Generic Casodex is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of prostate cancer. Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Bicalutamide.
Generic Casodex is a perfect remedy in struggle against prostate cancer.
Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Casodex is also known as Bicalutamide, Cosudex, Calutide, Kalumid, Bicalox.
Generic name of Generic Casodex is Bicalutamide.
Brand name of Generic Casodex is Casodex.
Take Generic Casodex tablets orally with or without food.
Take Generic Casodex at the same time every day with water.
Do not crush or chew it.
This medicine is only for men.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Casodex and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.
The most common side effects associated with Casodex are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Casodex if you are allergic to Generic Casodex components.
Use contraception and avoid vaccinations.
Try to be careful using Generic Casodex if you take warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin-substitute products, aspirin.
Be very careful with Generic Casodex if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease.
Do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
CAB therapy using chlormadinone led to a significantly poorer survival outcome versus the use of bicalutamide. However, because this survival trend was not observed in M0 cases, chlormadinone may still be an option for CAB therapy, depending on clinical stage and the severity of adverse effects, such as hot flashes.
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The clinically used androgen receptor (AR) antagonists (bicalutamide, flutamide and nilutamide) bind with low affinity to AR and can induce escape mechanisms. Furthermore, under AR gene amplification or mutation conditions they demonstrate agonist activity and fail to inhibit AR, causing relapse into castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Discovery of new scaffolds distinct from the 4-cyano/nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl group common to currently used antiandrogens is urgently needed to avoid cross-resistance with these compounds. In this study, a series of twenty-nine 7-substituted umbelliferone derivatives was prepared and their antiproliferative activities were evaluated. The most active compound 7a demonstrated submicromolar inhibitory activity in the human prostate cancer cell line (22Rv1); IC50=0.93 μM which represents a 50 fold improvement over the clinical antiandrogen bicalutamide (IC50=46 μM) and a more than 30 fold improvement over enzalutamide (IC50=32 μM). Interestingly, this compound showed even better activity against the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7); IC50=0.47 μM. Molecular modelling studies provided a plausible theoretical explanation for our findings.
Prolonged AR localization to the regulatory regions of AR targeted genes and the recruitment of p160 coactivators are a potential mechanism leading to androgen-independent activation of the AR. Disruption of AR chromatin loading could therefore become an important therapeutic target for this disease.
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Androgens may provide protective effects in the vasculature under pathophysiological conditions. Our past studies have shown that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) decreases expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) during cytokine, endotoxin, or hypoxic stimulation in human vascular smooth muscle cells, in an androgen receptor (AR)-independent fashion. Classically DHT is regarded as a pure AR agonist; however, it can be endogenously metabolized to 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3β-diol), which has recently been shown to be a selective estrogen receptor (ERβ) agonist. Therefore, we hypothesized that DHT's anti-inflammatory properties following cytokine stimulation are mediated through ERβ. Using primary human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMC), we tested whether DHT's effect on IL-1β induced COX-2 expression was mediated via AR or ERβ. The metabolism of DHT to 3β-diol is a viable pathway in HBVSMC since mRNA for enzymes necessary for the synthesis and metabolism of 3β-diol [3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, CYP7B1] was detected. In addition, the expression of AR, ERα, and ERβ mRNA was detected. When applied to HBVSMC, DHT (10nM; 18 h) attenuated IL-1β-induced increases in COX-2 protein expression. The AR antagonist bicalutamide did not block DHT's ability to reduce COX-2. Both the non-selective estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 (1 μM) and the selective ERβ antagonist PHTPP (1 μM) inhibited the effect of DHT, suggesting that DHT actions are ERβ-mediated. In HBVSMC and in rat mesenteric arteries, 3β-diol, similar to DHT, reduced cytokine-induced COX-2 levels. In conclusion, DHT appears to be protective against the progression of vascular inflammation through metabolism to 3β-diol and activation of ERβ.
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Increased awareness of prostate cancer has led to earlier initiation of therapy, and the potential for a longer duration of treatment has led to a stronger emphasis on tolerability. Historically, the mainstay of treatment of hormone-sensitive prostate cancer has been castration-based therapy, but antiandrogens are now emerging as an alternative. This article reviews the tolerability profiles of antiandrogens as well as other existing treatments for prostate cancer and examines their implications on patient care.
A total of 1,453 patients with either confirmed metastatic disease (M1), or T3/T4 non-metastatic disease with elevated prostate-specific antigen (M0) were recruited into one of two identical, multicentre, randomised studies to compare 'Casodex' 150 mg/day with castration. The protocols allowed for combined analysis.
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Cdc25C is a cell cycle protein of the dual specificity phosphatase family essential for activating the cdk1/Cyclin B1 complex in cells entering into mitosis. Since altered cell cycle is a hallmark of human cancers, we investigated androgen regulation of Cdc25C protein in human prostate cancer (PCa) cells, including androgen-sensitive (AS) LNCaP C-33 cells and androgen-independent (AI) LNCaP C-81 as well as PC-3 cells. In the regular culture condition containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), Cdc25C protein levels were similar in these PCa cells. In a steroid-reduced condition, Cdc25C protein was greatly decreased in AS C-33 cells but not AI C-81 or PC-3 cells. In androgen-treated C-33 cells, the Cdc25C protein level was greatly elevated, following a dose- and a time-dependent manner, correlating with increased cell proliferation. This androgen effect was blocked by Casodex, an androgen receptor blocker. Nevertheless, epidermal growth factor (EGF), a growth stimulator of PCa cells, could only increase Cdc25C protein level by about 1.5-fold. Altered expression of Cdc25C in C-33 cells and PC-3 cells by cDNA and/or shRNA transfection is associated with the corresponding changes of cell growth and Cyclin B1 protein level. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide could only partially block androgen-induced Cdc25C protein level. Treatments with both proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors resulted in elevated Cdc25C protein levels. Immunoprecipitation revealed that androgens reduced the ubiquitination of Cdc25C proteins. These results show for the first time that Cdc25C protein plays a role in regulating PCa cell growth, and androgen treatments, but not EGF, greatly increase Cdc25C protein levels in AS PCa cells, which is in part by decreasing its degradation. These results can lead to advanced PCa therapy via up-regulating the degradation pathways of Cdc25C protein.
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Our findings suggest that late toxicity is equivalent between the two treatment groups and that the hypofractionated schedule used in this trial is superior to the conventional fractionation in terms of FFBF.
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Michaelis-Menten kinetics yielded a saturable transport with K(m) values of 6.9 and 7.0 micromol/l choline for LNCaP and PC-3 cells, respectively. Treatment of cells with bicalutamide and docetaxel caused an increase in total choline uptake but had no significant effect on K(m) values. Uptake of (3)H-choline was NaCl dependent and 4.5-fold higher in LNCaP cells than in PC-3 cells. (3)H-Choline uptake was reduced by 92-96% using HC-3 and unlabelled choline, by 63-69% using guanidine and by 20% using TEA. The high-affinity choline transporter was detected via Western blotting.
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In this study, capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) induced an increase in the cell viability of the androgen-responsive prostate cancer LNCaP cells, which was reversed by the use of the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, I-RTX and SB 366791. In further studies we observed that capsaicin induced a decrease in ceramide levels as well as Akt and Erk activation. To investigate the mechanism of capsaicin action we measured androgen (AR) receptor levels. Capsaicin induced an increase in the AR expression that was reverted by the three TRPV1 antagonists. AR silencing by the use of siRNA, as well as blocking the AR receptor with bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferative effect of capsaicin.
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There are reasons to discuss whether the extent of hormone-treatment and radical treatment should be reduced. A reduction would be most easily achieved by reducing wild-screening of PSA in serum.
Combined androgen blockade therapy (CAB) has been shown to have a small survival advantage over luteinizing hormone releasing hormone LH-RH agonists (LH-RHa) alone in men with metastatic prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of CAB with bicalutamide and LH-RH agonist therapy to LH-RH agonist therapy alone.
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These data suggest that bicalutamide decreases pain and improves symptom status in patients with prostate cancer in whom first-line hormonal therapy failed.
In total, 124 patients with prostate cancer enrolled in the present study were randomized to receive CAB therapy using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, combined with bicalutamide or chlormadinone. The survival of patients was analyzed.
Patients with low-risk or low-tier intermediate risk prostate cancer eligible for PIPB with a prostate volume greater than 50 cc were randomized to either Dutasteride 0.5 mg Bicalutamide 50 mg daily and Tamoxifen 10 mg daily for 3 months (D+B group) or to a 3 month dose of an LHRH agonist and Bicalutamide daily for 1 month (LHRH group). Their PV was measured at baseline and at pre-implant. Non-inferiority analysis was completed for the relative (%) PV reduction. IPSS and EPIC questionnaires were completed at baseline, pre-implant and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post-treatment. IPSS and EPIC comparisons were based on superiority analysis
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Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Micelles were fabricated with polyethylene glycol-b-polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) copolymer and characterized in terms of particle size, micellar solubilization and drug loading, followed by evaluation in nude mice bearing LNCaP xenografts.
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Nonsteroidal antiandrogens are commonly used in the treatment of prostate cancer, but more clinical and laboratory studies on patients with benign as well as malignant prostate diseases are required to define their exact role.
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In the EudraVigilance (EV) Database, output from PRR calculated with a restricted TA comparator background was compared in detail to output from conventional authority-setting PRR calculations for four drugs: bicalutamide, abiraterone, metformin, and vildagliptin, within the TAs of prostate gland disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Bicalutamide monotherapy is a valuable option for prostate cancer (PCa) patients who wish to avoid the consequences of androgen deprivation; however, this treatment induces gynaecomastia and mastalgia in most patients. Tamoxifen is safe and effective in preventing breast events induced by bicalutamide monotherapy without affecting antitumor activity, but possible interference between bicalutamide and tamoxifen remains a matter of concern. To reduce the exposure to tamoxifen, we considered the putative advantages of weekly administration.
The efficacy of low-dose bicalutamide (25 mg/day) in the treatment of hirsutism was investigated in this study. Hirsutism score was determined, according to a modified Ferriman-Gallwey scoring system, in 42 women with hirsutism. Each patient received 25 mg/day bicalutamide. Before therapy, multiscreen blood chemistry, hormonal analysis, and complete blood counts were performed. These parameters and hirsutism scores were repeated at 3 and 6 months during therapy. The paired Student's t-test was used to compare repeated values. Clinical improvement in the degree of hirsutism was observed in all patients by the same author. The modified Ferriman-Gallwey scores decreased from a mean of 22.0 +/- 5.1 to 8.6 +/- 3.5 (p < 0.0001). The reduction in hirsutism scores was 41.2 +/- 11.4% at 3 months and 61.6 +/- 11.1% at 6 months. In conclusion, bicalutamide at 25 mg/day is an effective drug in the treatment of patients with hirsutism.
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Withdrawal responses were observed following the discontinuation of the antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide, flutamide plus aminoglutethimide, estrogens, and progestational agents. In most responding cases, responses were seen in patients with long exposure to the drug. No specific factors were predictive for response.
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