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Ceftin (Cefuroxime)
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Ceftin

Ceftin is used for treating bacterial infections (sinus, skin, lung, urinary tract, ear, and throat). It may also be used to treat Lyme disease and gonorrhea.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Lorabid, Cefotan, Cefzil, Lorabid Pulvules, Mefoxin, Raniclor

 

Also known as:  Cefuroxime.

Description

Ceftin is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by interfering with the formation of the bacteria's cell wall so that the wall ruptures, resulting in the death of the bacteria.

Generic name of Ceftin is Cefuroxime.

Ceftin is also known as Cefuroxime axetil, Zinacef, Bacticef, Cefasun, Cefudura, Cefuhexal, Cefurax, Cefutil, Cetil, Froxime, Elobact, Oraxim, Zinnat.

Brand name of Ceftin is Ceftin.

Dosage

Take Ceftin by mouth with or without food.

Swallow Ceftin whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.

Ceftin works best if it is taken at the same time each day.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ceftin suddenly. To clear up your infection completely, take Ceftin for the full course of treatment. Keep taking it even if you feel better in a few days.

Overdose

If you overdose Ceftin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Ceftin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Ceftin if you are allergic to Ceftin components.

Ceftin should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.

Be careful if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful if you are diabetes patient. Ceftin may cause the results of some tests for urine glucose to be wrong.

To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Ceftin.

It can be dangerous to stop Ceftin taking suddenly.

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Cefuroxime is commercially available for parenteral administration as a sodium salt and for oral administration as cefuroxime axetil, the 1-(acetoxy)ethyl ester of the drug. Cefuroxime axetil is a prodrug of cefuroxime and has little, if any, antibacterial activity until hydrolyzed in vivo to cefuroxime. In this study, the absorption of cefuroxime axetil in the small intestines of anesthetized rats was investigated in situ, by perfusion at four concentrations (11.8, 5, 118 and 200 microM). Oral absorption of cefuroxime axetil can apparently be described as a specialized transport mechanism which obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Parameters characterizing absorption of prodrug in free solution were obtained: maximum rate of absorption (Vmax) = 289.08 +/- 46.26 microM h-1, and Km = 162.77 +/- 31.17 microM. Cefuroxime axetil transport was significantly reduced in the presence of the enzymatic inhibitor sodium azide. On the other hand, the prodrug was metabolized in the gut wall through contact with membrane-bound enzymes in the brush border membrane before absorption occurred. This process reduces the prodrug fraction directly available for absorption. From a bioavailability point of view, therefore, the effects mentioned above can explain the variable and poor bioavailability following oral administration of cefuroxime axetil. Thus, future strategies in oral cefuroxime axetil absorption should focus on increasing the stability of the prodrug in the intestine by modifying the prodrug structure and/or targeting the compound to the absorption site.

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An esterase which hydrolyses the cephalosporin antibiotic, cefuroxime axetil has been isolated from rat intestinal washings and purified. Closely related cefuroxime esters were extremely poor substrates, but p-nitrophenyl acetate and alpha-naphthyl acetate were slowly hydrolysed by the purified enzyme. Analysis by gel filtration gave an Mr = 51,000 and on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the esterase resolved into two main bands of Mr = 31,500 and 26,800. Analytical isoelectric focusing resolved purified esterase into multiple forms active toward alpha-naphthyl acetate, the isoelectric points of which ranged from pH 4.5 to 6.3. The esterase bound specifically to Con A-Sepharose suggesting it could be a glycoprotein. Esterase activity was unaffected by the presence of dihydroxy bile salts (1-8 mM) and inhibition studies using organophosphates and eserine salicylate have classified the enzyme as a carboxylesterase.

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A study of the efficacy of cefuroxime axetil was conducted for the treatment of acute sinusitis in childhood. Thirty-nine patients aged 5-14 years were given cefuroxime axetil 20 mg/kg/day divided into two doses for seven days. The diagnosis of acute sinusitis was based on history, physical examination, and radiological findings. The results of throat cultures before treatment were 17 patients with group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, seven patients with pneumococci, and two patients with Staphylococcus aureus; in the remainder of the patients only normal throat flora were isolated. In 36 patients (92%) a satisfactory improvement was reported at the end of the treatment. It was found that cefuroxime axetil was efficaceous for the treatment of sinusitis in childhood.

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Recent resurgence in serious streptococcal infections and rising failure rates with the standard 10-day course of therapy with penicillin V for group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS)-associated tonsillopharyngitis (pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis) have heightened interest in alternative treatments for this infection. Reasons for failure of the standard therapy include penicillin tolerance, increased virulence of GABHS strains, inactivation by beta-lactamase, and poor compliance. Short, 4-5-day courses with oral cephalosporins, such as cefuroxime axetil, have recently proven to be effective alternatives. Cefuroxime axetil provides resolution of clinical symptoms and fever within 2.5 days of onset of therapy, and its short course of treatment may improve compliance.

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Because definitive information about causative pathogens is seldom available, treatment of pneumonia is most often empiric. Antibiotic therapy can be withheld in mildly ill, ambulatory patients in whom viral infection is likely. Most guidelines suggest initial treatment with orally administered amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate or with intravenous cefuroxime when patients require hospitalization. In May, 2000, the Centers for Disease Control-convened Drug-Resistant S. pneumoniae Therapeutic Working Group identified oral beta-lactams including cefuroxime axetil, amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate as appropriate options for first line therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in ambulatory adults and children.

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Randomized controlled trials have ascertained the efficiency of antibiotics in treating erythema migrans, the hallmark of early stage Lyme borreliosis. Oral amoxicillin and doxycycline are first-line treatment options, though phenoxymethylpenicillin, cefuroxime axetil and azithromycin are alternative second-line options. Treatments for secondary and tertiary Lyme borreliosis are more poorly documented, and antibiotics are not always effective. This is due to the unique pathophysiology of late Lyme borreliosis, which involves not only bacterial infection, but also immunological response. Since there is no completely reliable method of diagnosis, it is difficult to choose the proper treatment and to evaluate treatment efficacy. However, numerous studies have shown that ceftriaxone and doxycycline are the 2 most efficient antibiotics, particularly in Lyme arthritis and in neuroborreliosis. In late Lyme borreliosis, these antibiotics are less efficient, and different treatment schemes with variations in dosage or duration did not produce convincing results.

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Oral cefuroxime axetil (1 g) plus probenecid cured 29 of 30 urethral and 6 of 6 rectal gonococcal infections in men; alone the drug cured 22 of 23 urethral and 4 of 6 rectal infections. No toxicity was observed. Cefuroxime axetil alone is effective for urethral gonorrhea in males; rectal gonorrhea probably requires additional probenecid.

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Antibiotic concentrations in serum and middle ear effusion (MEE) are important in determining treatment success in acute otitis media, but studies to measure concentration levels are often performed in chronically infected patients where there is little inflammation. In this open, single-center study, 26 patients with acute otitis media were enrolled to assess antibiotic penetration in inflamed ears. Of the 26 patients, 4 were non-evaluable, 6 formed a control group and the others were randomized into three groups. Each of the three groups was given a single oral dose of cefuroxime axetil suspension, 15 mg/kg. Food was administered approximately 20 minutes before the drug in order to maximize drug absorption. Cefuroxime concentrations in serum and MEE were assessed at 2-3 (group 1), 3-4 (group 2) and 4-5 (group 3) hours following dosing. Sampling of MEE was performed with tympanocentesis under local anesthesia and the drug was assayed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. The serum concentrations of cefuroxime were found to be above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae for 100% of the dosing interval and 42% of the time for intermediate-resistant strains. For both Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, serum cefuroxime levels were above the MIC for 42% of the time between doses. This study indicates that cefuroxime axetil penetrates the inflamed middle ear effectively in acute otitis media after oral dosing. Serum levels were maintained above the MICs of important bacterial pathogens in otitis media for more than 5 hours after dosing, which is equivalent to 42% of the dosing interval. Thus, the important statistic of 40-50% of time above MIC, required for beta-lactam antibiotics to produce the maximal bacteriological cure rate of 80-85%, is achieved.

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Limited data are available regarding the relationship of Borrelia burden in skin of patients with erythema migrans (EM) and the disease course and post-treatment outcome.

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Under different temperatures and physiological conditions, with cefuroxime axetil concentrations in the range of 1.959 X 10(-6) to 13.71 X 10(-6) mol x L(-1), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentrations at 2.0 X 10(-6) mol x L(-1), the interaction between cefuroxime axetil and BSA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum, synchronous fluorescence spectrum and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. After analyzing and processing the fluorescence quenching data at different temperatures according to Sterm-Volmer equation, Lineweaver-Burk equation and thermodynamic equation, the average value of the apparent binding constant (K(LB): 3.907 X 10(6) L x mol(-1)), and thermodynamics parameters (enthalpy change delta H: -13.43 kJ x mol(-1), entropy change delta S: 81.90 J x K(-1) and standard Gibbs free energy change delta G0: -38.34 kJ x mol(-1)) were calculated, and the amounts of binding sites (n: 1.042)were measured. The fluorescence quenching mechanism of BSA after cefuroxime axetil was added was discussed. BSA was bound with cefuroxime axetil and formed a new compound. The quenching belonged to static fluorescence quenching. The thermodynamic parameters agree with delta H approximately 0, delta S > 0 and delta G0 < 0, and the binding reaction is mainly entropy-driven and electro-static interaction force plays a major role in the reaction. The maximum emission wavelength of Tyr and Trp had an obvious red shift in the synchronous fluorescence spectra, the fluorescence emission wavelength of two peaks had a blue shift in the three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum of BSA in the presence of cefuroxime axetil and the maximum absorbtion wavelenghs of three systems in the UV-Vis absorption spectra were obviously different. These showed that the changes in the micro-environment of Tyr and Trp and demonstrated that the conformation of BSA changed as cefuroxime axetil had been added. This provides important information for discussing the configuration modification of BSA because of the added cefuroxime axetil, and for elucidating the pharmacological effects of cefuroxime axetil and biological effects in the organism.

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In a double-blind, multicentre trial, 382 patients with a diagnosis of acute purulent sinusitis were randomised to receive sparfloxacin 200 mg once daily for 5 days following a loading dose of 400 mg on day 1 (n = 193) or cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily for 8 days (n = 189). Patients were classified as success or failure according to clinical symptoms plus bacteriological and radiological data at the end of treatment and at a follow-up visit. In analyses of the intent-to-treat (n = 374) and evaluable populations (n = 304), the 5 day course of sparfloxacin was at least as effective and well tolerated as the 8 day course of cefuroxime axetil. The success rates at the end of treatment in the evaluable population were 82.6% and 83.2% in the sparfloxacin and cefuroxime axetil groups, respectively. The pathogens isolated most frequently were Haemophilus influenzae (33%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (28%). Response rates according to the bacterial aetiology of the acute sinusitis were similar in the two treatment groups. Both drugs were well tolerated. The commonest adverse events were gastrointestinal and were reported in 2.6% and 3.8% of sparfloxacin- and cefuroxime axetil-treated patients, respectively.

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128 Patients (45 female, 83 male) with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis were treated with either cefuroxime axetil 2 x 500 mg/d (n = 65) or ofloxacin 2 x 200 mg/d for 7-8 days in a randomized controlled multicenter trial. From the respective groups, the results of 61 and 59 patients could be evaluated. Positive sputum tests were available in 85 cases (56 monoinfections, 29 mixed infections) prior to treatment. According to final clinical assessment, cure was achieved with cefuroxime axetil in 75%, but only in 50% with ofloxacin. The clinical efficacy of cefuroxime axetil was judged by the physicians to be more reliable than ofloxacin. The difference is statistically significant (p less than 0.05). Therapy with ofloxacin had to be terminated in 2 cases due to side effects. Altogether 4 adverse events were documented with ofloxacin. Compared with ofloxacin, cefuroxime axetil showed better efficacy and low risk of side effects.

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We assessed oral cefuroxime axetil in an open study of 30 patients with lower respiratory tract infection and then compared oral cefuroxime with oral amoxycillin in a randomized double blind study in a further 40 patients. Satisfactory clinical responses were obtained in 73% of patients receiving cefuroxime axetil 500 mg tid in the open study, and in the comparative study in 71% of patients receiving cefuroxime axetil 500 mg bd, in 60% of patients receiving cefuroxime axetil 500 mg tid and in 63% of patients receiving amoxycillin 500 mg tid. There were no significant differences in response rates between the three regimens in the comparative study. There were no important adverse effects in any of the patients. Oral cefuroxime axetil is safe and effective in the therapy of lower respiratory tract infections.

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Three successful generations of cephalosporin antibiotics can be divided into parenteral and peroral substances. Both have similar antibacterial and hence therapeutical properties. It is usual to include into the first generation of peroral cephalosporins the so-called phenylglycine, or hydroxyphenylglycine derivatives. The carbacephem variant of Cefaclor (Panoral Lilly), Loracarbef, however, has improved properties and although it is a phenylglycine drug, it could be classified as a second generation cephalosporin. Here we include also the so-called ester-prodrugs: 2nd generation parenteral cephalosporins esterified in the position of C4 (cefuroxime-axetil, Zinnat, cefpodoxime-proxetil, Oralox, etc.). They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, not hydrolysed by resistant bacteria, and, hence, they are effective also against cephalosporin-(1. generation) resistant strains. New structures of cephalosporins, e.g. cefixime and ceftibuten (Cedax) could be classified as cephs of the 3rd generation. They, are stable even against destruction by strains resistant to Cefotaxime or Ceftazidime, and, thus, effective against such bacteria, whose number is expected to increase in the near future. It is concluded that the possibility to administer cephalosporins having different properties, spectrum and stability by both parenteral and peroral way is highly welcomed mainly in pediatric practice and that there are several new and promising drugs in this still developing group of antibacterials.

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The pharmacokinetic parameters of cefixime were determined in healthy volunteers following oral administration of 200 mg cefixime as tablet, syrup and dry suspension, respectively. All three galenic formulations showed reliable absorption. Mean peak plasma concentrations amounted to 2.4-3.4 mg/l and were reached after 3.3-3.5 h. Mean terminal half-lives were 2.9-3.1 h. The mean areas under the plasma concentration-time curves ranged between 18 and 26 mg/l.h; 18-24% of the dose administered were recovered unchanged in the urine. The best bioavailability was obtained with the dry suspension followed by the tablet and the syrup. With respect to the ester pro-drug cephalosporins, cefuroxime axetil, cefetamet pivoxyl and cefotiam hexetil, cefixime exhibits higher plasma half-life and area under the curve as well as, comparable absolute bioavailability but consistently lower urinary recovery which indicates higher non-renal clearance.

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The pharmacokinetics of the older and more recent oral cephalosporins are reviewed. With the exception of cefadroxil the older agents (cephalexin, cephradine and cefaclor) have serum elimination half-lives of less than or equal to 1 h and hence have to be administered three to four times daily. The urinary recovery of these agents is high (greater than 80% of oral dose) with the exception of cefaclor (54%). Cefaclor is also chemically unstable. The newer agents can be divided into those that are prodrugs (cefpodoxime proxetil and cefuroxime axetil) and compounds that are absorbed as such (cefixime, cefprozil and ceftibuten). They all have half-lives greater than 1.25 h and can be given once or twice daily. The penetration of these agents into an inflammatory exudate was studied and found to be cefixime 132%, ceftibuten 113%, cefpodoxime 104%, cefuroxime 92% and cefprozil 79% of the serum concentration. The penetration of cefpodoxime and cefixime into the respiratory tract was also studied; the mean percentage bronchial mucosal penetration was 52% for the former and 38% for cefixime. The urinary recovery of these newer agents (with the exception of ceftibuten) tends to be less than that of the earlier agents. There was a relationship between the serum elimination half-life of these agents and the degree of tissue penetration, those agents with longer half-lives penetrating to a greater extent.

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Cefdinir (Omnicef) is an oral third-generation cephalosporin with good in vitro activity against many pathogens commonly causative in community-acquired infections. The drug provides good coverage against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common respiratory tract pathogens. Cefdinir is stable to hydrolysis by commonly occurring plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases and retains good activity against beta-lactamase-producing strains of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. The drug distributes into various tissues (e.g. sinus and tonsil) and fluids (e.g. middle ear), and has a pharmacokinetic profile that allows for once- or twice-daily administration.Cefdinir, administered for 5 or 10 days, has shown good clinical and bacteriological efficacy in the treatment of a wide range of mild-to-moderate infections of the respiratory tract and skin in adults, adolescents and paediatric patients in randomised, controlled trials. In adults and adolescents, cefdinir is an effective treatment for both lower (acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis [ABECB], community-acquired pneumonia) and upper (acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, streptococcal pharyngitis) respiratory tract infections, and uncomplicated skin infections. Its bacteriological and clinical efficacy in patients with lower respiratory tract infections was equivalent to that of comparator agents (cefprozil [bacteriological only], loracarbef, cefuroxime axetil and cefaclor). In one trial in patients with ABECB, cefdinir produced a higher rate of clinical cure than cefprozil (95% CIs indicated nonequivalence). Cefdinir also produced good clinical and bacteriological responses equivalent to responses with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. In addition, it was at least as effective as penicillin V (phenoxymethylpenicillin) in streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis and as effective as cefalexin in uncomplicated skin infections. In paediatric patients aged > or =6 months, cefdinir showed similar efficacy to that of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or cefprozil in acute otitis media, and cefalexin in uncomplicated skin infections. Cefdinir given for 5 or 10 days was at least as effective as penicillin V for 10 days in patients with streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis. Cefdinir is usually well tolerated. Diarrhoea was the most common adverse event in trials in all age groups. Although the incidence of diarrhoea in cefdinir recipients was generally higher than in adults and adolescents treated with comparators, discontinuation rates due to adverse events were generally similar for cefdinir and comparator groups. In conclusion, cefdinir is a third-generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity encompassing pathogens that are commonly causative in infections of the respiratory tract or skin and skin structure. Depending on the infection being treated, cefdinir can be administered as a convenient once- or twice-daily 5- or 10-day regimen. Clinical evidence indicates that cefdinir is an effective and generally well tolerated drug with superior taste over comparator antibacterial agents and is therefore a good option for the treatment of adults, adolescents and paediatric patients with specific mild-to-moderate respiratory tract or skin infections, particularly in areas where beta-lactamase-mediated resistance among common community-acquired pathogens is a concern.

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Patients were randomized (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 treatment groups: group 1 received 2 days of i.v. and 8 days of oral therapy; group 2 received 5 days of i.v. and 5 days of oral therapy; and group 3 received 10 days of i.v. therapy. Antibiotics consisted of cefuroxime, 750 mg every 8 h for the i.v. course, and cefuroxime axetil, 500 mg every 12 h for the oral therapy.

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Healthy native snakes were captured and kept in a designated centre. Snake species were identified by experienced herpetologists. Mouth swabs were taken by the veterinarian using strict aseptic techniques. The snakes were released back to the wild immediately after the above procedure. Swabs were sent for microbiological studies of bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity.

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Cefuroxime axetil, a prodrug of the cephalosporin cefuroxime, has proven in vitro antibacterial activity against several gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, including those most frequently associated with various common community-acquired infections. In numerous randomised, controlled trials, 5 to 10 days' treatment with oral cefuroxime axetil (250 or 500 mg twice daily) was an effective treatment in patients with upper (URTI) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) as assessed by clinical and bacteriological criteria. The drug was as effective as several other cephalosporins, quinolones, macrolides and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Shorter courses (5 to 10 days') of cefuroxime axetil were at least as effective as a 10 day course. Furthermore, sequential therapy with intravenous cefuroxime (750 mg 2 or 3 times daily for 2 to 5 days) followed by oral cefuroxime axetil (500 mg twice daily for 3 to 8 days) proved an effective treatment in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This approach provided similar efficacy to intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, a full parenteral course of cefuroxime, or intravenous then oral azithromycin or clarithromycin. Additionally, cefuroxime axetil was an effective treatment in patients with genitourinary, skin and soft-tissue infections, and erythema migrans associated with early stage Lyme disease. The drug is well tolerated by adult and paediatric patients, with adverse effects that are consistent with those of other cephalosporins. The majority of adverse events (primarily gastrointestinal disturbances) were mild to moderate in intensity and reversible upon discontinuation of treatment, with very few serious adverse events reported.

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ceftin user reviews 2017-10-20

Randomized, four-period, buy ceftin crossover study.

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to analyze adherence to therapeutic guidelines for buy ceftin AOM.

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Seven- and ten-day faropenem medoxomil regimens were similar (noninferior) to a ten-day cefuroxime axetil regimen based on clinical response in patients with ABS. buy ceftin

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Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is one of the most threatening adverse reactions to various drugs. No case of concomitant occurrence TEN and severe granulocytopenia following the treatment with cefuroxime has been reported to date. Herein we present a case of TEN that developed eighteen days of the initiation of cefuroxime axetil therapy for urinary tract infection in a 73-year-old woman with chronic renal failure and no previous history of allergic diathesis. The condition was associated with severe granulocytopenia and followed by gastrointestinal hemorrhage, severe sepsis and multiple organ failure syndrome development. Despite intensive medical treatment the patient died. The present report underlines the potential of cefuroxime to simultaneously induce life threatening adverse effects such as TEN and severe granulocytopenia. Further on, because the patient was also taking furosemide for chronic renal failure, the possible unfavorable interactions between the two drugs could be hypothesized. Therefore, awareness of the possible buy ceftin drug interaction is necessary, especially when given in conditions of their altered pharmacokinetics as in case of chronic renal failure.

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Antimicrobial agents play an important role in the treatment of patients with acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion (OME). The study was undertaken to determine the concentrations of cefuroxime in the blood and middle ear effusions (MEE) of children between 6 and 12 years of age with acute otitis media and chronic OME after a single oral dose administration of cefuroxime axetil, the ester prodrug of cefuroxime. Cefuroxime axetil (250 mg) was administered 2 to 6 hours before either myringotomy for acute otitis media or myringotomy and tube insertion for chronic OME. Blood samples and middle ear aspirates were obtained from 31 children and the samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Cefuroxime was recovered in measurable concentrations in all serum samples and in 15 (79%) of the 19 MEE specimens analyzed buy ceftin . No correlation was seen between cefuroxime MEE concentrations and effusion type, bacteriology or serum concentrations. This study shows that cefuroxime does penetrate into MEE when OME is present and that therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in some patients.

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Cefuroxime axetil is an oral cephalosporin which is rapidly hydrolysed to the active parent compound, cefuroxime. Cefuroxime has a broad spectrum of in vitro antibacterial activity which encompasses methicillin-sensitive staphylococci and the common respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci. Cefuroxime has broad spectrum activity against the beta-lactamase positive respiratory pathogens H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis; it is also active against penicillin-susceptible and -intermediate strains of S. pneumoniae. In clinical trials, cefuroxime axetil (administered twice daily) has been evaluated in the treatment of upper and lower respiratory tract infections and has demonstrated similar efficacy to established antibacterial agents, including amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefaclor. Five days' treatment with cefuroxime axetil was recently shown to be as effective as 10 days' treatment with either cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in patients with acute otitis media or acute bronchitis. Cefuroxime axetil was at least as effective as phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V) in the treatment of patients with group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. A number of studies have evaluated the efficacy of cefuroxime axetil as the oral component of intravenous to oral sequential therapy in hospitalised patients with lower respiratory tract infection. In each study patients received parenteral cefuroxime for approximately 2 days followed by cefuroxime axetil for 5 to 10 days. In comparative studies, cefuroxime sequential therapy was as effective as amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid sequential therapy and full courses of parenteral cefuroxime, cefotiam or cefoperazone. Adults with urinary tract infections and skin infections were also effectively treated with cefuroxime axetil, as were adults and adolescents with early stage lyme disease. Cefuroxime axetil is associated with a low incidence of adverse events, with gastrointestinal disturbances being the most frequently observed. Thus, cefuroxime axetil is an effective and convenient treatment for a wide range of infections and may be considered a therapeutic option when empirical treatment of community-acquired infections is required. Moreover, given the promising results of several intravenous/oral sequential treatment studies, cefuroxime axetil may also become established as an oral component of sequential treatment buy ceftin regimens.

ceftin 600 mg 2015-09-27

Of 1045 buy ceftin patients, 589 were evaluable for efficacy. At baseline, most patients had moderate or severe cough and sputum production as well as rhonchi, wheezing, and dyspnea. The microbiologic eradication rates by pathogen were 90% with once-daily cefdinir, 85% with twice-daily cefdinir, and 88% with twice-daily cefuroxime. The corresponding values for microbiologic eradication rate by patient were 90% (once-daily cefdinir), 85% (twice-daily cefdinir), and 86% (twice-daily cefuroxime). The respective clinical response rates by patient were 81%, 74%, and 80%. There were no significant differences in the incidence of drug-related adverse events or discontinuations due to adverse events. Diarrhea was the most frequent complaint.

ceftin drug interactions 2016-05-07

Seventy-two male veterans buy ceftin and 1 female veteran with 75 episodes of CAP defined by a new infiltrate on chest radiograph and either history or physical findings consistent with pneumonia. Study population was 42%(31) black, 33%(24) white, and 25%(18) Hispanic.

ceftin 500mg medication 2015-10-03

The serum bactericidal activity of three oral cephalosporins was studied in 12 volunteers, after administration of single doses of cefuroxime axetil 250 mg, cefixime 200 mg, cefixime 400 mg and cefetamet pivoxil 500 mg. Serum bactericidal activity against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Klebsiella pneumoniae was measured by a standardized microdilution method. Cefuroxime buy ceftin axetil demonstrated the best bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms and cefixime was the most bactericidal against Gram-negative bacteria.

ceftin tabs 2016-04-07

This study was designed to compare the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of three oral cephalosporins, cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin and cefadroxil, in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections of the skin or skin structures. A total of 330 patients were enrolled at 10 centers and were randomly assigned to receive cefuroxime axetil 250 mg (n = 107), cephalexin 500 mg (n = 111) or cefadroxil 500 mg (n = 112), twice daily for 10 days. Patients were assessed for their clinical and bacteriological responses once during treatment (3-5 days) and twice after treatment (1-3 and 10-14 days). A total of 353 bacterial isolates were obtained: Staphylococcus aureus (41%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (33%) and Streptococcus pyogenes (5%). A satisfactory clinical outcome (cure or improvement) was buy ceftin achieved in 97% (89/92), 89% (80/90) and 94% (82/87) of the clinically evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin or cefadroxil, respectively (p = 0.047, cefuroxime axetil vs. cephalexin). With respect to the eradication of the bacterial pathogens, a satisfactory outcome (cure or presumed cure) was obtained in 96% (69/72), 85% (60/71) and 93% (63/68) of bacteriologically evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin and cefadroxil, respectively (p = 0.026, cefuroxime axetil vs. cephalexin). All three study drugs were well tolerated, with adverse events affecting the gastrointestinal system most commonly reported. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in the incidence of drug-related adverse events.

ceftin cost 2016-02-10

Levofloxacin is the L-form of the fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, ofloxacin. In in vitro studies, levofloxacin demonstrated a broad range of activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms and anaerobes. The drug is more active against Gram-positive organisms than ciprofloxacin, but less active than newer fluoroquinolones such as gatifloxacin. Its activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae is unaffected by the presence of penicillin resistance. In several randomised controlled trails, 5 to 14 days' treatment with intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin proved an effective therapy for upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In patients with mild to severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin 500mg once or twice daily was as effective as intravenous and/or oral gatifloxacin, clarithromycin, azithromycin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Overall, clinical response rates with levofloxacin ranged from 86 to 95% versus 88 to 96% with comparator agents; bacteriological response rates were 88 to 95% and 86 to 98%, respectively. Sequential (intravenous +/- oral switch) therapy with levofloxacin 750mg once daily was as effective as intravenous imipenem/cilastatin (+/- oral switch to ciprofloxacin) in patients with severe nosocomial pneumonia. Generally, oral levofloxacin 250 or 500mg once daily was at least as effective as oral cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil, clarithromycin or moxifloxacin in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis buy ceftin as assessed by either clinical or bacteriological response rates. This approach also provided similar efficacy to amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid or clarithromycin in patients with acute sinusitis. Sequential therapy with levofloxacin 500mg twice daily for 7 to 14 days' was as effective as intravenous imipenem/cilastatin in patients with suspected bacteraemia. Oral levofloxacin 500mg once daily for 7 to 10 days was also an effective treatment in patients with uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, and in those with complicated urinary tract infections. A higher dosage of sequential levofloxacin 750mg once daily proved as effective as intravenous ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (+/- oral switch to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections. Pharmacoeconomic studies suggest that levofloxacin may be cost-saving in comparison to conventional therapies.

ceftin dosage pediatrics 2016-12-19

Despite high rates of beta-lactamase production among non-typeable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, multiple oral treatment options exist for non-typeable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Multidrug- buy ceftin resistant serotype 19A S. pneumoniae ( approximately 20%) limits treatment options for ambulatory S. pneumoniae respiratory disease.

ceftin dosing pediatric 2017-12-02

Nineteen patients presenting for sinus surgery were studied to evaluate the percentage penetration from serum to paranasal sinus tissue of a single orally administered dose of cefuroxime axetil. The methods and results are presented. Cefuroxime penetrates well into human sinus mucosa following oral administration and the concentrations obtained exceed minimum inhibitory concentrations of cefuroxime for the Zithromax Dosage Pediatric most common pathogens in sinusitis.

ceftin 250 mg 2016-05-31

Cefuroxime axetil (CAE) is an acetoxyethyl ester prodrug Cardura 40 Mg of cefuroxime. The efficacy and safety of cefuroxime axetil was studied in a randomized general practice trial in urological infections where cefuroxime axetil 250 mg b.d. was compared with amoxycillin/clavulanate (Augmentin, AUG) 375 mg t.d.s. A randomized trial was then performed in hospital outpatients, who received cefuroxime axetil 250 mg b.d. or cefaclor (CCL) 250 mg t.d.s. Of 140 clinically assessable patients, 108 were cured and 28 improved on cefuroxime axetil (97% success) compared with 75 cured and 13 improved out of 89 on Augmentin (99% success) and 31 cured and 7 improved out of 38 patients treated with cefaclor (97% success). Bacteriology was assessable in 101 patients given cefuroxime axetil (72% cleared), 61 of those given Augmentin (70% cleared) and 27 out of 28 (96%) given cefaclor. As expected, the predominant pathogen was E. coli, accounting for 61% of isolates overall. Drug-related adverse events occurred in 10% of patients given cefuroxime axetil, including diarrhoea in 4%. Eleven percent of patients given Augmentin suffered adverse events (5% diarrhoea) and 5% of those given cefaclor. Superinfections occurred in 4 cefaclor patients (2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 Candida, 1 E. coli) compared with 2 on cefuroxime axetil (1 Candida, 1 E. coli). Uncomplicated UTI accounted for 92% of cases in the G.P. trial and 82% of cases in the hospital trial. Cefuroxime axetil may be used safely and effectively to treat uncomplicated UTI at a dose of 250 mg b.d.

ceftin dosing dialysis 2016-06-16

Gatifloxacin has an extended spectrum of antibacterial activity and provides better coverage of Gram-positive organisms (e.g. S. pneumoniae) than some older fluoroquinolones. The drug has favourable pharmacokinetic properties, is administered once daily and is at least as well tolerated as other fluoroquinolones. Gatifloxacin is a useful addition to the fluoroquinolones currently available for use in the clinical setting and has an important role in the management of adult patients with various bacterial infections. As with other fluoroquinolones, careful Cymbalta Buy control of gatifloxacin usage in the community is important in order to prevent the emergence of bacterial resistance and thus preserve the clinical value of this agent.

ceftin 500mg tab 2015-06-17

A MEDLINE search (1996-March 2000) was performed to identify relevant primary and review articles. Singulair Drug Coupons References from these articles were also reviewed if deemed important.

ceftin suspension dosage 2017-09-28

To compare the effectiveness of oral moxifloxacin with standard antibiotic Diamox Drug Information therapy in acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB).

ceftin dosing adults 2015-12-24

To compare therapeutic outcome and perform Zantac Depression Medication a cost-benefit analysis of inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) treated with a shortened course of i.v. antibiotic therapy.

ceftin pediatric dosing 2016-12-19

The study was an open, randomized, 2-period, 2-sequence, 2-treatment crossover, involving 24 healthy male and female volunteers. All volunteers completed the study. Cefuroxime axetil plasma concentrations were measured utilizing a sensitive, reproducible and accurate HPLC method. Care was taken through the collection Valtrex Generic Brand and analysis of the samples due to instability of cefuroxime axetil in light. Pharmacokinetic parameters used to assess bioequivalence were AUC(0-last), AUC(0-inf) for the extent of absorption and Cmax and tmax for the rate of absorption. Statistical evaluation of Cmax, AUC(0-last), and AUC(0-inf) was done using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) after semilogarithmic transformation. Tmax values were tested using the distribution-free Hodges-Lehman interval.

ceftin dosing epocrates 2017-07-12

Biphasic floating minitablets of cefuroxime axetil were prepared by melt granulation technique using two different grades of gelucire namely 50/13 and 43/01 to maintain constant plasma drug concentration. Loading dose of cefuroxime axetil was formulated as immediate release (IR) minitablets by using hydrophilic grade of gelucire 50/13. Maintenance dose was formulated as floating sustained Effexor 20 Mg release (SR) minitablets by using hydrophobic grade of gelucire 43/01. The prepared IR and SR granules were subjected to micromeritic studies and scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) study revealed that drug and selected carriers were compatible. In vitro dissolution study of optimized IR minitablets showed more than 85% of loading dose dissolved within 30 min. Optimized SR minitablets showed zero lag time with floating duration more than 12 h. The drug release from SR minitablets was linear with square root of time with non-Fickian diffusion-controlled release. The optimized batch of minitablets was filled into 0 size hard gelatin capsule. In vitro dissolution study for capsule showed an immediate burst release followed by SR up to 12 h. There is no significant change in dissolution data after storage at 40 °C and 75% RH for three months. Microbiological assay of dissolution samples of optimized minitablets filled in capsules showed proportionate increase in inhibition of growth against Escherichia coli up to 12 h samples. In vivo bioavailability study in albino rabbits showed three times improvement in oral bioavailability.

ceftin online 2015-10-17

Since the clinical trial was designed to demonstrate equivalence, there were no significant differences of effectiveness among both treatments (with a rate of clinical cure of 86.4% and 83.1%, respectively) which means that an analysis of costs minimization was done. In the average case, the average cost of the disease by patient was 174.83 Euros with telithromycin and 194.68 Euros with cefuroxime-axetil Lexapro Drug Class (a difference of 19.85 Euros). The results were maintained in the analysis of sensitivity, with favorable differences for telithromycin that ranged between 18.04 Euros and 22.25 Euros.

ceftin uti dosing 2016-05-29

Throat cultures were performed on 297 children suspected of tonsillopharyngitis on clinical findings. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS) were isolated from 86 patients (41 males/45 females) aged 6-15 (mean (SD) 7.8 (0.04)) years. They were randomly allocated to receive oral cefuroxime axetil for 10 days (group 1) or one dose of benzathine penicillin by intramuscular injection (group 2) and responses were evaluated 2 weeks later. Clinical cure was observed in 95% of group 1 and 96% of group 2 and bacteriological cure in 86 and 84% of groups 1 and 2, respectively. Our results show that intramuscular benzathine penicillin remains an effective treatment for GABHS and that oral cefuroxime axetil is also effective.

ceftin and alcohol 2016-09-21

[corrected] After group presentations and review of background materials, subgroup chairs prepared draft responses to the five questions, discussed the responses as a group and edited those responses [corrected].

ceftin medication uses 2016-12-11

Beta-lactam antibiotics include penicillins, cephalosporins and related compounds. As a group, these drugs are active against many gram-positive, gram-negative and anaerobic organisms. Information based on "expert opinion" and antimicrobial susceptibility testing supports certain antibiotic choices for the treatment of common infections, but less evidence-based literature is available to guide treatment decisions. Evidence in the literature supports the selection of amoxicillin as first-line antibiotic therapy for acute otitis media. Alternative drugs, such as amoxicillin-clavulanate, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefuroxime axetil, can be used to treat resistant infections. Penicillin V remains the drug of choice for the treatment of pharyngitis caused by group A streptococci. Inexpensive narrow-spectrum drugs such as amoxicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are first-line therapy for sinusitis. Animal and human bites can be treated most effectively with amoxicillin-clavulanate. For most outpatient procedures, amoxicillin is the preferred agent for bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis. Beta-lactam antibiotics are usually not the first choice for empiric outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Based on the literature, the role of beta-lactam antibiotics in the treatment of bronchitis, skin infections and urinary tract infections remains unclear.

ceftin 1000 mg 2015-07-29

Development of resistance to available antimicrobial agents has been identified in every decade since the introduction of the sulfonamides in the 1930s. Current concerns for management of acute otitis media (AOM) are multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase producing Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In the USA, amoxicillin remains the drug for choice for AOM. Increasing the current dose to 80 mg/kg/day in two doses provides increased concentrations of drug in serum and middle ear fluid and captures additional resistant strains of S. pneumoniae. For children who fail initial therapy with amoxicillin an expert panel convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggested amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil or intramuscular ceftriaxone. To protect the therapeutic advantage of antimicrobial agents used for AOM, it is important to promote judicious use of antimicrobial agents and avoid uses if it is likely that viral infections are the likely cause of the disease, to implement programs for parent education and to increase the accuracy of diagnosis of AOM. Conjugate polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines are currently in clinical trial; early results indicate protective levels of antibody can be achieved with a three dosage schedule beginning at 2 months of age. Finally, alternative medicine remedies may be of value for some infectious diseases including AOM; garlic extract is bactericidal for the major bacterial pathogens of AOM but is heat- and acid-labile and loose activity when cooked or taken by mouth.

ceftin drug classification 2015-12-25

Ciprofloxacin affected hyperactivation by altering membrane properties, whereas doxycycline inhibited the capacitation process. Cessation of motility in cefuroxime axetil was linked to disrupted sperm head membranes. Sperm motility and fertilizing capacity were decreased in nitrofurantoin because of decreased metabolism. The positive effect of ofloxacin on fertilizing capacity did not involve changes in acrosome.

ceftin antibiotic dose 2016-03-02

To compare the efficacy of two sequential therapy regimens of IV cefuroxime followed by oral cefuroxime axetil for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

ceftin with alcohol 2016-07-14

Cefdinir is an oral cephalosporin approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1997 for the treatment of community-acquired (CA) respiratory tract and uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of cefdinir against recent clinical isolates collected from CA-urinary tract infections (UTIs), a possible expanded indication. A total of 456 isolates from CA-UTI were collected from medical centres in North America (NA; United States and Canada) in 2003 and susceptibility tested by NCCLS reference broth microdilution methods. Cefdinir and cefpodoxime were the most active compounds tested against Escherichia coli (98.7% susceptibility), followed by nitrofurantoin (97.0%) and ciprofloxacin (95.0%). Cefdinir was 8- to 16-fold more potent than cefuroxime axetil and cefprozil against E. coli, Klebsiella spp. and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The activity of cefdinir was most similar to that of cefpodoxime against E. coli and Klebsiella spp., but cefpodoxime showed inferior activity against S. saprophyticus. The cefdinir spectrum was significant superior (+3.8 to 16.5%) to that of trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole against all pathogens evaluated. The cefdinir spectrum and potency were comparable or superior to other orally administered beta-lactams tested against recent (2003) clinical isolates from CA-UTI.

ceftin generic 2016-12-15

1. To determine the effectiveness of ongoing immediate concurrent feedback (ICF) in minimizing 'inappropriate' sultamicillin or co-amoxiclav prescribing via the parenteral route (i.e. when the oral route was accessible and not contraindicated), a prospective controlled audit was carried out on hospital inpatients over a 20 month period. 2. After an education programme to promote oral rather than unnecessary intravenous (i.v.) use of sultamicillin, co-amoxiclav and certain other drugs, an ongoing ICF strategy was instituted. 3. ICF entailed issue of memos on the following day to prescribers of i.v. sultamicillin or co-amoxiclav for inpatients in whom this route was deemed 'inappropriate', by a specially trained nurse using strict objective criteria. The memos recommended oral prescribing (particularly of co-amoxiclav, currently the less expensive alternative). 4. After starting ICF, there were consistent, clinically and statistically significant reductions in the monthly proportions of (i) admissions prescribed i.v. sultamicillin or co-amoxiclav (38% P < 0.001), (ii) those in whom the route was 'inappropriate' (75%, P < 0.001), and (iii) corresponding ratios of i.v./oral usage and expenditure, oral sultamicillin/co-amoxiclav usage and expenditure, as well as total and per admission expenditure on i.v. forms (> or = 43%, P < 0.01). 5. For i.v. cefuroxime (for which there was no ICF) and its oral counterpart cefuroxime-axetil, there were no comparable changes in usage or expenditure. 6. This simple, ongoing ICF strategy was effective and well accepted; estimated net monthly savings being HK$26-30,000.

ceftin renal dosing 2016-08-08

There are controversies in the literature regarding the need for and duration of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) who have a negative urine culture before treatment. In order to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in ESWL treatment of patients with proven sterile urine, a randomized trial was performed.