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Cleocin

Generic Cleocin is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of serious infections caused by certain bacteria. Generic Cleocin acts by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Clinda derm, Clindagel, Clindets

 

Also known as:  Clindamycin.

Description

Generic Cleocin is a perfect remedy in struggle against serious infections caused by certain bacteria.

Generic Cleocin acts by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.

Cleocin is also known as Clindamycin, Clindatec, Dalacin, Clinacin, Evoclin.

Generic name of Generic Cleocin is Clindamycin Capsules.

Brand name of Generic Cleocin is Cleocin.

Dosage

Take Generic Cleocin orally with or without food.

Take Generic Cleocin with a full glass of water.

Use Generic Cleocin at the same time each day.

Do not stop taking Generic Cleocin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Cleocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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The most common side effects associated with Cleocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not use Generic Cleocin if you are allergic to Generic Cleocin components or to to tartrazine.

Be very careful if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Try to be very careful with Generic Cleocin if it is given to children younger than 10 years old who have diarrhea or an infection of the stomach or bowel. Elderly patient should use Generic Cleocin with caution.

Be sure to use Generic Cleocin for the full course of treatment.

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The widespread use of antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infections has lead to the emergence of resistant human pathogens. Great differences have been documented between European countries in the use of systemic antibiotics. In parallel, significant differences in levels of resistant pathogens have been documented. In order to investigate whether differences in antibiotic use influence the level of antimicrobial resistance of the subgingival microflora, microorganisms from the subgingival plaque of untreated patients with adult periodontitis in The Netherlands (n = 30) and Spain (n = 31) were compared. Blood agar plates containing breakpoint concentrations of penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin and clavulanate, metronidazole, erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were used to determine the proportion of bacteria from the subgingival plaque that was resistant to these antibiotics. In the Spanish patients, statistically significant higher mean levels of resistance were found for penicillin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, clindamycin and tetracycline. The mean number of different bacterial species growing on the selective plates was higher in the Spanish patients, as was the percentage of resistant strains of most periodontal pathogens. A striking difference was observed in the frequency of occurrence of tetracycline-resistant periodontal pathogens. In Spain, 5 patients had > 3 tetracycline resistant periodontal pathogens, whereas this was not observed in any of the Dutch patients. It is concluded that the widespread use of antibiotics in Spain is reflected in the level of resistance of the subgingival microflora of adult patients with periodontitis.

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Oxacillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole did not rescue host cells from cell death induced by intracellular S. aureus. In contrast, linezolid, rifampicin, azithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin suppressed the cytotoxic action of S. aureus. After withdrawal of antibiotics, intracellular S. aureus regained cytotoxic activity and killed their host cells. Only rifampicin was able to eliminate intracellular S. aureus completely within 72 h. In contrast, clindamycin, azithromycin and linezolid induced a state of intracellular persistence of viable S. aureus.

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Retrospective analysis of University HealthSystem Consortium data.

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Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are frequently isolated from blood cultures in critically ill neonates. However, Staphylococcus capitis is rarely reported as a pathogen in human beings. From January, 1995 to December, 1997 at a tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), a total of 147 (62%) CNS isolates were detected from 236 positive blood cultures, including 27 isolates of S. capitis. Among the S. capitis bacteremia, 17 isolates were judged to be infections as opposed to 10 of the noninfection cultures. The occurrence of S. capitis infection was correlated with long hospital stay (52 +/- 17.6 days vs. 28 +/- 18.5 days, p=0.003) and total parenteral nutrition administration (46 +/- 17.4 days vs. 22 +/- 19.1 days, p=0.006). Apnea, bradycardia, temperature instability and poor activity were the predominant clinical features. Among the 17 episodes of bacteremia, one patient had complicated septic meningitis. There is no statistical significance between S. capitis infection and the duration of a central venous catheter placement (37 +/- 17.5 days vs. 26 +/- 19.5 days, p=0.165). No catheter related infection was proven. Removal of a percutaneous central venous catheter routinely in patients with S. capitis bacteremia is not recommended. All the patients survived after antibiotic treatment. The prevalence rate of multiple resistant S. capitis was 94%. All isolates were resistant to oxacillin, erythromycin and clindamycin but susceptible to ampicillin/sulbactam, vancomycin and teicoplanin. Empiric therapy for S. capitis infection in NICU with ampicillin/sulbactam is therefore recommended. It is important to detect S. capitis which has a high degree of antibiotic resistance in order to treat the patient correctly. S. capitis should be included as etiology and the possibility of nosocomial outbreak in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants at NICU.

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Relapse of brain toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients continue to occur despite maintenance therapy. The characteristics of 15 patients who experienced a relapse were reviewed. Mean delay of relapse was 7 months (2-20). Maintenance therapy for the 2 months prior to the relapse was pyrimethamine alone (n = 4), pyrimethamine plus dapsone (n = 3), pyrimethamine plus spiramycine (n = 1), pyrimethamine plus clindamycine (n = 4), pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine (n = 1) and no treatment (n = 2). Strict compliance was ascertained for only 5 patients. Compared with the first episode of brain toxoplasmosis, all 15 patients had new neurological signs, and new lesions of the brain were detected by CT scan in 67% patients. This study showed that poor compliance to maintenance therapy is a major factor of relapse, and the less favourable response to acute therapy could be due to progression of immunodeficiency.

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133 cows with mild or moderate mastitis in a single quarter.

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Spiramycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has inferior in-vitro activity to erythromycin, but superior tissue penetration. Recent publications have suggested that the in-vivo activity of spiramycin should be re-assessed. The efficacy of clindamycin, erythromycin and spiramycin was compared against Staphylococcus aureus infections in the rat croton oil pouch model. The concentration of spiramycin in the pouch fluid was lower than the concentration of clindamycin or erythromycin after single or multiple intraperitoneal injections. In contrast, the concentration of spiramycin in the pouch wall (73.3 +/- 14.5 micrograms/g) was markedly higher than that of erythromycin (less than 7.5 micrograms/g). Multiple doses of spiramycin had no significant effect upon bacterial growth in the pouch, whereas clindamycin and erythromycin had a significant bactericidal effect. The results suggest that spiramycin is bound to tissues, diffuses poorly into tissue fluid and may therefore be ineffective against infections in large collections of tissue fluid.

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Clinical effects of combined use of aztreonam (AZT), amikacin (AMK) and clindamycin (CLDM) in 46 cases with infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology were retrospectively studied in 2 groups, and the following results were obtained. 1. No significant difference in efficacy rates was noted between AZT plus CLDM treated group (n = 25) and AMK plus CLDM treated group (n = 21) (96.0% vs. 95.2%), while rate of excellent efficacy was slightly higher in AZT plus CLDM group than AMK plus CLDM group (24.0% vs. 14.3%). 2. No significant difference in bacteriological clinical effects was also noted between the 2 groups, while bacteriological eradication rate was higher in the AZT plus CLDM group than in the other group (76.2% vs. 50.0%), and the difference was particularly clear in the eradication rates of aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria (88.9% vs. 30.0%). 3. Subjective and objective side effects, and abnormalities of clinical test results were not found in either group.

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We determined biotypes, genotypes, the occurrence of plasmids, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of 19 clinical C. diphtheriae strains. Genotypes were determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) techniques.

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During the last few decades, group B Streptococcus (GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen. The major reservoirs for GBS are the vagina and the peri-anal regions/rectum, and the colonization of these regions is a risk factor for subsequent infection in pregnant women and newborns.

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To evaluate a larger number of patients receiving a vancomycin-dosing regimen of 20 mg/kg IV every 8 h for Group B streptococcus (GBS) chemoprophylaxis and analyze maternal and neonatal cord blood levels at delivery.

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Many studies have noted an increase in the number of recognized cases of invasive infections due to Propionibacterium acnes, especially after shoulder replacement surgery. The increase in the number of recognized cases of P. acnes, a nonspore-forming, anaerobic, Gram-positive organism, appears due to both an increase in the number of shoulder operations being performed and more specimens being sent for anaerobic cultures. Nevertheless, the optimal surgical and antibiotic management of P. acnes remains controversial.

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S. aureus two hours survival rates in polymorphonuclear leukocytes were 13.5 +/- 4.4 x 10(6), 10.5 +/- 4.0 x 10(6), 11.0 +/- 4.0 x 10(6), using polymorphonuclear leukocytes from controls and patients, with control and autologous sera respectively (p greater than 0.05). We have observed a bactericidal activity defect in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from one patient and in the sera of 7 other patients. The incubation with clindamycin (10 MIC) reduces the number of cfu/ml to 2.1 +/- 0.9 x 10(6), 1.1 +/- 0.7 x 10(6) y 1.9 +/- 1.1 x 10(6), and we also detected and additional inhibition of 81.7 +/- 7%, 70.7 +/- 17% and 79.0 +/- 4% respectively.

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The patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 10 days followed by 3 weeks of oral medications. The wounds healed spontaneously with an excellent result.

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A patient with acroangiodermatitis was presented and the differential diagnosis discussed. Examination of the patella of the affected area showed grayish-blue to brown infiltrates and reduced elasticity, located in the supra- and infrapatellar regions. Clinically, Kaposi's sarcoma was suspected. Histopathologically there were acanthosis and compact hyperkeratosis. The underlying papillary dermis showed fibrosis and edema. A subepidermal lobular vascular proliferation with hemosiderin deposition was also noted. This consisted of multiple newly formed capillaries, featuring small blood vessels with dilated, rounded lumina. Serologies for HIV and Borrelia burgdorferi were negative, as was a HHV-8 PCR in lesional tissue. Doppler analysis of the vessels of the extremities showed chronic venous insufficiency, insufficiency of v. perforantes, insufficiency of the Cockett II-III. No deep thromboses in the area of the shank and thigh were found. Initially, treatment consisted of clindamycin 600 mg 3 times per day, intravenously, during a 2-week period. After that the treatment was continued with prednisolone, 30 mg daily in combination with furosemide 40 mg/day, as well as lymph drainage and adequate compression therapy. The consequent clinical improvement allowed the patient to be discharged from the clinic.

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A total of 57 out of 301 (18.9%) fresh and smoked fish samples in Poland were positive for Listeria monocytotgenes. The bacteria were most frequently identified in fresh and smoked salmon (32.0% and 33.8% respectively) as well as in fresh cod (31.8%). Only three samples of smoked salmon were contaminated with the bacteria above 100 CFU/g. Four molecular serogroups were identified and the most prevalent, 1/2a-3a (40 isolates; 70.2%), was present in samples from both marine (33 strains; 71.7%) and freshwater fish (7 isolates; 63.6%). Similar duality of prevalence was observed only for L. monocytogenes of 1/2b-3b-7 serogroup (14 strains; 24.6%), which was identified in 11 (23.9%) marine and 3 (27.3%) freshwater fish. All isolates harboured 10 virulence-associated genes (inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, lmo2672, plcA, plcB, hlyA, actA, and mpl) and most of them (56; 98.2%) also possessed the flaA marker. Several strains displayed resistance to oxacillin (33; 57.9%), ceftriaxone (18; 31.6%), or clindamycin (5; 8.8%), and two isolates of serogroup 1/2a-3a showed multiresistance to all three. Genetic subtyping showed the presence of different pulsotypes belonging to six PFGE clusters. The obtained results provide useful information regarding fish contamination with L. monocytogenes which may have implications for public health.

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The detection of inducible clindamycin resistance was performed by D-test using erythromycin and clindamycin discs as per CDC guidelines.

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We describe three cases of community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia which were caused by Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus (one of them methicillin sensitive). All cases were successfully treated without any sequelae for the patients due to the prompt initiation of adequate antimicrobial therapy. High suspicion toward this fatal pathogen was the key to the successful outcome of the patients.

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We surveyed methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococcus (MRCPS) strains from 57 (26 inpatient and 31 outpatient) dogs and 20 veterinary staff in a veterinary teaching hospital. From the staff, three MRCPS strains were isolated, and two were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In contrast, 18 MRCPS strains were detected in both inpatient (12 of 26 [46.2%]) and outpatient (6 of 31 [19.4%]) dogs. Among them, only one strain was MRSA. Using direct sequencing of sodA and hsp60 genes, the 18 MRCPS strains other than MRSA from a staff and 17 dogs, were finally identified as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, a novel species of Staphylococcus from a cat. All of the methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) strains were multidrug resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. Most of the MRSP strains showed high-level resistance to oxacillin (>/=128 mug/ml, 15 of 18 [83.3%]), and 10 of 15 (66.7%) high-level oxacillin-resistant MRSP strains carried type III SCCmec. DNA fingerprinting of MRSP strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielded eight clusters: clone A with four subtypes, clone B with four subtypes, clone C with three subtypes, and five other different single clones. MRSP strains from the staff and some inpatient and outpatient dogs shared three major clones (clones A, B, and C), but the strains of the other five different clusters were distributed independently among inpatient or outpatient dogs. This genetic diversity suggested that the MRSP strains were not only acquired in this veterinary teaching hospital but also acquired in primary veterinary clinics in the community. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MRSP in dogs and humans in a veterinary institution.

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Preterm deliveries, precipitous labor and GBS negatively screened mothers were the prominent causes for an inadequate or lack of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis and EOD occurrence. The superimposable serotype distribution of GBS strains from EOD and from antenatal screening confirmed the vertical transmission from mother to neonate as the cause of disease. On the contrary, late-onset disease was almost exclusively caused by the internationally diffused clonal complex 17. Erythromycin resistance was detected in 17% of strains. Resistance to clindamycin was 15.3 %.

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To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first documentation of the treatment and outcome of C. bigenetica cutaneous infection in a dog. Although remission of clinical signs can be achieved with combination therapy of clindamycin and TMS, long-term management is challenging and relapses should be anticipated.

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Pancreatic sepsis in acute pancreatitis is the most lethal complication of the disease. This study was done to create a rational basis for the choice of antibiotics used in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. We postulated that, unless the antibiotics were present in therapeutic concentrations in the pancreatic tissue during pancreatitis, their use was of no value. Six mongrel dogs were used to test each antibiotic, each dog acting as its own control. The doses were based on the weight of the dogs: 15.0 milligrams per kilogram of clindamycin; 50.0 milligrams per kilogram of chloramphenicol; 10.0 milligrams per kilogram of metronidazole; 5.0 milligrams per kilogram of gentamicin; 12.5 milligrams per kilogram of cefazolin, and 50.0 milligrams per kilogram of ampicillin. Baseline serum and pancreatic tissue levels were obtained after intravenous injection of the antibiotics. Bile-trypsin hemorrhagic pancreatitis was induced one week later, and the serum and pancreatic tissue level antibiotics were measured again. The results showed significant differences in bioactive levels of antibiotics between blood and the pancreas. Ampicillin, gentamicin and cefazolin reached therapeutic blood levels, but did not achieve a parallel therapeutic level in the normal pancreatic tissue or during pancreatitis. Only three of the antibiotics tested, clindamycin, metronidazole and chloramphenicol, achieved therapeutic tissue penetrance in the normal and inflamed pancreas. After 1982, based on these results, clindamycin became our prophylactic antibiotic of choice in instances of acute severe pancreatitis. This resulted in the eradication of Bacteroides as a cause of pancreatic sepsis between 1980 and 1985. In 1993, our recommendation is to use a broad-spectrum gram-negative and gram-positive antibiotic with good penetration of the pancreatic tissue, such as cefotaxime or imipenem.

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Therapy with ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and lomefloxacin (alone or in combination with clindamycin) and therapy with sparfloxacin, clinafloxacin, and temafloxacin alone were given to mice with subcutaneous abscesses. The abscesses were caused by two Bacteroides fragilis isolates, one of which was susceptible and one of which was resistant to ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and lomefloxacin, alone or in combination with Escherichia coli. The abscesses were examined 5 days after inoculation. Numbers of B. fragilis organisms reached log10 10.2 to 11.8 per abscess, and numbers of E. coli organisms reached log10 10.6 to 11.8 per abscess. All of the quinolones reduced the number of susceptible B. fragilis isolates (log10 3.6 to 6.9) and E. coli isolates (log10 5.7 to 6.8). However, ciprofloxacin and lomefloxacin failed to reduce the number of resistant B. fragilis organisms in single-organism or mixed infections. The addition of clindamycin to either ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, or lomefloxacin reduced the numbers of both susceptible and resistant B. fragilis organisms (log10 3.8 to 7.8). In contrast, sparfloxacin, clinafloxacin, and temafloxacin were effective as single therapy in eradicating B. fragilis resistant to ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and lomefloxacin. These in vivo data confirm the in vitro activity of these quinolones and suggest that although ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and lomefloxacin are occasionally effective as single agents in eradicating mixed infection by susceptible strains of B. fragilis and E. coli, addition of an agent with activity against anaerobic organisms will ensure their efficacy. Quinolones with good efficacy against B. fragilis may be effective as single-agent therapy of mixed infections.

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cleocin 900 mg 2015-08-16

Bacillus indicus and B. subtilis should be considered safe for buy cleocin oral use although the resistance of B. indicus to clindamycin requires further study.

cleocin 150 mg 2015-03-15

A primigravida at 26 weeks gestation presented with persistent spiking temperature and severe hemolysis. Her presenting signs and symptoms included fever, vomiting, cough, earache, jaundice, dark urine, and anemia. After 4 units of blood, her posttransfusion hematocrit was 29%. Hemolysis was evident on a peripheral blood smear. Total bilirubin was 2.5 mg/dl and direct bilirubin was 1.2 mg/dl. Gentamicin and clindamycin were administered empirically. Stool, blood, and urine cultures were obtained. Blood cultures were positive for S. buy cleocin typhi. Antibiotic coverage was changed to gentamicin and ceftriaxone. She defervesced on the 5th day and had no further problems. A healthy male infant was delivered vaginally at term.

cleocin gel generic 2015-03-02

Emergency department (ED) patients included in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2007-2010 with diagnosis codes for cutaneous abscess or SSTI were filtered using a procedure code for I&D available since 2007. The number of patients with SSTI, the percentage of patients receiving I&D, and the percentage buy cleocin of patients receiving antibiotics were determined. Antibiotics were characterized based on efficacy to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

cleocin ovules dosage 2017-12-20

We report the case of a one-year-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), characterized by a defect in the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) which ingest, but do not kill catalase-positive bacteria such as S. aureus. This well-known observation led us to study the ability of clindamycin, rifampin, co-trimoxazole (TMP-SMX), methicillin and gentamicin to kill intracellular S. aureus in CGD and in normal PMN. Clindamycin killed S. aureus more effectively when these bacteria were intracellular than in the absence of PMN; rifampin was equally active on the same microorganisms in presence and absence of buy cleocin PMN, whereas TMP-SMX, methicillin and gentamicin were less effective in killing intracellular S. aureus. Similar results were obtained in CGD and in normal PMN. These results suggest that clindamycin and rifampin would be a reasonable choice in the treatment of staphylococcal infections in patients with CGD.

cleocin pediatric dosing 2015-12-01

Six infant and 52 adult cases of invasive infection were identified. Diagnosis was limited to bacteremia and meningitis in infants, but varied widely in adults with skin/soft tissue infections and bacteremia being common. The overall fatality rate was 16%. An approximately 2.8-fold increase was found in the incidence among adult patients from the first to the second 5-year period. The most frequent underlying condition was diabetes, with the majority (18/23) of such patients showing poor control (HbA1c >8.0%). Amputation at the knee, ankle, or toes was buy cleocin performed in six diabetic adults with skin/soft tissue infections. Of the strains serotyped, types Ib and III predominated. All 58 strains were susceptible to penicillin; 2% were resistant to erythromycin and 3% were resistant to clindamycin.

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The EMPs in the United States were surveyed between June and December of 2006. Two cases of skin and soft tissue infection were presented, and questions buy cleocin were asked about management.

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We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register buy cleocin (Cochrane Library issue 1, 1999).

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All patients were white. Of 101 patients, 57 (56%) had historical triggers, most frequently diarrhea or antibiotic treatment. Of the 75 women in the control group with vaginal lichen planus, 11 had historical triggers (15%, p <.0001). Of 101 patients, examination revealed classic ecchymotic findings in 55 (54%), confluent erythema in 36 (36%), involvement of the upper vagina in 8 (8%), and heavy discharge in only 2 (2%). Of 101 patients, 54 (54%) had no significant abnormality on laboratory microbiological testing. Moreover, 20 (20%) had a pure growth of a commensal organism on culture, of which 13 were group B streptococci. Of 101 patients, 96 (95%) were symptomatically and objectively improved at initial review. On the other hand, 45 (45%) required maintenance treatment. Of this group, 10 patients who had triggers for their vaginitis, which were ongoing, were cured when their triggers were buy cleocin finally controlled or cured, leaving 35 patients who required long-term maintenance therapy.

cleocin dose 2015-02-25

A cutaneous nodule associated with Neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in a 5-year-old male Bernese cattle dog from Italy. The ulcerative lesion was 2-3 cm wide located in the skin of the tarsal region. Haematological values were normal and the dog did not show any neurological abnormalities. The dermal lesion consisted of a diffuse necrotic dermatitis with a dense infiltrate of mostly neutrophils and macrophages, surrounded by a fibrous wall. Histological sections revealed numerous tachyzoites of N. caninum scattered throughout the tissue. Diagnosis was confirmed both by immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopic examination. The dog had a 1:640 IFAT titre to N. caninum. Four weeks after surgical excision new subcutaneous nodules reappeared buy cleocin . The cutaneous lesions resolved following 21 days of therapy with clindamycin hydrochloride. These observations demonstrate the presence of N. caninum in Italy and confirm that neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pyogranulomatous dermatitis in dogs. Clindamycin may be an effective treatment for cutaneous neosporosis.

cleocin t reviews 2016-11-30

There is buy cleocin a close relationship between anaerobes and combined periodontal-endodontic lesions. Drug sensitive susceptibility should be detected prior to clinical treatment of combined periodontal-endodontic lesions.

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We report the observation of a septic arthritis of the knee complicated within first 36 hours by multiorgan failure including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), buy cleocin heart failure, acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A diagnosis of staphylococcal arthritis was suspected confirmed by direct examination, and culture showed a Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to methicillin. The sample sent to the National Reference Centre for Staphylococci (Lyon, France) for genetic analysis confirmed the isolate positive for the PVL gene expression. The fulminating evolution of a septic S. aureus arthritis in an otherwise healthy man should probably evoke the possibility of LPV strain. Anti-PLV antibiotics with anti-staphylococcal activity, such as clindamycin and linezolid should be started without waiting for typing of the S. aureus strain.

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The experience with neonatal sepsis at The Johns Hopkins Hospital during 1969-1975 was reviewed. Major pathogens included Escherichia coli, group B streptococcus, other streptococci, and Klebsiella. Nineteen percent of coliform isolates were kanamycin-resistant. The frequency of recovery of E. coli was increased in early-onset sepsis buy cleocin , and the frequency of recovery of Klebsiella was increased in late-onset sepsis. The mortality rate was 23%. The frequency of recovery of E. coli was increased in fatal cases, and mortality was highly correlated with the presence of gastrointestinal catastrophe. Ampicillin and gentamicin are the initial antibiotics of choice for neonatal sepsis at this institution; a penicillinase-resistant penicillin should be added when Staphylococcus aureus involvement is likely, and addition of chloramphenicol or clindamycin should be considered for infants at increased risk for Bacteroides fragilis sepsis.

cleocin iv dosage 2017-09-18

Suppurative complications to aspiration pneumonia occur if the initial aspiration and subsequent pneumonitis go unrecognized or untreated. Anaerobic cavitary disease is typically an indolent process, Lipitor Dosage 5mg whereas necrotizing pneumonia is more fulminant and deadly. Rarely are aggressive diagnostic measures necessary in the community-acquired setting. Most patients, even with necrotizing pneumonia, respond well to high-dose penicillin and show clinical improvement within a week to 10 days. Clindamycin may be preferred in cases of severe underlying disease or when penicillin fails to yield signs of recovery. The presence of empyema not only increases the duration of therapy but also is fraught with complications and carries a higher mortality rate (20 vs 5 per cent). Necrotizing pneumonia and pulmonary abscess that develop in the nursing home or hospital setting require a more aggressive diagnostic approach, and broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage is necessary. In spite of these measures and appropriate antibiotic selection, nosocomial-acquired disease carries a mortality rate of 30 to 50 per cent. Surgical intervention, once the mainstay of therapy, is now reserved for patients with complications such as massive hemoptysis, failure to respond to chest tube thoracostomy in the presence of empyema, abscess drainage that fails with postural drainage, and diagnosis of carcinoma.

cleocin drug classification 2016-03-12

The overuse of antibiotics and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is a global concern. This concern is also of importance in terms of the oral microbiota and the use of antibiotics to deal with oral and dental infections. The aim of this paper was to review the current literature on the indications and use of antibiotics and to make recommendations for their prescription in endodontic patients. Odontogenic infections, including endodontic infections, are polymicrobial, and in most cases, the prescription of antibiotics is empirical. This has led to the increasing use of broad-spectrum antibiotics even in cases where antibiotics are not Ivermectin Stromectol Dosage indicated, such as symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, necrotic pulps and localized acute apical abscesses. In case of discrete and localized swelling, the primary aim is to achieve drainage without additional antibiotics. Adjunctive antibiotic treatment may be necessary in the prevention of the spread of infection, in acute apical abscesses with systemic involvement and in progressive and persistent infections. Medically compromised patients are more susceptible to complication arising from odontogenic infections and antimicrobials have a more specific role in their treatment. Therefore, antibiotics should be considered in patients having systemic diseases with compromised immunity or in patients with a localized congenital or acquired altered defence capacity, such as patients with infective endocarditis, prosthetic cardiac valves or recent prosthetic joint replacement. Penicillin VK, possibly combined with metronidazole to cover anaerobic strains, is still effective in most cases. However, amoxicillin (alone or together with clavulanic acid) is recommended because of better absorption and lower risk of side effects. In case of confirmed penicillin allergy, lincosamides such as clindamycin are the drug of choice.

cleocin t gel 2016-02-22

Postpartum endometritis is an important cause of maternal morbidity after cesarean section. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy reduces the risk by approximately 60%. The benefit of antibiotic therapy for laboring women has been established. For nonlaboring patients, there is still some uncertainty. Intravaginal metronidazole as surgical preparation and oral methylergometrine after delivery are two interventions that show promise as additional Avodart Similar Drugs prophylactic interventions. The gold standard therapy, once endometritis has been diagnosed, is intravenous clindamycin and gentamicin. If an alternative regimen is chosen, it should have a similar spectrum, including good coverage for gram-positive anaerobes such as Bacteroides fragilis. Antibiotic therapy can be discontinued once the patient is afebrile without continued oral antibiotics. Treatment failure occurs in approximately 10% of cases and should trigger investigation of other infectious complications. Prolonged fever of undetermined etiology is not uncommon and requires prolonged antibiotic therapy, with or without heparin.

buy cleocin 2015-11-18

Introduction of PCV13 did not affect the rate of overall pneumococcal colonization (31% in 2011). Colonization with non-PCV13 serotypes increased between 2001 and 2011 for all children (odds ratio [OR] per year, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10, 1.15; P < .0001). 19A remained the second most common serotype in 2011, although a decline from 2009 was observed. Penicillin (7%), erythromycin (28%), ceftriaxone (10%), and clindamycin (10%) nonsusceptibility were commonly identified, concentrated among a small number of serotypes (including 19A, 35B, 15B/C, and 15A). Among healthy children 6-23 months old, colonization with PCV13 serotypes was lower among recipients of PCV13 vaccine (adjusted OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11, 0.78). This effect was not observed in 6- to 23-month-old children with a concomitant respiratory tract infection (adjusted OR 1.36; 95% CI, 0.66, 2.77) or children 2 to <7 years old (adjusted OR, 1.17; 95 Levaquin Pill % CI, 0.58, 2.34).

cleocin suspension 2015-10-31

Compared with beta-lactams, clindamycin monotherapy conferred no benefit, whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure Motrin Suspension in a cohort of children with nondrained noncultured SSTIs who were treated as outpatients. Even in regions with endemic community-acquired MRSA, beta-lactams may still be appropriate, first-line, empiric therapy for children presenting with these infections.

cleocin pill 2017-12-15

Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases and immunological complications. In this study, 91 isolates of S. pyogenes recovered from oropharynx secretions were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 15.4%, which is higher than previous reports from this area, while 20.9% of the isolates were not susceptible to tetracycline. The macrolide resistance phenotypes were cMLSB (10) and iMLSB (4). The ermB gene was predominant, followed by the ermA gene. Thirty-two emm types and subtypes were found, but five (emm1, emm4, emm12, emm22, emm81) were detected in 48% of the isolates. Three new emm subtypes were identified (emm1.74, emm58.14, emm76.7). There was a strong association between emm type and PFGE clustering. A Augmentin 750 Mg variety of PFGE profiles as well as emm types were found among tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, demonstrating that antimicrobial resistant strains do not result from the expansion of one or a few clones. This study provides epidemiological data that contribute to the development of suitable strategies for the prevention and treatment of such infections in a poorly studied area.

cleocin drug 2015-08-08

Our experience with implementation and use of the form was Lipitor 1 Mg very positive. Significant difficulties with compliance were not encountered. Benefits of the form included reductions in the duration of surgical prophylaxis and in the frequency of inappropriate dosing intervals.

cleocin medicine 2015-07-08

Staphylococcus aureus continues to pose major public health challenges in many areas because of antibiotic resistance problems. In the Caribbean, especially Trinidad and Tobago, the challenge is not different. This study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance gene prevalence among S. aureus isolates in Trinidad and Tobago. Standard and molecular microbiological methods, including the Microscan automated system, DNA microarray and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, were performed on 309 clinical S. aureus isolates recovered from patients who were treated at three of the country's main health institutions. S. aureus exhibited susceptibilities ≥80% to eleven of the 19 antimicrobials tested against it, and these belong to the most commonly used and available antibiotics in the country. While the antibiotic to which it was most susceptible of the commonly used antibiotics was trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, the antibiotics to which it was least susceptible or most resistant to were ampicillin and penicillin. S. aureus isolates from the pediatric ward produced the greatest rate of susceptibility among the isolates recovered from patients admitted into hospitals, while isolates from Accident and Emergency rooms displayed the greatest susceptibilities among patients from the community. S. aureus isolates from the country did not harbor acquired resistant genes targeting clindamycin/macrolides (ermB), linezolid (cfr) or vancomycin (vanA). The blaZ gene, which is the most common beta lactam (Penicillinase) resistance mechanism for S. aureus, was observed in 88.7% of the methicillin susceptible S. aureus, while methicillin resistance mediated by the mec gene was present in 13.6%. Most of the resistance markers found in MRSA isolates were significantly associated with the ST239-MRSA-III strain in this study, and all isolates that belonged to the USA300 strain, which additionally encoded both the PVL gene and ACME cluster, belonged to CC8. Several resistant genes, such as vanA, cfr and ermB, mediating resistance in S. aureus, are currently non-existent in Trinidad and Tobago. However, the majority of SCCmec genes were observed, suggesting that there Diamox Cost is ongoing nosocomial transmission with minimal community transmission. This calls for stringent antibiotic stewardship and policies in the country.

cleocin drug information 2017-05-25

One hundred consecutive patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes and no labor between 24 and 34 weeks were invited to participate in this study. Eligible patients randomly received either clindamycin-gentamicin for 7 days or placebo, and were managed expectantly until 35 weeks unless fetal or maternal indications developed. Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity was defined as the presence of a positive amniotic fluid culture obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis. Cervicovaginal infection was diagnosed when bacterial vaginosis or a positive culture for cervicovaginal pathogens or facultative bacteria associated with a significant increase in the white blood cell count were found. Histological chorioamnionitis was based on the observation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration of the chorionic plate or the extraplacental fetal membranes. Funisitis was Viagra Online Cheap diagnosed in the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration into the umbilical vessel walls or Wharton jelly. Statistics were performed using contingency tables.

cleocin alcohol 2017-01-18

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that is an emerging nosocomial threat; incidence of infection in hospitals is increasing, both in frequency and severity, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. In order to adapt to the intestinal environment, C. difficile must react to the many stresses involved with colonization, including exposure to antibiotics, which represents the most frequent precipitating agent of C. difficile infection. The responses of C. difficile to environmental shocks (heat, pH and oxidative shock) and to growth in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics (amoxicillin, clindamycin and metronidazole) were investigated using the C. difficile 630 microarray developed by the Bacterial Microarray Group at St Omnicef Liquid Dosage George's, University of London, UK (BmuG@S). Significantly regulated genes and operons were identified that are unique to or common between different stresses. The transcriptional profiles of C. difficile 630 are similar after growth in the presence of amoxicillin and clindamycin: both increased transcription of ribosomal protein genes and altered transcription of genes encoding surface-associated proteins. In contrast, metronidazole treatment resulted in minor changes in transcription patterns. The general stress response is observed after heat shock and acid shock. Heat shock also affected transcription of several biochemical pathways. Exposure to atmospheric oxygen induced a large number of electron transporters. This study provides a starting point for detailed analyses of numerous genes whose expression is affected by stress and may therefore be involved in adaptation to the host environment.

cleocin name brand 2016-11-06

This study Lanoxin Y3b Pill was performed to determine the comparative efficacy of probiotic yoghurt and clindamycin in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women in the third trimester.

cleocin lotion reviews 2015-06-16

In a 3-year period 179 renal transplant operations were performed, during which time a uniform regimen for preventing wound infections was used. The incidence of primary renal transplant wound infections was reduced to 1 per cent by administering a single high dose of broad-spectrum antibiotics intraoperatively as an adjunct to this regimen. Intraoperative antibiotic coverage has been a safe and effective measure for preventing primary transplant wound infections.

cleocin suspension dosage 2015-01-13

Septicemia caused by anaerobic bacteria is indistinguishable from septicemia caused by aerobic bacteria. High age, origin in the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract, malignancies and surgery or invasive, diagnostic procedures are indicative of anaerobic etiology. Between 5% and 15% of all septicemias are anaerobic. Benzylpenicillin is active against most anaerobic bacteria, and nitroimidazoles, clindamycin and chloramphenicol are dependable drugs in the treatment of bacteroides septicemias. Surgical drainage and debridement are of major importance, and proper measures to prevent circulatory failure are mandatory. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may have a dramatic effect. The use of corticosteroids and endorphin antagonists is controversial. Exchange transfusions have been attempted, but further clinical trials are necessary to establish their place in the management of anaerobic septicemia.

cleocin generic 2016-02-23

Ten cases of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis in children are reviewed. The ages ranged from 4 years to 17 years; the most frequently implicated antimicrobial agents were penicillins in six children and clindamycin in two. Stool assays showed specimens from all ten patients yielded a cytopathic toxin which was neutralized by Clostridium sordellii antitoxin with titers ranging from 1:40 to 1:40,000. Bacterial cultures of nine specimens uniformly yielded Clostridium difficile with a median concentration of 10(5.4) organisms per gram of wet weight. All nine isolates of C difficile showed a vitro production of a cytopathic toxin which was similar to or identical with that which was detected in the original stool specimen. All ten patients recovered. Six were treated with oral vancomycin and showed a good therapeutic response; one patient, however, suffered two relapses when treatment was discontinued, requiring a total of three courses of oral vancomycin. Two patients received cholestyramine and responded well. These observations provide supportive evidence that C difficile is responsible for antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis in children and document efficacy of the newer therapeutic modalities in this patient population as well.

cleocin usual dose 2015-12-23

Pelvic inflammatory diseases are often of polymicrobial aetiology. In 43 patients we found two types of bacteria in the cervical culture. The therapeutic success was achieved by these three antibiotic therapies. It was 90.26%, the therapeutic success in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases by Ceftriaxon plus Doxycycline was noted in 90.19% of patients. The therapeutic success of antibiotic therapy with Gentamycin plus Clindamycin was obtained in 90.91% of patients. The success of antibiotic therapy with Gentamycin plus Metronidazole was recorded in 89.59% of patients. Our results are similar to those of other authors [3, 4, 6, 7]. No statistically significant difference was found among the applied antibiotic therapies.

cleocin medication uses 2016-05-29

Saccharomyces boulardii, a nonpathogenic yeast, has been widely used in Europe to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). We performed a prospective double-blind controlled study to investigate AAD in hospitalized patients and to evaluate the effect of S. boulardii, a living yeast, given in capsule form concurrently with antibiotics. Over 23 mo, 180 patients completed the study. Of the patients receiving placebo, 22% experienced diarrhea compared with 9.5% of patients receiving S. boulardii (p = 0.038). Risk factors found to be associated with AAD were multiple antibiotic combinations (containing clindamycin, cephalosporins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and tube feeding. Clostridium difficile, an anaerobe found in the stools of most patients with pseudomembranous colitis, was variably associated with AAD. We evaluated the role of C. difficile in AAD in the study population and found no significant association between the presence of C. difficile or cytotoxin with AAD. Approximately 33% of the patients without diarrhea harbored at least one C. difficile-positive stool and nearly 50% of these patients had detectable cytotoxin. Similar values were obtained in patients with diarrhea. Of C. difficile-positive patients, 31% (5/16) on placebo developed diarrhea compared with 9.4% (3/32) on S. boulardii; this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). There were no discernable adverse effects of yeast administration. We conclude that S. boulardii reduces the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients.

buy cleocin online 2017-01-25

At this time in the USA there are no antimicrobials with specific indications for oral infections, and many of those currently used have limited efficacy against oral anaerobic strains. We tested the activity of azithromycin against a broad range of anaerobic oral pathogens and, at pH 8, found it to be effective against 98% of strains, including all fusobacteria and beta-lactamase-producing strains of Prevotella spp. All strains of Eikenella corrodens were also susceptible to azithromycin but resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, metronidazole and cefalexin. Other comparator agents were penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, tetracycline, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations obtained on agar adjusted to pH 8 were generally one dilution lower than those obtained on agar at pH 7.