calan eeze review
Thirty-six healthy male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Animals in the hyperoxaluric group were fed with 0.75% ethylene glycol. The verapamil group was fed identically to the hyperoxaluric group. Additionally, the verapamil group received verapamil orally (0.1 mg/kg). The control group received no special diet. Six animals in each group were killed on the 7th day of the experiment and the remaining six at the 28th day. Kidneys of the rabbits were examined by histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis to detect the presence and degree of HIF-1alpha positivity.
The purpose of this study is to determine the functional role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in intestinal absorption of drugs and to quantitatively predict the in vivo absorption enhancement on P-gp inhibition. In situ single-pass rat ileum permeability and aqueous solubility were measured for a set of 16 compounds. Permeability studies were also carried out in the presence of P-gp inhibitor to estimate the permeability enhancement on P-gp inhibition. A significant correlation was obtained between rat ileum permeability and the literature human intestinal absorption (HIA), F(a,human) (r = 0.891; p < 0.01). Compounds with permeability >0.2 x 10(-4) cm/s are completely absorbed; however, few practically insoluble compounds were overestimated with this relationship. Inhibition of P-gp increased the permeability (p < 0.05) of three moderately and three highly permeable compounds. Efflux inhibition ratio (EIR), the ratio of permeability due to P-gp-mediated efflux activity and passive permeability only, for these compounds was in the order of digoxin > paclitaxel > fexofenadine > quinidine > verapamil > cyclosporine. Integration of EIR with permeability versus F(a,human) predicted that modulation of P-gp has no significant effect on the absorption of highly permeable compounds (quinidine, verapamil, and cyclosporine A), while for moderately permeable compounds (digoxin, paclitaxel, and fexofenadine), P-gp profoundly influences the intestinal permeability. The in situ permeability in rat ileum may be used to predict the in vivo P-gp function and its quantitative contribution to intestinal drug absorption. Integration of the functional activity of P-gp with the characteristics of BCS may explain drug interactions and explore the possible pharmacokinetic advantage on P-gp inhibition.
calan 240 mg
An accurate and precise micellar LC method coupled with UV and fluorimetric detectors was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of furosemide, metoprolol and verapamil in human plasma. The total analysis time was 25 min (12 min for sample preparation and 13 min for drug separation). All drugs possessed linear behavior (r > 0.999 for calibration curves) in their therapeutic concentrations. The mean drug recoveries were 101.9, 100.1 and 100.2% for furosemide, metoprolol and verapamil, respectively. The accuracies (relative error %) were less than 15% for all drugs. Intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD%) were less than 15% and the stability data were acceptable according to the US FDA guideline for bioanalytical method validation.
(R)- and (S)-[(11)C]EMP were synthesised from (R)- and (S)-noremopamil, respectively, by methylation with [(11)C]methyl triflate in the presence of NaOH at room temperature. (R)- and (S)-[(11)C]EMP yields were ~30%, with specific activity>74 GBq/μmol and radiochemical purity>99%. (R)-[(11)C]EMP showed significantly greater uptake in the mouse brain than (S)-[(11)C]EMP. Both showed homogeneous non-stereoselective regional brain distributions. (R)- and (S)-[(11)C]EMP were rapidly metabolised to hydrophilic metabolites. Unchanged plasma (S)-[(11)C]EMP level was significantly lower than that of (R)-[(11)C]EMP 15 minutes post-injection, whilst>88% of radioactivity in the brain was intact at 15 minutes post-injection and was non-stereoselective. CsA pretreatment increased brain activity ~3-fold in mice, but was non-stereoselective. The baseline area-under-the-curve (AUC) of brain radioactivity (0-60 minutes) of (R)-[(11)C]EMP was 2-fold higher than that of (R)-[(11)C]VER, but their AUCs after CsA pretreatment were comparable.
calan 40 mg
We included randomized controlled trials (including cross-over studies) and quasi-randomised trials. Unblinded open trials and individual patient studies were included in the discussion. Interventions included any pharmacological agent or nutritional supplement. Primary outcome measures included any objective assessment of exercise endurance (for example aerobic capacity (VO(2)) max, walking speed, muscle force or power and fatigability). Secondary outcome measures included metabolic changes (such as reduced plasma creatine kinase and a reduction in the frequency of myoglobinuria), subjective measures (including quality of life scores and indices of disability) and serious adverse events.
calan sr dosage
Possible involvement of cell membrane ion transport systems in the uptake and extrusion of Tc-99m-MIBI was investigated by using various buffers with or without Na+ and Ca++, and ion transport inhibitors in a tumor cell line. The ion transport modulators dimethyl amiloride (DMA), verapamil, flunarizine and monensin were used. The uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI was significantly increased in all buffers containing either Na+ or Ca++ alone or none of them. There was significantly increased uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI especially in buffers without Na+. Verapamil, a L-type Ca++ channel blocker, increased Tc-99m-MIBI uptake in all buffers. Flunarizine, which inhibits Na+/ Ca++ channels, caused significantly increased accumulation of Tc-99m-MIBI only in buffer containing both Na+ and Ca++. Monensin, a sodium ionophore, significantly increased uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI. DMA, a potent Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor, significantly inhibited the uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI in all buffers. In conclusion, Tc-99m-MIBI behaves like Na+ during its uptake and extrusion. Extrusion of Tc-99m-MIBI may involve both verapamil- and flunarizine-sensitive pathways.
Bradykinin (BK) elicits extracellular-dependent [Ca2+](i) elevations in mouse mesangial cells (MMC) that are not blocked by verapamil, nifedipine, L-nicardipine, NiCl(2), or LaCl(3). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms involved in calcium influx induced by BK in MMC. [Ca2+](i) was analyzed through spectrofluorometry employing fura-2-AM, and the data were expressed as [Ca2+](i )obtained/[Ca2+](i )basal ratio. Heparin (IP(3), a receptor antagonist) almost abolished the effects of BK in MMC (1.85 +/- 0.15 vs. 1.13 +/- 0.02, n = 4, p = 0.001). Following external and intracellular calcium store depletion, BK's effect was absent even after successful extracellular calcium replenishment. ML-7 (a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor) blocked responses to thapsigargin (2.62 +/- 0.13 vs. 1.11 +/- 0.04, n = 4, p < 0.001), but not those of BK (6.51 +/- 0.39, n = 6, vs. 5.86 +/- 1.17, n = 4, p = 0.39). On the other hand, genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor) was able to inhibit thapsigargin (3.12 +/- 0.22, n = 5, vs. 1.28 +/- 0.16, n = 4, p < 0.001) as well as BK responses (6.46 +/- 0.66 vs. 2.89 +/- 0.61, n = 4, p < 0.05). Econazole (a P-450 monooxygenase inhibitor) inhibited the responses to both thapsigargin (3.45 +/- 0.16 vs. 1.03 +/- 0.03, n = 4, p < 0.001) and BK (6.49 +/- 0.83, n = 6, vs. 1.17 +/- 0.08, n = 4, p = 0.01). Finally, responses to BK were not affected by indomethacin (6.69 +/- 0.66 vs. 6.57 +/- 0.87, n = 4, p = 0.916). Thus, BK promotes an IP(3)-sensitive store-dependent calcium influx in MMC. This phenomenon seems to involve tyrosine kinase and P-450 monooxygenase products in its transduction pathway.
calan drug classification
Thus far, there is no established systemic pharmacologic approach for the prevention of restenosis after PCIs. Five small studies reported encouraging results for calcium channel blockers.
The main drugs we described were enalapril, verapamil, nifedipine, indapamina, losartan, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and atenolol. These drugs are usually used in follow up programs, however, the studies we investigated used different protocols. Enalapril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) and verapamil (Ca(++) channel blocker) caused hypertrophy to regress in LVH rats. The effects of enalapril and nifedipine (Ca(++) channel blocker) were similar. Indapamina (diuretic) had a stronger effect than enalapril, and losartan (angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist) produced better results than atenolol (selective beta1 receptor antagonist) with respect to LVH regression.
calan sr medication
Fascicular ventricular tachycardia (VT), the commonest form of idiopathic left VT, occurs more frequently in young males without structural heart disease and usually presents as paroxysmal palpitations. It is subdivided into two more common subtypes, posterior and anterior. A macro-reentrant circuit involving a considerable and variable extent of the left interventricular septum is presumed to be the underlying arrhythmogenic mechanism. A slow conduction zone with particular sensitivity to verapamil participates in the circuit and it seems that diastolic potentials (DP) represent the electrical activity in or near this zone. The fascicles of the left bundle appear to constitute part of the retrograde pathway and Purkinje potentials (PP) are assumed to represent their activation. In the present retrospective study, the authors review twelve cases of fascicular VT (ten posterior and two anterior) evaluated in the electrophysiology laboratory. Although initial induction was obtained in all patients, reproducibility was poor as a consequence of frequent contact inhibition during endocardial mapping of the left ventricle and this meant that ablation was not possible in two cases. Two cases of associated atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and a case of associated atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia by a right posterior accessory pathway were documented, which suggest a correlated anatomic substrate. After ablation of the slow nodal pathway in one of the AVNRTs, fascicular VT was no longer inducible. Ablation of the fascicular VT was attempted in nine patients, at the tachycardia exit site (characterized by an early ventricular electrogram fused with a Purkinje potential) in two patients with anterior fascicular VT and in five patients with the posterior subtype, and near the slow conduction pathway (site with simultaneous recording of DP and PP) in the other two patients. The initial success rate with a single procedure was 78%, two of the ablations at the tachycardia exit site failing, with no complications. If we include the success of a repeated case with three-dimensional mapping, the overall success rate was 80%. Ablation of fascicular tachycardia appears to be a good therapeutic option with a good success rate and without significant adverse events. The poor reproducibility as a consequence of contact inhibition during endocardial left ventricular mapping is the principal limiting factor. With the help of currently available mapping systems, we hope that this limitation will disappear, as it is now possible with some devices to acquire accurate information on suitable sites for subsequent radiofrequency application with little or no contact, facilitating the ablation procedure. Ablation at a site with simultaneous recording of DP and PP is considered by most authors to be more effective than that performed at the tachycardia exit site.
To study the response of regular broad-complex tachycardia (BCT) demonstrating right bundle branch block (RBBB) to treatment in the Emergency department (ED).
The crude ethanol extract of fruits of Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. (Pp.Cr) was tested in vitro on isolated rabbit jejunum, tracheal, and aorta preparations. The responses of tissues were recorded using isotonic transducers coupled with a PowerLab data acquisition system.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is well known for its chemoresistance. The membranous p-glycoprotein (gp-170) is believed to be highly correlated with multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells with energy-dependent pumping efflux of anticancer drugs. Verapamil, a calcium antagonist, inhibits the efflux function of gp-170 and cytoskeletal transportation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of verapamil on gp-170 expression and intracellular drug accumulation in RCC tumor cells and the modulation of cytotoxicity of various chemotherapeutic drugs on native RCC cell lines and acquired MDR sublines by verapamil.
calan generic name
The Hoechst dye efflux assay identified a minor population of cells, called side population (SP) cells, in fresh retinal dissociates. These cells that preferentially excluded the Hoechst 33342 fluorescent dye were proliferative and expressed both neural progenitor and retinal progenitor markers. The retinal SP cells generated functional neurons and glia and possessed the ability to differentiate along lineages of different late-born retinal cell types. Cells of similar phenotypes and potential were observed in the SP obtained from mitogen-exposed retinal culture.
calan dosage forms
The experiments were performed using Langendorff perfused isolated rat hearts in which left ventricular pressure (LVP) and left ventricular cardiomyogram (LVCMG) were measured. Sustained VT or VF was induced by burst pacing of the left ventricular muscles.
calan 80 mg
An 18-year-old woman presented with recurrent exercise-induced syncopal episodes and severe systolic dysfunction. ECG monitoring disclosed repetitive polymorphic ventricular complexes, paroxysms of bidirectional ventricular tachycardia, and nonsustained bursts of slow polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that increased in length and rate during exercise. Ventricular arrhythmias were refractory to medical treatment, which included verapamil and beta-blockers. Addition of permanent atrial pacing to beta-blocker therapy suppressed the arrhythmias and reversed systolic impairment in the following months.
calan 5 mg
To evaluate whether these efflux transporters may play a significant role in limiting oral absorption of 13 commonly used drugs (digoxin, etoposide, felodipine, fexofenadine, furosemide, indinavir, losartan, nadolol, propranolol, ritonavir, saquinavir, tacrolimus, and verapamil) in humans.
calan 120 mg
Sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-CD) is a pharmaceutical excipient known to bind verapamil. Following intravenous administration, clearance of SBE-CD approximates glomerular filtration rate. We hypothesized that infusion of SBE-CD would increase time to asystole in a rat model of verapamil toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The objective was to demonstrate the effect of a range of SBE-CD concentrations in a rat model of verapamil toxicity.
calan 180 mg
To investigate how reduction in cardiac output affects the magnitude and timing of aortic and hepatic contrast medium enhancement during abdominal computed tomography (CT).
It has been established that kisspeptin regulates reproduction via stimulation of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which then induces pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) release. Kisspeptin also directly stimulates pituitary hormone release in some mammals. However, in goldfish, whether kisspeptin directly affects pituitary hormone release is controversial. In this study, synthetic goldfish kisspeptin-1((1-10)) (gKiss1) enhances LH and growth hormone (GH) release from primary cultures of goldfish pituitary cells in column perifusion. gKiss1 stimulation of LH and GH secretion were still manifested in the presence of the two native goldfish GnRHs, salmon (s)GnRH (goldfish GnRH-3) and chicken (c)GnRH-II (goldfish GnRH-2), but were attenuated by two voltage-sensitive calcium channel blockers, verapamil and nifedipine. gKiss-induced increases in intracellular Ca(2+) in Fura-2AM pre-loaded goldfish pars distalis cells were also inhibited by nifedipine. These results indicate that, in goldfish, (1) direct gKiss1 actions on pituitary LH and GH secretion exist, (2) these actions are independent of GnRH and (3) they involve Ca(2+) signalling.
calan eeze review
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is involved in the ATP-dependant cellular efflux of a large number of drugs including ivermectin, a macrocyclic lactone (ML) endectocide, widely used in livestock and human antiparasitic therapy. The interactions of P-gp with ivermectin and other MLs were studied. In a first approach, the ability of ivermectin (IVM), eprinomectin (EPR), abamectin (ABA), doramectin (DOR), selamectin (SEL), or moxidectin (MOX) to inhibit the rhodamine123 efflux was measured in recombinant cells overexpressing P-gp. Then, the influence of these compounds on the P-gp ATPase activity was tested on membrane vesicles prepared from fibroblasts overexpressing P-gp. All the MLs tested increased the intracellular rhodamine123. However, the potency of MOX to inhibit P-gp function was 10 times lower than the other MLs. They all inhibited the basal and decreased the verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity. But SEL and MOX were less potent than the other MLs when competing with verapamil. According to the structural specificity of SEL and MOX, we conclude that the integrity of the sugar moiety is determinant to achieve the optimal interaction of macrocyclic lactones with P-gp. The structure-affinity relationship for interaction with P-gp is important information for improving ML bioavailability and reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR).