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Calan (Verapamil Hydrochloride)
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Calan

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Cartia XT, Cardizem, Cardizem LA, Nifedical XL , Propranolol, Procardia, Procardia XL

 

Also known as:  Verapamil Hydrochloride.

Description

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders.

It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Calan is also known as Verapamil, Calaptin, Isoptin, Verelan, Bosoptin, Covera-HS.

Dosage

Take Calan orally.

Do not take Calan in large amounts.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open a controlled-delivery or extended-release tablet or capsule.

Swallow the whole pill.

It is important to use verapamil regularly to get the most benefit.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Calan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Calan overdosage: slow heartbeat, fainting fit.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Calan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Calan if you are allergic to Calan components.

Be careful with Calan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Calan if you have poor heart condition, low blood pressure, recent heart attack.

Be careful with Calan if you suffer from kidney, liver disease, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy.

Be careful with Calan if you take medications such as any other blood pressure medications; buspirone (BuSpar); carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol); cimetidine (Tagamet, Tagamet HB); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); lithium (Eskalith, LithoBid); lovastatin (Mevacor); phenobarbital (Solfoton); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater); theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl); a sedative such as midazolam (Versed) or triazolam (Halcion); an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S., Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), telithromycin (Ketek), or voriconazole (Vfend); a beta-blocker such as atenolol (Tenormin), bisoprolol (Zebeta, Ziac), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Blocadren), and others; a heart rhythm medication such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), disopyramide (Norpace), flecainide (Tambocor), or quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release); HIV/AIDS medicine such as amprenavir (Agenerase), atazanavir (Reyataz), delavirdine (Rescriptor), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Calan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

calan eeze review

Thirty-six healthy male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Animals in the hyperoxaluric group were fed with 0.75% ethylene glycol. The verapamil group was fed identically to the hyperoxaluric group. Additionally, the verapamil group received verapamil orally (0.1 mg/kg). The control group received no special diet. Six animals in each group were killed on the 7th day of the experiment and the remaining six at the 28th day. Kidneys of the rabbits were examined by histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis to detect the presence and degree of HIF-1alpha positivity.

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The purpose of this study is to determine the functional role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in intestinal absorption of drugs and to quantitatively predict the in vivo absorption enhancement on P-gp inhibition. In situ single-pass rat ileum permeability and aqueous solubility were measured for a set of 16 compounds. Permeability studies were also carried out in the presence of P-gp inhibitor to estimate the permeability enhancement on P-gp inhibition. A significant correlation was obtained between rat ileum permeability and the literature human intestinal absorption (HIA), F(a,human) (r = 0.891; p < 0.01). Compounds with permeability >0.2 x 10(-4) cm/s are completely absorbed; however, few practically insoluble compounds were overestimated with this relationship. Inhibition of P-gp increased the permeability (p < 0.05) of three moderately and three highly permeable compounds. Efflux inhibition ratio (EIR), the ratio of permeability due to P-gp-mediated efflux activity and passive permeability only, for these compounds was in the order of digoxin > paclitaxel > fexofenadine > quinidine > verapamil > cyclosporine. Integration of EIR with permeability versus F(a,human) predicted that modulation of P-gp has no significant effect on the absorption of highly permeable compounds (quinidine, verapamil, and cyclosporine A), while for moderately permeable compounds (digoxin, paclitaxel, and fexofenadine), P-gp profoundly influences the intestinal permeability. The in situ permeability in rat ileum may be used to predict the in vivo P-gp function and its quantitative contribution to intestinal drug absorption. Integration of the functional activity of P-gp with the characteristics of BCS may explain drug interactions and explore the possible pharmacokinetic advantage on P-gp inhibition.

calan 240 mg

An accurate and precise micellar LC method coupled with UV and fluorimetric detectors was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of furosemide, metoprolol and verapamil in human plasma. The total analysis time was 25 min (12 min for sample preparation and 13 min for drug separation). All drugs possessed linear behavior (r > 0.999 for calibration curves) in their therapeutic concentrations. The mean drug recoveries were 101.9, 100.1 and 100.2% for furosemide, metoprolol and verapamil, respectively. The accuracies (relative error %) were less than 15% for all drugs. Intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD%) were less than 15% and the stability data were acceptable according to the US FDA guideline for bioanalytical method validation.

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(R)- and (S)-[(11)C]EMP were synthesised from (R)- and (S)-noremopamil, respectively, by methylation with [(11)C]methyl triflate in the presence of NaOH at room temperature. (R)- and (S)-[(11)C]EMP yields were ~30%, with specific activity>74 GBq/μmol and radiochemical purity>99%. (R)-[(11)C]EMP showed significantly greater uptake in the mouse brain than (S)-[(11)C]EMP. Both showed homogeneous non-stereoselective regional brain distributions. (R)- and (S)-[(11)C]EMP were rapidly metabolised to hydrophilic metabolites. Unchanged plasma (S)-[(11)C]EMP level was significantly lower than that of (R)-[(11)C]EMP 15 minutes post-injection, whilst>88% of radioactivity in the brain was intact at 15 minutes post-injection and was non-stereoselective. CsA pretreatment increased brain activity ~3-fold in mice, but was non-stereoselective. The baseline area-under-the-curve (AUC) of brain radioactivity (0-60 minutes) of (R)-[(11)C]EMP was 2-fold higher than that of (R)-[(11)C]VER, but their AUCs after CsA pretreatment were comparable.

calan 40 mg

We included randomized controlled trials (including cross-over studies) and quasi-randomised trials. Unblinded open trials and individual patient studies were included in the discussion. Interventions included any pharmacological agent or nutritional supplement. Primary outcome measures included any objective assessment of exercise endurance (for example aerobic capacity (VO(2)) max, walking speed, muscle force or power and fatigability). Secondary outcome measures included metabolic changes (such as reduced plasma creatine kinase and a reduction in the frequency of myoglobinuria), subjective measures (including quality of life scores and indices of disability) and serious adverse events.

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Possible involvement of cell membrane ion transport systems in the uptake and extrusion of Tc-99m-MIBI was investigated by using various buffers with or without Na+ and Ca++, and ion transport inhibitors in a tumor cell line. The ion transport modulators dimethyl amiloride (DMA), verapamil, flunarizine and monensin were used. The uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI was significantly increased in all buffers containing either Na+ or Ca++ alone or none of them. There was significantly increased uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI especially in buffers without Na+. Verapamil, a L-type Ca++ channel blocker, increased Tc-99m-MIBI uptake in all buffers. Flunarizine, which inhibits Na+/ Ca++ channels, caused significantly increased accumulation of Tc-99m-MIBI only in buffer containing both Na+ and Ca++. Monensin, a sodium ionophore, significantly increased uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI. DMA, a potent Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor, significantly inhibited the uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI in all buffers. In conclusion, Tc-99m-MIBI behaves like Na+ during its uptake and extrusion. Extrusion of Tc-99m-MIBI may involve both verapamil- and flunarizine-sensitive pathways.

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Bradykinin (BK) elicits extracellular-dependent [Ca2+](i) elevations in mouse mesangial cells (MMC) that are not blocked by verapamil, nifedipine, L-nicardipine, NiCl(2), or LaCl(3). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms involved in calcium influx induced by BK in MMC. [Ca2+](i) was analyzed through spectrofluorometry employing fura-2-AM, and the data were expressed as [Ca2+](i )obtained/[Ca2+](i )basal ratio. Heparin (IP(3), a receptor antagonist) almost abolished the effects of BK in MMC (1.85 +/- 0.15 vs. 1.13 +/- 0.02, n = 4, p = 0.001). Following external and intracellular calcium store depletion, BK's effect was absent even after successful extracellular calcium replenishment. ML-7 (a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor) blocked responses to thapsigargin (2.62 +/- 0.13 vs. 1.11 +/- 0.04, n = 4, p < 0.001), but not those of BK (6.51 +/- 0.39, n = 6, vs. 5.86 +/- 1.17, n = 4, p = 0.39). On the other hand, genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor) was able to inhibit thapsigargin (3.12 +/- 0.22, n = 5, vs. 1.28 +/- 0.16, n = 4, p < 0.001) as well as BK responses (6.46 +/- 0.66 vs. 2.89 +/- 0.61, n = 4, p < 0.05). Econazole (a P-450 monooxygenase inhibitor) inhibited the responses to both thapsigargin (3.45 +/- 0.16 vs. 1.03 +/- 0.03, n = 4, p < 0.001) and BK (6.49 +/- 0.83, n = 6, vs. 1.17 +/- 0.08, n = 4, p = 0.01). Finally, responses to BK were not affected by indomethacin (6.69 +/- 0.66 vs. 6.57 +/- 0.87, n = 4, p = 0.916). Thus, BK promotes an IP(3)-sensitive store-dependent calcium influx in MMC. This phenomenon seems to involve tyrosine kinase and P-450 monooxygenase products in its transduction pathway.

calan drug classification

Thus far, there is no established systemic pharmacologic approach for the prevention of restenosis after PCIs. Five small studies reported encouraging results for calcium channel blockers.

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The main drugs we described were enalapril, verapamil, nifedipine, indapamina, losartan, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and atenolol. These drugs are usually used in follow up programs, however, the studies we investigated used different protocols. Enalapril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) and verapamil (Ca(++) channel blocker) caused hypertrophy to regress in LVH rats. The effects of enalapril and nifedipine (Ca(++) channel blocker) were similar. Indapamina (diuretic) had a stronger effect than enalapril, and losartan (angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist) produced better results than atenolol (selective beta1 receptor antagonist) with respect to LVH regression.

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Fascicular ventricular tachycardia (VT), the commonest form of idiopathic left VT, occurs more frequently in young males without structural heart disease and usually presents as paroxysmal palpitations. It is subdivided into two more common subtypes, posterior and anterior. A macro-reentrant circuit involving a considerable and variable extent of the left interventricular septum is presumed to be the underlying arrhythmogenic mechanism. A slow conduction zone with particular sensitivity to verapamil participates in the circuit and it seems that diastolic potentials (DP) represent the electrical activity in or near this zone. The fascicles of the left bundle appear to constitute part of the retrograde pathway and Purkinje potentials (PP) are assumed to represent their activation. In the present retrospective study, the authors review twelve cases of fascicular VT (ten posterior and two anterior) evaluated in the electrophysiology laboratory. Although initial induction was obtained in all patients, reproducibility was poor as a consequence of frequent contact inhibition during endocardial mapping of the left ventricle and this meant that ablation was not possible in two cases. Two cases of associated atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and a case of associated atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia by a right posterior accessory pathway were documented, which suggest a correlated anatomic substrate. After ablation of the slow nodal pathway in one of the AVNRTs, fascicular VT was no longer inducible. Ablation of the fascicular VT was attempted in nine patients, at the tachycardia exit site (characterized by an early ventricular electrogram fused with a Purkinje potential) in two patients with anterior fascicular VT and in five patients with the posterior subtype, and near the slow conduction pathway (site with simultaneous recording of DP and PP) in the other two patients. The initial success rate with a single procedure was 78%, two of the ablations at the tachycardia exit site failing, with no complications. If we include the success of a repeated case with three-dimensional mapping, the overall success rate was 80%. Ablation of fascicular tachycardia appears to be a good therapeutic option with a good success rate and without significant adverse events. The poor reproducibility as a consequence of contact inhibition during endocardial left ventricular mapping is the principal limiting factor. With the help of currently available mapping systems, we hope that this limitation will disappear, as it is now possible with some devices to acquire accurate information on suitable sites for subsequent radiofrequency application with little or no contact, facilitating the ablation procedure. Ablation at a site with simultaneous recording of DP and PP is considered by most authors to be more effective than that performed at the tachycardia exit site.

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To study the response of regular broad-complex tachycardia (BCT) demonstrating right bundle branch block (RBBB) to treatment in the Emergency department (ED).

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The crude ethanol extract of fruits of Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. (Pp.Cr) was tested in vitro on isolated rabbit jejunum, tracheal, and aorta preparations. The responses of tissues were recorded using isotonic transducers coupled with a PowerLab data acquisition system.

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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is well known for its chemoresistance. The membranous p-glycoprotein (gp-170) is believed to be highly correlated with multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells with energy-dependent pumping efflux of anticancer drugs. Verapamil, a calcium antagonist, inhibits the efflux function of gp-170 and cytoskeletal transportation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of verapamil on gp-170 expression and intracellular drug accumulation in RCC tumor cells and the modulation of cytotoxicity of various chemotherapeutic drugs on native RCC cell lines and acquired MDR sublines by verapamil.

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The Hoechst dye efflux assay identified a minor population of cells, called side population (SP) cells, in fresh retinal dissociates. These cells that preferentially excluded the Hoechst 33342 fluorescent dye were proliferative and expressed both neural progenitor and retinal progenitor markers. The retinal SP cells generated functional neurons and glia and possessed the ability to differentiate along lineages of different late-born retinal cell types. Cells of similar phenotypes and potential were observed in the SP obtained from mitogen-exposed retinal culture.

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The experiments were performed using Langendorff perfused isolated rat hearts in which left ventricular pressure (LVP) and left ventricular cardiomyogram (LVCMG) were measured. Sustained VT or VF was induced by burst pacing of the left ventricular muscles.

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An 18-year-old woman presented with recurrent exercise-induced syncopal episodes and severe systolic dysfunction. ECG monitoring disclosed repetitive polymorphic ventricular complexes, paroxysms of bidirectional ventricular tachycardia, and nonsustained bursts of slow polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that increased in length and rate during exercise. Ventricular arrhythmias were refractory to medical treatment, which included verapamil and beta-blockers. Addition of permanent atrial pacing to beta-blocker therapy suppressed the arrhythmias and reversed systolic impairment in the following months.

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To evaluate whether these efflux transporters may play a significant role in limiting oral absorption of 13 commonly used drugs (digoxin, etoposide, felodipine, fexofenadine, furosemide, indinavir, losartan, nadolol, propranolol, ritonavir, saquinavir, tacrolimus, and verapamil) in humans.

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Sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-CD) is a pharmaceutical excipient known to bind verapamil. Following intravenous administration, clearance of SBE-CD approximates glomerular filtration rate. We hypothesized that infusion of SBE-CD would increase time to asystole in a rat model of verapamil toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The objective was to demonstrate the effect of a range of SBE-CD concentrations in a rat model of verapamil toxicity.

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To investigate how reduction in cardiac output affects the magnitude and timing of aortic and hepatic contrast medium enhancement during abdominal computed tomography (CT).

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It has been established that kisspeptin regulates reproduction via stimulation of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which then induces pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) release. Kisspeptin also directly stimulates pituitary hormone release in some mammals. However, in goldfish, whether kisspeptin directly affects pituitary hormone release is controversial. In this study, synthetic goldfish kisspeptin-1((1-10)) (gKiss1) enhances LH and growth hormone (GH) release from primary cultures of goldfish pituitary cells in column perifusion. gKiss1 stimulation of LH and GH secretion were still manifested in the presence of the two native goldfish GnRHs, salmon (s)GnRH (goldfish GnRH-3) and chicken (c)GnRH-II (goldfish GnRH-2), but were attenuated by two voltage-sensitive calcium channel blockers, verapamil and nifedipine. gKiss-induced increases in intracellular Ca(2+) in Fura-2AM pre-loaded goldfish pars distalis cells were also inhibited by nifedipine. These results indicate that, in goldfish, (1) direct gKiss1 actions on pituitary LH and GH secretion exist, (2) these actions are independent of GnRH and (3) they involve Ca(2+) signalling.

calan eeze review

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is involved in the ATP-dependant cellular efflux of a large number of drugs including ivermectin, a macrocyclic lactone (ML) endectocide, widely used in livestock and human antiparasitic therapy. The interactions of P-gp with ivermectin and other MLs were studied. In a first approach, the ability of ivermectin (IVM), eprinomectin (EPR), abamectin (ABA), doramectin (DOR), selamectin (SEL), or moxidectin (MOX) to inhibit the rhodamine123 efflux was measured in recombinant cells overexpressing P-gp. Then, the influence of these compounds on the P-gp ATPase activity was tested on membrane vesicles prepared from fibroblasts overexpressing P-gp. All the MLs tested increased the intracellular rhodamine123. However, the potency of MOX to inhibit P-gp function was 10 times lower than the other MLs. They all inhibited the basal and decreased the verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity. But SEL and MOX were less potent than the other MLs when competing with verapamil. According to the structural specificity of SEL and MOX, we conclude that the integrity of the sugar moiety is determinant to achieve the optimal interaction of macrocyclic lactones with P-gp. The structure-affinity relationship for interaction with P-gp is important information for improving ML bioavailability and reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR).

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calan drug classification 2016-02-08

This study buy calan examines how calcium silicate cement extracts influence the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) through calcium channels and active mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, in particular extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK).

calan tablets 2016-10-01

Our results suggest that P-gp overexpression prevents cells from IB-MECA induced apoptosis despite the A3AR expression. Pro-apoptotic effect of IB-MECA seemed buy calan to strongly depend on its intracellular accumulation rather than on its interaction with A3AR.

calan 80 mg 2015-12-07

In patients with IGT, normal kidney function, and hypertension, the fixed-dose combination of T/V reduces the risk buy calan of new-onset diabetes compared with an L/H-based therapy.

calan sr dosage 2015-09-17

The need for lengthy treatment to cure tuberculosis stems from phenotypic drug resistance, also known as drug tolerance, which has been previously attributed to slowed bacterial growth in vivo. We discuss recent findings that challenge this model and instead implicate macrophage-induced mycobacterial efflux pumps in antimicrobial tolerance. Although mycobacterial efflux pumps may have originally served to protect against environmental toxins, in the pathogenic mycobacteria, they appear to have been repurposed for intracellular growth. In this light, we discuss the potential of efflux pump inhibitors such as buy calan verapamil to shorten tuberculosis treatment by their dual inhibition of tolerance and growth.

calan medication 2015-03-06

Thirty patients with CCF (mean age 64.5 +/- 9.5 years) received beta-blockers (n = 10, atenolol in a dose buy calan 50.0 +/- 23.2 mg/day or metoprolol in a dose 45.0 +/- 20.9 mg/day), verapamil (n = 10, 192.0 +/- 83.9 mg/day) and diltiazem (n = 10, 286.6 +/- 107.2 mg/day). The patients were studied with Holter ECG monitoring (Schiller MT-100, Switzerland) and high resolution ECG (electrocardioanalyser Cardis, Geolink-electronics, RF) with construction of periodograms of ff waves and interval histograms RR (IHrr), estimation of the rhythm variability (SDRR, rMSSD, PNN50).

calan 240 mg 2017-12-03

The effect of mibefradil on infarct size (IS) was compared with those of placebo, amlodipine, and verapamil in 64 anesthetized pigs. In placebo pigs, after 90 minutes of ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion, IS (by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining) was 15.3+/-10.8% (SD) of the area at risk. Mibefradil (0.60 mg/kg IV) reduced heart rate and left ventricular (LV) buy calan pressure, and IS was 1. 9+/-3.9% (P<0.05 versus placebo). Verapamil (0.15 mg/kg IV) also decreased heart rate, LV pressure, and IS (6.1+/-4.2%, P<0.05 versus placebo). Amlodipine (0.20 mg/kg IV) did not alter heart rate, LV pressure, or IS (9.9+/-5.4%, P=NS versus placebo). When heart rate was maintained constant by left atrial pacing and LV pressure was adjusted to that of the placebo group by an intra-aortic balloon, mibefradil still decreased IS (3.8+/-3.0%, P<0.05 versus placebo), but verapamil did not (11.6+/-8.3%, P=NS versus placebo). With glibenclamide infusion, mibefradil no longer reduced IS (13.1+/-4.3% versus 17.8+/-5.6% with glibenclamide alone, P=NS).

calan tab 2016-11-30

We report on a 6-month-old patient with a right bundle, superior axis tachycardia at 197 beats per minute. The tachycardia was unresponsive to adenosine, propranolol, flecainide, or amiodarone, or synchronized cardioversion buy calan . Overdrive atrial pacing terminated the tachycardia and since initiating verapamil, no recurrences of his tachycardia have occurred.

calan dosage 2016-12-25

Verapamil is highly effective against catecholamine-induced arrhythmia in mice with CASQ2 mutations and may potentiate the antiarrhythmic activity of buy calan β-blockers in humans with CPVT2.

calan eeze review 2017-03-26

Verapamil is a common calcium antagonist described with antianginal, antihypertensive and antiarrythmic properties. The metabolites of verapamil have also shown pharmacological properties and therefore sample preparation and analysis techniques capable of metabolic screening for verapamil are important. In-tube SPME is a relatively new method integrating sample extraction, concentration and introduction into one single step without the use of organic solvents. The capability of in-tube SPME in bioanalysis has been reviewed but there has been no application described in the field of drug metabolism. Since automation and interfacing of in-tube SPME coupled to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is possible, we confirm in this study that it buy calan is a powerful method to monitor the main metabolites of verapamil in various biological matrices like plasma, urine and cell culture media. Further, we show that it could also be used in routine pharmacokinetics measurements. An in-tube SPME LC-MS method was developed to extract and analyze the metabolic profile of verapamil from biological matrices. The detection limit for verapamil, gallopamil, norverapamil and PR22 were 52, 53, 65 and 83 ng/ml (UV detection) and 5, 6, 6 and 8 ng/ml (MS detection), respectively. The precision of the method was calculated in various biological matrices and the average % R.S.D. (N=5) for verapamil, gallopamil, norverapamil and PR22 was 3.9, 3.7, 3.8 and 4.3% (MS detection), respectively. The linear dynamic range was determined to be 100-800 ng/ml (UV detection) with a total sample preparation and analysis time of 34 min.

calan generic name 2015-12-30

Cadmium-mediated toxicity of cultured proximal tubule (PT) cells is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. We found that cadmium-dependent apoptosis (Hoechst 33342 and annexin V assays) decreased with prolonged CdCl(2) (10 microM) application (controls: 2.4 +/- 1.6%; 5 h: +5.1 +/- 2.3%, 20 h: +5.7 +/- 2.5%, 48 h: +3.3 +/- 1.0% and 72 h: +2.1 +/- 0.4% above controls), while cell proliferation was not affected. Reduction of apoptosis correlated with a time-dependent up-regulation of the drug efflux pump multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (mdr1) in cadmium-treated cells ( approximately 4-fold after 72 h), as determined by immunoblotting with the monoclonal antibody C219 and measurement of intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent probe calcein +/- the mdr1 inhibitor PSC833 (0.5 microM). When mdr1 inhibitors (PSC833, cyclosporine A, verapamil) were transiently added to cells with mdr1 up-regulation by pretreatment for 72 h with cadmium, cadmium-induced apoptosis increased significantly and to a percentage similar to that obtained in cells with no mdr1 up-regulation (72-h cadmium: 5.2 +/- 0.9% versus 72-h cadmium + 1-h PSC833: 7.2 +/- 1.4%; p < or = 0.001). Cadmium-induced apoptosis and mdr1 up-regulation depended on ROS, since co-incubation with the ROS scavengers N-acetylcysteine (15 mM) or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (0.1 mM) abolished both responses. Moreover, cadmium- and ROS-associated mdr1 up-regulation was linked to activation of the transcription factor NF- buy calan kappaB; N-acetylcysteine, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and the IkappaB-alpha kinase inhibitor Bay 11-7082 (20 microM) prevented both, mdr1 overexpression and degradation of the inhibitory NF-kappaB subunit, IkappaB-alpha, induced by cadmium. The data show that 1) cadmium-mediated apoptosis in PT cells is associated with ROS production, 2) ROS increase mdr1 expression by a process involving NF-kappaB activation, and 3) mdr1 overexpression protects PT cells against cadmium-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that mdr1 up-regulation, at least in part, provides anti-apoptotic protection for PT cells against cadmium-mediated stress.

calan 40 mg 2016-12-07

Accumulating evidence suggests that L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs) attenuate the expression of opioid withdrawal and the dihydropyridine L-type CCB isradipine has buy calan been shown to block the behavioral effects of naloxone in opioid-maintained humans. This study determined whether two prototypic L-type CCBs with differing chemical structures, the benzothiazepine diltiazem and the phenylalkamine verapamil, attenuate the behavioral effects of naloxone in methadone-maintained humans trained to distinguish between low-dose naloxone (0.15 mg/70 kg, i.m.) and placebo under an instructed novel-response drug discrimination procedure. Once discrimination was acquired, diltiazem (0, 30, 60, 120 mg) and verapamil (0, 30, 60, 120 mg), alone and combined with the training dose of naloxone, were tested. Diltiazem alone produced 33-50% naloxone- and novel-appropriate responding at 30 and 60 mg and essentially placebo-appropriate responding at 120 mg. Verapamil alone produced 20-40% naloxone- and 0% novel-appropriate responding. Diltiazem at 60 mg decreased several ratings associated with positive mood and increased VAS ratings of "Bad Drug Effects" relative to placebo, whereas verapamil increased ratings associated with euphoria. When administered with naloxone, diltiazem produced 94-100% naloxone-appropriate-responding with 6% novel-appropriate responding at 60 mg (n=3). When administered with naloxone, verapamil produced 60-80% naloxone- and 0% novel-appropriate responding (n=5). Diltiazem decreased diastolic blood pressure and heart rate whereas verapamil decreased ratings of arousal relative to placebo. These results suggest that CCBs with different chemical structures can be differentiated behaviorally, and that diltiazem and verapamil do not attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects of naloxone in humans at the doses tested.

calan 180 mg 2015-04-12

N,N-dimethyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (DMS), an N-methyl derivative of sphingosine, is an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) and sphingosine kinase (SK). In previous reports, DMS-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase concentration ([Ca2+]i) was studied in T lymphocytes, monocytes, astrocytes and neuronal cells. In the present study, we studied DMS-induced increase of [Ca2+]i in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. We found that the DMS-induced increase of [Ca2+]i in colon cancer cells is composed of Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores and subsequent Ca2+ influx. The Ca2+ release is not related to modulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ( buy calan IP3) receptor or ryanodine receptor. On the other hand, the Ca2+ influx is mediated largely through Ca2+ channels sensitive to verapamil, nifedipine, Ga3+, and La3+. Furthermore, we found that the response is inhibited by bepridil and Ni2+, specific inhibitors of Na+-Ca2+-exchanger, suggesting involvement of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger in the DMS-induced [Ca2+]i increase in colon cancer cells. This inhibition was also observed in U937 monocytes, but not in 1321N1 astrocytes.

calan pill 2015-07-31

Release of cellular cholesterol and phospholipid mediated by helical apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 is a major source of Zithromax Renal Dosing plasma HDL. We investigated the effect of calcium channel blockers on this reaction.

calan drug 2016-08-22

A periodical examination to check specific clinical parameters and an 18-month follow-up determined Evista Drug Dosage that keloids were cured in 54% of the cases in the first group, compared to 18% in the second group. Moreover, in the remaining 36% of patients in the first group in whom keloids recurred, there was an improvement in size and above all in consistence.

calan reviews 2015-10-06

[Ca2+]i (165 +/- 8 nmol.L-1) and [Na+]i (9.2 +/- 0.8 mmol.L-1) were higher but [pH]i (6.7 +/- 0.3) was lower in hypoxic and reoxygenated myocytes (196 +/- 14 nmol.L-1, 9.3 +/- 1.3 mmol.L-1, 6.61 +/- 0.19, respectively) than in normal ones. Cap and Ena reduced [Ca2+]i (149 +/- 11 and 152 +/- 10 nmol.L-1 respectively) and intracellular acidosis (7.11 +/- 0.22 and 7.2 +/- 0.4, respectively) during hypoxia. Cap also decreased [Na+]i in hypoxic myocytes (8.1 +/- 0.9 mmol.L-1). Paxil Missed Dose During reoxygenation, Cap decreased [Ca2+]i and [Na+]i but Ena had no significant effect on them. Cap or Ena had no additive effect when combined with verapamil (Ver).

calan dosage forms 2015-12-15

Elevated TnT was demonstrated in a large Dosage Journalier Imodium proportion of stable patients with permanent AF without ischemic heart disease. A moderate reduction of heart rate by the study drugs was associated with a significant reduction in levels of TnT.

calan overdose 2015-12-07

CCB and in particular verapamil use was associated with lower fasting blood glucose Tofranil Buy Canada levels among REGARDS participants with diabetes.

calan 5 mg 2016-03-30

Twelve female and 12 male healthy volunteers were studied Plavix Reviews in a randomized, crossover design. During the last day of each treatment period (day 6 and day 10) pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PR interval) of verapamil were assessed; 1 h before ingestion of a new R/S-verapamil 240 mg modified release formulation (08.00 h vs 20.00 h) a single dose of 10 mg d7-R/S-verapamil was administered intravenously. Serum levels of unlabelled and labelled R/S-verapamil were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In selected samples of serum which were chosen at tmin,po and tmax,po the enantiomers were separated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography in order to calculate R- to S-verapamil serum concentration ratios.

calan sr medication 2016-12-28

To investigate the effect of a single-dose and 2-week administration Effexor 900 Mg of topical 0.25% verapamil on episcleral venous pressure (EVP) and intraocular pressure (IOP).

calan 120 mg 2016-08-21

To evaluate the efficacy of lithium in the Prograf Open Capsule treatment of acute mania.

calan drug classification 2016-08-16

Therapeutic uses of Hypericum extracts have been demonstrated as safe and effective in treating mild to moderate depression in numerous clinical trials. To date, however, no definitive statements on their mode of action can be made, and little information on their electrophysiological effects is available. The present communication summarises the results of our efforts directed towards clarifying the effects of an ethanolic Hypericum extract (HYP) and its hydrosoluble fraction (HYPWS), and two of its constituents hypericin and hyperforin on electrically evoked population spikes in guinea pig hippocampal slices. In higher concentrations (>10 microM), the two extract constituents tested revealed inhibitory effects only, whereas concentration-dependent (between 10(-6) to 10(-4) g/l) excitatory effects were observed for HYP and HYPWS. The excitatory effects were strongly amplified by the GABA(B) antagonist phaclofen, whereas the effects of bicucullin, a GABA(A) antagonist, were marginal. The excitations were completely blocked by the AMPA antagonist CNQX, but not by the NMDA antagonists APV and MK801 or the L-type calcium-channel Purchase Diamox Online blocker verapamil. This kind of excitatory effect on the hippocampus is unknown in other antidepressants and; indeed, many of the latter reduce neuronal excitability. We conclude, therefore, that the mechanisms involved in the antidepressant activity of Hypericum extracts are different from those of conventional antidepressants, and that identifying their excitatory components may facilitate their more rational standardisation.

calan tablets 2015-06-11

By means of the whole cell patch-clamp technique, the biophysical and pharmacological properties of voltage-dependent Ba(2+) currents (I(Ba)) were characterized in embryonic cockroach brain neurons in primary culture. I(Ba) was characterized by a threshold of approximately -30 mV, a maximum at approximately 0 mV, and a reversal potential near +40 mV. Varying the holding potential from -100 to -40 mV did not modify these properties. The steady-state, voltage-dependent activation and inactivation properties of the current were determined by fitting the corresponding curves with the Boltzmann equation and yielded V(0.5) of -10 +/- 2 (SE) mV and -30 +/- 1 mV, respectively. I(Ba) was insensitive to the dihydropyridine (DHP) agonist BayK8644 (1 microM) and antagonist isradipine (10 microM) but was efficiently and reversibly blocked by the phenylalkylamine verapamil in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) = 170 microM). The toxin omega-CgTxGVIA (1 microM) had no significant effect on I(Ba). Micromolar doses of omega-CmTxMVIIC were needed to reduce the current amplitude significantly, and the effect was slow. At 1 microM, 38% of the peak current was blocked after 1 h. In contrast, I(Ba) was potently and irreversibly blocked by nanomolar concentrations of omega-AgaTxIVA in approximately 81% of the neurons. Approximately 20% of the current was unaffected after treatment of the neurons with high concentrations of the toxin (0. 4-1 microM). The steady-state dose-response relationship was fitted with a Hill equation and yielded an IC(50) of 17 nM and a Hill coefficient (n) of 0.6. A better fit was obtained with a combination of two Hill equations corresponding to specific (IC(50) = 9 nM; n = 1) and nonspecific (IC(50) = 900 nM; n = 1) omega-AgaTxIVA-sensitive components. In the remaining 19% of the neurons, concentrations >/=100 nM omega-AgaTxIVA had no visible effect on I(Ba). On the basis of these results, it is concluded that embryonic cockroach brain neurons in primary culture express at least two types of voltage-dependent, high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels: a specific omega-AgaTxIVA-sensitive component and DHP-, omega-CgTxGVIA-, and omega-AgaTxIVA-resistant component related respectively to the P/Q- and R-type voltage-dependent calcium channels.

calan 80 mg 2015-05-02

The calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a diverse group of antihypertensive medications with variable pharmacokinetics and clinical effects. Although CCBs have been widely applied to the treatment of hypertensive children, data regarding the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of these agents in children are extremely limited. In this review we briefly summarize the mechanism of action of CCBs and then summarize pertinent pharmacokinetic information on each of the CCBs commonly used in children, including amlodipine, diltiazem, felodipine, isradipine, intravenous nicardipine, nifedipine and verapamil. Clinically important drug interactions and adverse effects are discussed, as well as the potential role of CCBs in renal protection. Available pediatric efficacy and safety data are summarized, and recommendations made regarding the rational use of CCBs in the management of pediatric hypertension.

calan sr dosage 2016-08-21

To evaluate the reported effects of treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning. The primary outcomes of interest were mortality and hemodynamic parameters. The secondary outcomes included length of stay in hospital, length of stay in intensive care unit, duration of vasopressor use, functional outcomes, and serum calcium channel blocker concentrations.

calan medication 2015-01-28

These findings suggest chronic co-administration of morphine and verapamil induced additive protective effects on rat heart exposed to myocardial injury comparing with each of them alone.