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Juvenile myoclonus epilepsy (JME) is a common epileptic syndrome, the etiology of which is genetically determined. Its onset occurs from 6 through 22 years of age, and affected patients present with myoclonic jerks, often associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures - the most common association - and absence seizures. JME is non-progressive, and there are no abnormalities on clinical examination or intellectual deficits. Psychiatric disorders may coexist. Generalized polyspike-and-waves are the most characteristic electroencephalographic pattern. Usual neuroimaging studies show no abnormalities. Atypical presentations should be entertained, as they are likely to induce misdiagnosis. Prevention of precipitating factors and therapy with valproic acid (VPA) are able to control seizures in the great majority of patients. Whenever VPA is judged to be inappropriate, other antiepileptic drugs such as lamotrigine may be considered. Treatment should not be withdrawn, otherwise recurrences are frequent.
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Ten individuals with bipolar disorder and 10 with schizoaffective disorder received quetiapine therapy. Overall, patients improved, with significant improvement in BPRS (p < .001), YMRS (p = .043), and HAM-D scores (p = .002). Simpson-Angus score also significantly decreased (p = .02). Overall. quetiapine was well tolerated by patients in this group with serious mood disorders. The mean +/- SD quetiapine dose was 202.9 +/- 124.3 mg/day (range, 50-400 mg/day). Mean weight gain was 10.9 lb (4.9 kg).
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Significant increases in serum levels and decreases in hair copper levels have been previously described in epileptic patients treated with anticonvulsant drugs. A condition not directly related to copper nutriture, such as chronic treatment with these drugs, could increase the serum concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin and would mask a possible copper deficiency produced by drug-increased biliary copper excretion. Serum immunoreactive ceruloplasmin concentration and its oxidase activity were determined in 90 adult epileptic patients treated with phenobarbital (n=60), phenytoin (n=70), carbamazepine (n=33) and valproic acid (n=8). The levels of ceruloplasmin and oxidase activity were significantly higher (P<0.001) than in an age and gender-matched control group (n=49). The significant correlations (P<0.01) between ceruloplasmin and the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid, serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and drug score in the patients group, would suggest that phenobarbital-type enzyme-inducing agents may increase the hepatic synthesis of ceruloplasmin. In 11 patients with a beta-globulin migrating GGT isoform (GGT3), a sensitive marker of cholestasis, the levels of ceruloplasmin, oxidase activity and total GGT activity were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the group of 79 patients without the GGT3 isoform; consequently, in some cases a drug-induced cholestasis may also contribute to the increase of serum copper and ceruloplasmin. The values obtained for the specific oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin (activity per unit mass of enzyme protein) suggest that in the most of the cases, chronic administration of phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine or valproic acid, does not produce marginal or moderate copper deficiency.
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LTG was the best, OXC was better than VPA only, while VPA was the worst. The others were equivalent for comparisons between five AEDs regarding the long-term treatment outcomes of monotherapy for adult patients with focal epilepsy in a clinical practice. For selecting AEDs for these patients among the first-line drugs, LTG is an appropriate first choice; others are reservation in the first-line but VPA is not.
The study of the serum lipase and total amylase and its isoenzymes as biochemical markers of pancreatic injury in patients treated with valproic acid and other enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs.
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Long-term antiepileptic drug (AED) use causes multiple abnormalities in calcium and bone metabolism that have been most extensively described in institutionalized patients. The objective is to determine the effect of AED on vitamin D levels and bone density in ambulatory patients and to compare the effects of enzyme-inducing and -noninducing AED and of single vs multiple therapy on bone density.
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In patients with epilepsy, treatment with valproate (VPA) has been reported to be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome-like symptoms including weight gain, hyperandrogenemia, and hyperinsulinemia. We examined the effect of VPA on androgen biosynthesis in ovarian theca cells isolated from follicles of normal cycling women to determine whether the hyperandrogenemia reported with VPA treatment could be a result of direct effects of VPA on the ovary. In long-term cultures of theca cells treated for 72 h with sodium valproate (30-3000 microm), we observed an increase in basal and forskolin-stimulated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone production compared with control values. In contrast, low doses of VPA treatment (i.e. 30-300 microm) had no effect on basal and forskolin-stimulated progesterone production, whereas higher doses of VPA (1000-3000 microm) inhibited progesterone production. The most pronounced effect of VPA on androgen biosynthesis was observed in the dose range of 300-3000 microm, which represent therapeutic levels in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Western analyses demonstrated that VPA treatment increased both basal and forskolin-stimulated P450c17 and P450scc protein levels, whereas the amount of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein was unaffected. In transient transfection studies, VPA was found to increase P450 17alpha-hydroxylase and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage promoter activity, whereas steroidogenic acute regulatory protein promoter activity was unaffected. Consistent with the ability of VPA to act as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor in other cell systems, VPA (500 microm) treatment was observed to increase histone H3 acetylation and P450 17alpha-hydroxylase mRNA accumulation. The HDAC inhibitor butyric acid (500 microm) similarly increased histone H3 acetylation and DHEA biosynthesis, whereas the VPA derivative valpromide (500 microm), which lacks HDAC inhibitory activity, had no effect on histone acetylation or DHEA biosynthesis. These data suggest that VPA-induced ovarian androgen biosynthesis results from changes in chromatin modifications (histone acetylation) that augment transcription of steroidogenic genes. These studies provide the first biochemical evidence to support a role for VPA in the genesis of polycystic ovary syndrome-like symptoms, and establish a direct link between VPA treatment and increased ovarian androgen biosynthesis.
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VPA affected steroidogenesis in both unstimulated and gonadotropin-stimulated porcine ovarian follicular cells and inhibited the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. In addition, VPA may act as an apoptotic agent in both small and medium-sized follicles.
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To overview the best evidence comparing carbamazepine and valproate monotherapy
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A recent study has demonstrated an inverse correlation between serum valproic acid concentration in adolescents with epilepsy and quality of life, suggesting that cognitive and behavioral effects of anticonvulsants may significantly impact the life of patients with epilepsy and that intensive therapeutic drug monitoring may have a role in both reducing seizure frequency and improving health-related quality of life.
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The intravenous application of VPA seems to be an easy-to-use, safe and efficient formulation as an alternative to phenytoin in all seizure emergency situations including status epilepticus. Further controlled comparison studies have to be performed in the future.
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We present two children who developed a deficiency of factor XIII with valproate (VPA) treatment. This coagulation disorder has not been described in association with VPA treatment in children, and only very recently in one adult patient.
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A total of 12 VHE patients diagnosed after an application of valproate were recruited from January 2010 to April 2013. The characteristics of clinical manifestations and laboratory examinations were retrospectively analyzed.
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Valproic acid (VPA) is a small fatty acid used for treatment of different neurologic diseases such as epilepsy, migraines or bipolar disorders. VPA modulates different processes of cell metabolism that can lead to alterations in susceptibility of several cell types to the infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as to exert an inhibitory effect on the replication of different enveloped viruses in cultured cells. Taken these data into account and the fact that HSV-1 has been involved in some neuropathies, we have characterized the effect of VPA on this herpesvirus infection of the differentiation/maturation-inducible human oligodendrocyte cell line HOG, which resulted more susceptible to VPA inhibition of virus growth after cell differentiation. In these cells, the role of VPA in virus entry was tackled. Incubation with VPA induced a slight but reproducible inhibition in the virus particles uptake mainly observed when the drug was added in the adsorption or early upon infection. In addition, transcription and expression of viral proteins were significantly downregulated in the presence of VPA. Remarkably, when the infective viral production was assessed, VPA dramatically blocked the detection of infectious HSV-1 particles. Herein, our results indicate that VPA treatment of HOG cells significantly reduces the effect of HSV-1 infection, virus entry and productivity without affecting cellular viability.
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Demographic information, primary indication for AED, comorbid conditions, prescribing physician's specialty, concomitant medications, and AED dosage regimen information were collected. Laboratory tests obtained in the most recent 6 months and seizure occurrence and seizure-related diagnostic assessments made in the most recent 3 months were also recorded.
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There were no significant changes in the 4 groups on Day 30. On Day 180, the amplitudes of a- and b-waves of dark-adapted (DA) ERGs were reduced in the PHT group compared with those of the control group. In the VPA group, the amplitudes of the DA ERG a- and b-waves, light-adapted ERG b-wave and the DA VEP were reduced. No significant changes were observed in the ZNS group. There were no histopathological changes of the retina and visual cortex in all groups.
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Although not all results for PTM with carbamazepine and valproic acid are within the commutability decision limits, a preference for human serum can be seen.
Comparison of the change in median VAS scores over 60 minutes revealed that sodium valproate was significantly less effective than prochlorperazine in reducing pain or nausea (P <.001). Median improvements in VAS pain scores (binomial confidence intervals) were as follows: 64.5 mm (48.1 to 75.6 mm) for prochlorperazine versus 9 mm (-3 to 39.6 mm) for sodium valproate. Median improvements in VAS nausea scores were as follows: 35.5 mm (13.2 to 47.9 mm) for prochlorperazine versus 2 mm (-1.3 to 11 mm) for sodium valproate. There was no significant difference (P =.603) detected in the median changes in VAS scores for sedation: -4 mm (-29.9 to 8.6 mm) for prochlorperazine versus 0 mm (-6.6 to 6 mm) for sodium valproate. Comparison of the mean VAS time curves for pain and nausea also demonstrated a significant difference (both P <.001) but not for sedation (P =.232). In post hoc analysis, valproate failed to elicit significant improvement in pain or nausea scores over time, whereas prochlorperazine improved pain by 30 minutes (P <.001) and nausea by 15 minutes (P =.002). At the conclusion of the study, 15 (79%) of 19 patients receiving valproate required rescue treatment compared with 5 (25%) of 20 patients receiving prochlorperazine (P <.001).
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A >50% reduction in seizure frequency was observed in three of 20 patients given VPA and in four of 17 patients given LTG. Of the remaining 13 patients, four became seizure free, and an additional four experienced seizure reductions of 62-78% when VPA and LTG were given in combination. Mild tremor was observed in three patients receiving VPA and in all patients taking the VPA--LTG combination. In patients responding to combination therapy, optimized dosages and peak serum levels of both VPA and LTG were lower than those during separate administration.
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DRESS syndrome (skin reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is an idiosyncratic drug reaction characterized by rash, fever, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ dysfunction. This case report is on a patient with bipolar affective disorder who presented with a systemic inflammatory response associated with the use of valproic acid, and an important activation of symptoms when used with other drugs with a different pharmacological action mechanism. The diagnosis of DRESS syndrome is primarily by exclusion, and its detection may be difficult, which could potentially become fatal for the patient.
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In the first evaluation, the mean serum thyroid hormone concentrations were lower in the girls taking CBZ [thyroxine (T4), 70.2; SD, 10.9 nM; and free thyroxine (FT4), 11.5; SD, 1.8 pM] or OXC (T4, 74.9; SD, 16.4 nM; and FT4, 11.3; SD, 1.8 pM) than in the control girls (T4, 96.6; SD, 15.1 nM, and FT4, 14.4; SD, 1.5 pM; p < 0.001, all comparisons). However, thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations were normal in the girls taking CBZ or OXC. Sixty-three% of the girls taking CBZ and 67% of the girls taking OXC had serum T4 and/or FT4 levels below the lower limit of the reference range. The VPA-treated girls with epilepsy had normal serum T4 and FT4 concentrations, but slightly increased TSH levels (3.3; SD, 1.5 mU/L; p < 0.01) compared with the control girls (2.5; SD, 1.0 mU/L). Normal serum hormone concentrations were restored in the patients who discontinued the medication.
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The use of valproic acid (VPA) (also known as Depakote, Depakene, and others) frequently results in elevated plasma ammonia. In some people, hyperammonemia may be clinically significant, resulting in hyperammonemic encephalopathy, which may be severe. Valproic acid-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy may occur in people with normal liver function, despite normal doses and serum levels of VPA. We describe 2 cases of valproic acid-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy in patients with supratherapeutic VPA levels, although the condition has been described in people with normal VPA levels. With the increasing indications and off-label uses of VPA, family physicians should be aware of this potential complication of VPA and check ammonia levels in patients taking VPA who present with alterations in mental status. Treatment with L-carnitine may be beneficial in reducing ammonia levels.
LTG pharmacokinetics was evaluated using single-dose LTG (25 mg) given before and following low-dose VPA co-medication (125, 250, 375, 500 mg per day VPA) in healthy subjects. Serial blood samples were obtained over 120 h post-dose in order to calculate LTG kinetic parameters including area under the concentration-time curve, apparent oral clearance, elimination half-life and percent inhibition of LTG clearance at each dosage level of VPA. Pharmacodynamic modeling was used to calculate EC(50) values for this interaction.
A total of 770 steady-state serum concentration samples was analysed. These were collected during VPA therapy from 255 children, aged 0.1-14 years and weighting 4-74 kg. Age, total body weight (TBW), VPA daily dose, sex and comedication with carbamazepine (CBZ) were considered as covariates. Population analysis was made with NONMEM program, assuming a one-compartment model, fixing the VPA absorption rate, bioavailability and distribution volume at values found in the literature. The results of the population pharmacokinetics analysis were validated in a group of 45 epileptic patients.