonstrated DO during the filling phase and no significant changes in the frequency or pressure compared with that following tolterodine injection were identified. Histological examination revealed a significant increase in the total number of infiltrated mast cells in IC rats compared with that in the sham rats (P<0.05). Degranulated mast cells were evident in 80% of rats with IC; however, they were not apparent in the sham rats. Urinary bladder inflammation, similar to that in human IC in terms of degranulated mast cells and bladder function, was induced in rats. The animal model used in the present study provided insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ineffectiveness of anticholinergics in patients with overlapping IC and overactive bladder (OAB).
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A prospective, double blind, double-dummy, two-arm, parallel-group, 12-week study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of solifenacin 5 or 10 mg and tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg once daily in OAB patients. After 4 weeks of treatment patients had the option to request a dose increase but were dummied throughout as approved product labelling only allowed an increase for those on solifenacin.
Improvements in urge incontinence episodes were similar for the children who received tolterodine or oxybutynin. Improvements in the urodynamic parameters were also the same in the two groups. Adverse events were significantly lower in the tolterodine group (13 events in 13 patients) compared to the oxybutynin group (27 events in 20 patients; P=0.027).
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These results suggest that 12 weeks of low-dose tolterodine ER add-on therapy is similar to standard-dose tolterodine ER add-on therapy in terms of efficacy and safety for patients experiencing residual storage symptoms after receiving α-blocker monotherapy.
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We identiﬁed six publications that strictly met our eligibility criteria. Meta-analysis of extractable data showed that mirabegron was more effective than placebo in treating OAB despite different drug dosages in the efficacy end points: mean number of incontinence episodes per 24 h (MD -0.54; 95% CI -0.63, -0.45; p = 0.001), mean number of micturitions per 24 h (MD -0.55; 95% CI -0.63, -0.47; p = 0.001), OAB-q (MD -4.49; 95% CI -6.27, -2.71; p = 0.001) and adverse events (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.83, 1.19; p = 0.92). When compared to tolterodine, mirabegron was more effective in terms of mean number of incontinence episodes per 24 h (MD -0.25; 95% CI -0.43, -0.06; p = 0.009). However, there were no differences between mirabegron and tolterodine in mean number of micturitions per 24 h (MD -0.17; 95% CI -0.35, 0.01; p = 0.07) and OAB-q (MD -1.09; 95% CI -2.51, 0.33; p = 0.13). Mirabegron also had a lower adverse reaction rate (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.8, 1.0; p = 0.04).
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Tolterodine 2 mg bid is equally or more effective than oxybutynin 5 mg bid in the treatment of Asian patients with overactive bladder, and shows significantly better tolerability. This may enhance compliance during long-term treatment.
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Although the etiology of SIADH is often obscure and multifactorial, clinicians should be aware that it is a major cause of hyponatremia among hospitalized elderly patients, and drug therapies must always be evaluated to prevent further complications.
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By weeks 2 and 12, all active-treatment groups showed significant improvements in all five bladder diary variables assessed and greater Treatment Response rates vs placebo. Fesoterodine 8 mg was significantly more efficacious than fesoterodine 4 mg and tolterodine ER in improving urgency urinary incontinence episodes and continent days per week. The most common adverse events were dry mouth and constipation, which were predominately mild or moderate.
Patients who completed a 12-week randomized, double-blind, safety and efficacy trial comparing tolterodine with placebo were invited to enroll in a 12-month open-label continuation trial to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of tolterodine. This study reports the HRQoL results from the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) that were administered at baseline, at the end of the 12-week trial, and 3 and 12 months following open-label treatment with tolterodine.
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Patients on transdermal oxybutynin or long-acting tolterodine for their OAB symptoms showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement, results that were documented in both 3-day and 7-day bladder diaries. However, compared with 7-day symptom records, 3-day diaries were associated with significantly better compliance with record-keeping (P < 0.001).
Of the 144 patients, 76 (53%) were diagnosed as having BOO and 68 (47%) BOO + OAB. The patients with BOO + OAB were older (P < 0.05) and had a higher International Prostate Symptom Score. After 3 months of treatment with doxazosin, 60 (79%) with BOO and 24 (35%) BOO + OAB reported a symptomatic improvement. In those patients with no improvement, six of 16 with BOO and 32 of 44 (73%) with BOO + OAB improved after adding tolterodine. Acute urinary retention developed in only two of 60 men (3.3%) treated with the combined therapy.
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A Markov model with six health states was developed to follow a cohort of OAB patients treated with either solifenacin or oxybutynin during a 1-year period. Costs and utilities were accumulated as patients transited through the health states in the model and a drop-out state. Some of the solifenacin patients were titrated from 5 mg to 10 mg/day at 8 weeks. A proportion of drop-out patients were assumed to continue treatment with tolterodine ER. Utility values were obtained from a Swedish study and pad use was based on a multinational clinical trial. Adherence rates for individual treatments were derived from a U.K. database study. For pad use and utility values, the drop-out state was split between those patients who were no longer receiving treatment and those on second-line therapy. Patients on second-line therapy who drop-out were referred for a specialist visit. Results were expressed in terms of incremental cost-utility ratios.
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OAB women have higher severity of autonomic dysfunction with sympathetic predominance. Tolterodine may improve arterial stiffness but may deteriorate autonomic dysfunction to more sympathetic predominance. Thus, tolteridine should be used for OAB with caution in women with preexisting symptoms of autonomic dysfunction.
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To assess the efficacy and tolerability of fesoterodine 8 mg versus tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) stratified by age (<65, 65-74, and ≥75 years).
To determine whether cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is involved in the metabolism of tolterodine by investigating potential differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic (heart rate, accommodation, and salivation) of tolterodine and its 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite between poor metabolizers and extensive metabolizers of debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine).
A 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
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Men aged ≥ 50 years with total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS-T) ≥ 8, total prostate volume (TPV) ≥ 20 mL, IPSS quality of life (QOL) index ≥ 2, IPSS voiding to storage (IPSS-V/S) subscore ratio ≤ 1, and post-void residual (PVR) ≤ 250 mL were recruited into a prospective open-label study. All men received tolterodine ER (4 mg) daily. Global response assessment (GRA) ≥ 1 after treatment was considered successful treatment and an indication for continued antimuscarinic monotherapy.
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Muscarinic antagonists such as tolterodine are the treatment of choice for overactive bladder (OAB). We determined the impact of concomitant stress incontinence (SI) on the therapeutic effects of tolterodine in patients with OAB with and without concomitant SI.
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Both tolterodine formulations were effective and well tolerated in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.