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Azulfidine (Sulfasalazine)

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Generic Azulfidine is used for the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, as adjunctive therapy (with other medications) in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis, for the treatment of Crohn's disease, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Sulfasalazine.


Generic Azulfidine is used for the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, as adjunctive therapy (with other medications) in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis, for the treatment of Crohn's disease, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

Generic Azulfidine is a sulfonamide that decreases inflammation and help regulate the immune system in various areas of the body.

Azulfidine is also known as Sulfasalazine.

Generic name of Generic Azulfidine is Sulfasalazine.

Brand name of Generic Azulfidine is Azulfidine.


Doses range: from 500 mg to 2000 mg, and dosing intervals range: from every 6 hours to every 12 hours, depending on the clinical condition of the patient.

Generic Azulfidine should be taken with a full glass of water after meals or with food to minimize stomach upset.

Patients with kidney diseases may need to use lower doses of Generic Azulfidine.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Azulfidine suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Azulfidine and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Azulfidine are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Azulfidine if you are allergic to Generic Azulfidine components or to a salicylate (eg, aspirin) or a sulfonamide (eg, sulfisoxazole).

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Azulfidine if you have the blood disease porphyria or a blockage of the intestine or urinary tract.

Some medical conditions may interact with Generic Azulfidine.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you have kidney or liver problems, a blood disorder, a gastrointestinal infection, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, or asthma.

Some medicines may interact with Generic Azulfidine.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) or methotrexate because the actions and side effects of these medicines may be increased; anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) or beta-blockers (eg, propranolol) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Azulfidine; methenamine because the risk of crystals in the urine is increased.

Do not share this medicine with others for whom it was not prescribed.

Do not use this medicine for other health conditions.

If using this medicine for an extended period of time, obtain refills before your supply runs out.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Azulfidine taking suddenly.

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In a 12-month double-blind placebo-controlled trial, the effect of sulphasalazine was studied in 40 patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The treatment group showed significant improvement in pain, stiffness, sleep disturbance (p less than 0.05), finger/floor distance, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, orosomucoid and IgA levels (p less than 0.01). There was improvement in sleep disturbance (p less than 0.05), finger/floor distance and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p less than 0.01) in the placebo group. Sulphasalazine did not retard radiological progression as measured either by plain X-ray or computerised tomographic scans. Multiple analysis of variance did not show a significant difference in disease activity indicators between the 2 groups.

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The tight national drug reimbursement regulations in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Finland lead to the practice that at least one traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD), if not contraindicated, has been tried and has failed before a patient can be eligible for reimbursement of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment. The aim of the present study is to evaluate drug survival of the firstly prescribed DMARDs in patients with AS. All AS patients from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2007 were collected from the nationwide drug reimbursement registry maintained by the Social Insurance Institution (SII). Data on antirheumatic medication came from the prescription registry of SII. A total of 2,890 AS patients (60 % males) were identified. Sulfasalazine (SSA) monotherapy was the most common first antirheumatic treatment (2,319 patients, 87 %), followed by methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy (230 patients, 9 %) and by hydroxychloroquine monotherapy (77 patients, 3 %). A combination of two or more DMARDs was used by 44 patients (2 %). Only seven patients (0.3 %) had biological (etanercept or adalimumab) started as the first antirheumatic drug. Median survival time of SSA monotherapy was 4.5 years (95 % CI 4.2 to 4.8) and that of MTX was 1.9 years (95 % CI 1.5 to 2.1). SSA is almost the standard as the first antirheumatic treatment of AS in Finland. Although the clinical efficiency of SSA was not evaluable in the present study, these data suggest that the use of SSA can at least postpone the need and start of TNF inhibitors with marked economic consequences.

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Seminal abnormalities are commonly found during sulphasalazine treatment. Although these changes appear reversible after drug withdrawal this may result in colitis relapse. Animal studies suggest that 5-aminosalicylic acid, the active component of sulphasalazine, does not impair fertility. Sixteen patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis were studied. Each patient produced three samples of semen at weekly intervals. Of the 48 samples analysed 39.6% showed oligospermia, 41.7% showed an increased number of abnormal forms and 91.7% showed impaired motility. Nine patients substituted enteric coated mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) for sulphasalazine for a minimum period of three months. During this time one patient developed a salmonella associated colitis relapse; the others remained well. Improvement in sperm count (p less than 0.02), motility (p less than 0.001) and morphology (p less than 0.02) occurred in all cases. To date, four successful pregnancies have resulted, three in couples complaining of long term infertility. Treatment with enteric-coated mesalazine allows the recovery of seminal abnormalities induced by sulphasalazine in patients with colitis.

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Juvenile-onset spondyloarthritides (SpA) is a term for a group of HLA-B27 related disorders. The hallmark signs and symptoms of this group of disorders include peripheral arthritis and enthesitis while sacroiliitis and spondylitis develop in some cases later on and extrarticular manifestations such as anterior uveitis occurs occasionally. Conventional medical therapy in children consists of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids that are administered intraarticulary, even in the sacroiliac joints. Sulfasalazine and methotrexate are given in cases of chronic synovitis or enthesitis. Unfortunately, these forms of therapy have limited efficacy in many cases and disease activity and damage may lead to various degrees of functional impairment. Recently, experience with TNFalpha-antagonists in adults has opened new perspectives for treating patients with refractory SpA, particularly ankylosing spondylitis (AS). So far there is only little experience in the treatment of juvenile-onset SpA, consisting of case reports and case series where etanercept or infliximab have been given to children suffering from refractory juvenile-onset AS and psoriatic arthritis. From these observations there is evidence that treatment seems to be as effective as in adults. Risks are likely to be the same as in patients suffering from other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritides. However, without further studies no recommendations can be provided for indication for treatment, dosing, intervals and duration of treatment.

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Twenty children (83%) showed clinical improvement and 18 children (75%) achieved clinical remission. Patients with systemic-onset JRA had lower response rates than did those with an oligoarticular onset (p < 0.05). SSZ was discontinued in seven patients following 7 months of clinical remission and 10 months of treatment. Relapse occurred in four patients (16.7%) following a mean of 17 months of clinical remission. All achieved remission again after restarting the regimen and increasing the SSZ dosage by one-third. Adverse effects related to SSZ were found in only three patients (12.5%): nausea and epigastralgia in two, skin rash in the other.

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To review the effectiveness of systemic therapies for psoriatic arthritis (PsA).

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Necrotizing enterocolitis is a common but serious complication among premature babies. Currently, there are limited treatment options. These include intensive supportive care and surgical intervention. In this study, we hypothesize that erythropoietin (Epo) could be protective against cell necrosis by increasing the levels of glutathione. This can be regulated by increasing the activity of system xC(-). This was demonstrated using intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) as a model system. S4-CPG and sulfasalazine pharmacologically inhibit xCT, which induced cell death. Our data showed a dose dependent decrease in cell viability when treated with both inhibitors. In addition, the IEC-6 cells displayed a dose dependent increase when treated with Epo. In conclusion, Epo can be protective against cell death and ultimately be considered as a treatment option for intestinal epithelial cell death.

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DEX and GST may modulate the disease activity by inhibiting the cytokine production from synovial cells.

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The purpose was to propose two-stage single-compartment models for evaluating dissolution characteristics in distal ileum and ascending colon, under conditions simulating the bioavailability and bioequivalence studies in fasted and fed state by using the mini-paddle and the compendial flow-through apparatus (closed-loop mode). Immediate release products of two highly dosed active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), sulfasalazine and L-870,810, and one mesalamine colon targeting product were used for evaluating their usefulness. Change of medium composition simulating the conditions in distal ileum (SIFileum ) to a medium simulating the conditions in ascending colon in fasted state and in fed state was achieved by adding an appropriate solution in SIFileum . Data with immediate release products suggest that dissolution in lower intestine is substantially different than in upper intestine and is affected by regional pH differences > type/intensity of fluid convection > differences in concentration of other luminal components. Asacol® (400 mg/tab) was more sensitive to type/intensity of fluid convection. In all the cases, data were in line with available human data. Two-stage single-compartment models may be useful for the evaluation of dissolution in lower intestine. The impact of type/intensity of fluid convection and viscosity of media on luminal performance of other APIs and drug products requires further exploration.

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The clinical characteristics of ERA can facilitate an early diagnosis so as to avoid joint damage and disabilities.

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A total of 85 patients who had complete questionnaire and electronic monitoring data were analyzed. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the total, weighted CQR score significantly and adequately predicts taking compliance (p = 0.001, r2 = 0.46) and correct dosing (p = 0.004, r2 = 0.42). Discriminant analyses showed that specificity and sensitivity to detect good taking compliance were 95% and 62%, respectively, with a prevalence of good compliance of 52%. The predictive value to detect unsatisfactory taking compliance was 86%, and to detect good taking compliance was 83%. The likelihood ratio of the CQR-19 to detect low taking compliance was 11.6. Four items were especially predictive: fear of forgetting to take the drug, being able to function well, routines in daily life, and side effects (combined r2 = 0.35).

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Nine of the 10 patients had ulcerative colitis poorly controlled on sulfasalazine and prednisolone. Two had associated thromboembolic disease, and one was on no medication. Patients were started on heparin in hospital, taught to self-inject subcutaneously, and discharged to continue on 10,000 U of unfractionated heparin twice daily. Current doses of sulfasalazine were maintained; prednisolone was tapered and stopped. Patients were carefully monitored for adverse side-effects. Sections of colonic mucosa from nine patients were examined for intravascular thrombosis of the mucosal blood vessels.

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The increasing number of peptide and protein drugs being investigated demands the development of dosage forms which exhibit site-specific release. Delivery of drugs into systemic circulation through colonic absorption represents a novel mode of introducing peptide and protein drug molecules and drugs that are poorly absorbed from the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Oral colon-specific drug delivery systems offer obvious advantages over parenteral administration. Colon targeting is naturally of value for the topical treatment of diseases of the colon such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. Sustained colonic release of drugs can be useful in the treatment of nocturnal asthma, angina and arthritis. Peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides and vaccines are the potential candidates of interest for colon-specific drug delivery. Sulfasalazine, ipsalazide and olsalazine have been developed as colon-specific delivery systems for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The vast microflora and distinct enzymes present in the colon are being increasingly exploited to release drugs in the colon. Although the large intestine is a potential site for absorption of drugs, some difficulties are involved in the effective local delivery of drugs to the colon bypassing the stomach and small intestine. Furthermore, differential pH conditions and long transit time during the passage of drug formulations from mouth to colon create numerous technical difficulties in the safe delivery of drugs to the colon. However, recent developments in pharmaceutical technology, including coating drugs with pH-sensitive and bacterial degradable polymers, embedding in bacterial degradable matrices and designing into prodrugs, have provided renewed hope to effectively target drugs to the colon. The use of pH changes is analogous to the more common enteric coating and consists of employing a polymer with an appropriate pH solubility profile. The concept of using pH as a trigger to release a drug in the colon is based on the pH conditions that vary continuously down the GI tract. Polysaccharide and azopolymer coating, which is refractory in the stomach and small intestine yet degraded by the colonic bacteria, have been used as carriers for colon-specific targeting. Finally, the availability of optimal preclinical models and clinical methods fueled the rapid development and evaluation of colon-specific drug delivery systems for clinical use. Future studies may hopefully lead to further refinements in the technology of colon-specific drug delivery systems and improve the pharmacotherapy of peptide drugs.

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PsA and RA are distinct diseases, and the efficacy and safety of an agent in RA cannot necessarily be equated with efficacy and safety in PsA. For most conventional agents, data from controlled clinical trials in PsA are scant. Etanercept is currently the only therapeutic agent with sufficient data from placebo-controlled, randomized trials to receive a Food and Drug Administration indication for the treatment of PsA.

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In the present study, we evaluated the protective effect of A. ferruginea extract against ulcerative colitis (UC). Male Wistar rats received A. ferruginea extract (10 mg/kg body weight) or sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg body weight) for 5 consecutive days before inducing UC via intrarectal acetic acid (3%) administration. Colonic mucosal injury was assessed by macroscopic scoring, vascular permeability testing, and histopathological examination. The mucosal contents of glutathione, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and nitric oxide were evaluated as parameters for the redox state. Inflammatory response was determined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2) expression. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactate dehydrogenase assay (LDH), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6) were measured using ELISA. Transcription factor profiling of nuclear factor (NF)-κB subunits (p65/p50) was also conducted using ELISA. All of the relevant parameters were altered in rats with UC, and these parameters improved in animals that received A. ferruginea extract. Colonic mucosal injury parallels antioxidant and anti-inflammatory evaluations, and A. ferruginea extract was considered comparable to the standard treatment drug sulfasalazine. Histopathological studies confirmed these findings. A. ferruginea extract inhibited the activation and translocation of transcription factors, that is, NF-κB subunits (p65/p50). The results of our investigation clearly indicate that treatment with A. ferruginea extract exerted a marked protective effect against experimental UC via modulation of oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and inhibition of inflammatory mediators.

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One hundred and ten articles directly related to the topic were found and analyzed. Another 42 articles were relevant to the material reviewed.

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Use of sulphasalazine in ulcerative colitis patients is hampered by a variety of side-effects, including male infertility. 5-aminosalicylic acid is better tolerated and has been increasingly used to treat patients intolerant/allergic to sulphasalazine but it may also be associated with side-effects.

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To study which factors are associated with longterm methotrexate (MTX) use in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

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Elastase-like activity, alpha 1-inhibitor of proteinases and acid stable antitryptic activity were studied in blood of 26 patients and in synovial fluid of 11 patients with rheumatoid arthritis during acute stage of the disease and after treatment with salase pyridasine and orthophene. The higher values of the elastase-like activity were detected in synovial fluid as compared with that of blood. In blood of these patients, hyperproduction of alpha 1-inhibitor of proteinases and acid stable inhibitors was observed, while deficiency of these substances occurred in synovial fluid. Distinct decrease in the patterns of the blood protease-inhibitory system studied simultaneously with clear positive clinical effect were observed after treatment with salase pyridasine together with orthophene; estimation of these patterns may be used in the evaluation of the therapy.

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A double blind, placebo controlled trial was performed with 422 patients satisfying the American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA who required sulphasalazine treatment because of increased disease activity. Patients received either sulphasalazine desensitisation, or placebo, for three weeks before commencement of sulphasalazine treatment. The frequency and nature of adverse effects and changes in clinical and laboratory parameters of disease activity were measured after three and six months.

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Although a reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection has been observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, the clinical significance of H. pylori infection in this setting remains unknown. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in a large series of IBD patients and the frequency of gastroduodenal lesions in those who agreed to undergo upper GI endoscopy.

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5-ASA seems to have a selective positive effect on ulcerative colitis in inducing remission, preventing relapse and possibly reducing the risk of cancer. In contrast to other agents used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, 5-ASA does not have any known anti-inflammatory effect on other organs or other colonic inflammatory diseases like diverticulitis. Moreover, the effect on experimental colitis in rodents is not convincing.

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Collagenous colitis is characterized clinically by chronic watery diarrhea and pathologically by a distinctive band of collagen deposited below the colonic epithelium and an inflammatory cell infiltrate of the lamina propria. Since 1976, more than 100 cases have been described. We report an additional nine cases occurring in five women and four men ranging in age from 18 to 80 years. Diarrhea was present before diagnosis for 2 to 4 months in four cases and for 1 to 25 years in another four cases. One patient did not have diarrhea. Results of radiologic and stool studies were normal in all cases. All patients had flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Microscopic examination of biopsy material was interpreted as characteristic of collagenous colitis. Two cases resolved with psyllium mucilloid therapy alone. Of the five patients treated with azulfidine, three had marked improvement, one had partial response, and one had no change.

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In a 6-month, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 76 patients with persistently active rheumatoid arthritis despite at least 6 months of methotrexate therapy at a stable dose of 15 to 25 mg per week to receive either levofloxacin (500 mg) or placebo orally once daily while continuing to receive methotrexate. The change from baseline to six months in the swollen-joint count and tender-joint count was the primary measure of efficacy. Secondary endpoints included pain, quality of life, duration of morning stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, and physician's and patient's global assessments. The data were also analyzed to determine the number of patients meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria for 20, 50, and 70% improvement.

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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a systemic inflammatory rheumatic disease involving spinal and sacroiliac joints. This condition is responsible for back pain, stiffness and discomfort. Several drugs are currently available in the management of AS, and may be divided into 3 groups. The first includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are the main drug group used in AS because they reduce pain and stiffness in most patients. Several NSAIDs are available but phenylbutazone is considered the NSAID of choice in AS. However, other NSAIDs give similar beneficial results and the medication of preference in specific to each patient. All NSAIDs share common gastrointestinal toxicity, and they should be administered during periods of flare-up of the disease. The second drug group that has been used in the treatment of patients with AS comprises analgesics, muscle relaxants and low dose corticosteroids. They can be considered as adjuvant therapy. These drugs are helpful when NSAIDs are poorly tolerated or ineffective. Second-line treatments or disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are included in the third group. These drugs are required in cases of longstanding severe or refractory AS. Sulfasalazine has proven to be effective in such cases, leading to improvement in clinical and laboratory indices of disease activity. Beneficial results are mainly evident in patients with AS who have peripheral disease involvement. Other medications (such as methotrexate or gold salts, for instance) require properly designed controlled studies to evaluate their effectiveness in the treatment of this disorder, while immunosuppressive agents have little to offer in the management of patients with AS and require further studies. Some specific clinical features are observed in AS: enthesopathy may be treated with local injection of corticosteroids; sacroiliac joint pain may be managed by corticosteroid injection performed under fluoroscopic control or guided by computed tomography. The management of patients with AS includes some other procedures such as patient education, rest, a programme of physical exercise and physiotherapy. In parallel with pharmacotherapy, these procedures are of great importance in reducing stiffness and spinal ankylosis, and thus improve the patient's quality of life.

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Ten patients with SpAs and overt gastrointestinal symptoms were included in this study. All patients underwent colonoscopy and small bowel barium studies, and results were negative. Abdominal scintigraphy with Tc 99m HMPAO-labeled leukocytes was performed in all the patients. Clinical and laboratory data and response to treatment was recorded.

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Cultures of simian virus 40 transfected human LECs (HLE B-3 cells) were were irradiated with a UVB source (312 nm) located 10 cm from the bottom of the slides for 1, 2, 3, or 4 minutes. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method. Translocation of NF-kappaB was examined by immunocytochemistry using anti-NF-kappaB p65 antibody and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Sulfasalazine, a specific NF-kappaB inhibitor, was used to confirm the role of NF-kappaB by pretreating samples for 30 minutes before UV irradiation, after which cytotoxicity and NF-kappaB translocation were evaluated.

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Sulfasalazine (SLZ) is a synthetic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used mainly for the treatment of an inflammatory bowel and other diseases. Two pectins with different methylation degrees were blended to synthesized gel microspheres by ionotropic gelation for SLZ encapsulation. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be around of 99% in all formulations tested. However, different SLZ release profiles related to the methylation degrees of pectin were observed. Mixture of low methylated (LM) and high methylated (HM) pectins in the presence of calcium(II) displayed the best microsphere morphologies among the formulations tested determined by optical and electronic microscopies. The percentage of drug release using a mixture of LM and HM pectins after 255 min in simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2), simulated intestinal fluid (pH = 6.8), and phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4) were 15.0%, 47.0%, and 52.2%, respectively.

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azulfidine medication 2016-05-10

To estimate the frequency of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and Coombs positivity without overt hemolysis in ulcerative colitis, to determine possible subsets of patients with ulcerative colitis susceptible to this complication, and to assess the efficacy of the applied buy azulfidine therapeutic modalities.

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We conducted a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register for trials up to buy azulfidine December 2001. We also hand-searched reference lists and consulted content experts.

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One hundred and seven sessions of hemosorption were performed on 77 patients with severe ulcerative colitis. Clinically, improvement was demonstrated in the reduction of the signs of intoxication in 50 to 60 per cent of patients. Combination of hemosorption and anti-inflammatory medication allowed to achieve a remission or a marked improvement determined by clinical observation or endoscopy of 39 from 52 patients with a severe, total form of the disease, whereas toxic influence of sulfasalazine was controlled and extra-intestinal complications were weakened in 8 patients from 11. Thirteen patients were operated upon due to inefficiency of therapy. Hemosorption contributed to reduction of content of protein molecules with mean molecular weight (61 per cent), phenol (73 per cent), and endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria (50 per cent). Dynamics of acute phase reactants and humoral immune factors testifies to a weak anti-inflammatory action of hemosorption. Reduced levels of plasma protein, albumin, potassium and cholesterol buy azulfidine were corrected or spontaneously returned to normal.

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We report a case of seizures with acute encephalopathy in a female patient under sulfasalazine treatment for polyarthritis. Neurotoxicity secondary to sulfasalazine was suspected. This side effect has buy azulfidine seldom been reported in the literature.

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Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that patients receiving the triple combination responded best, with 78% achieving an ACR 20% response at 2 years, compared with 60% of those treated with MTX and buy azulfidine HCQ (P = 0.05) and 49% of those treated with MTX and SSZ (P = 0.002). Similar trends were seen for the ACR 50% response, with 55%, 40%, and 29% of patients in the 3 treatment groups, respectively, achieving these results at 2 years (P = 0.005 for the triple combination group versus the MTX and SSZ group). All combination treatments were well-tolerated. Fourteen patients (evenly distributed among the 3 groups) withdrew from the protocol because of symptoms that were potentially related to the study medication.

azulfidine dosage 2016-12-21

The authors set out to critically review the buy azulfidine current data on the efficacy of oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) agents for active ulcerative colitis (UC). Thirty-one studies were identified; 19 met entry criteria. Three trials with mesalamine showed statistical significance versus placebo; those with olsalazine or balsalazide did not. No agent was statistically different from sulfasalazine. In 2 of 3 trials of balsalazide versus mesalamine, results for defined primary and secondary endpoints failed to demonstrate statistically significant differences. Studies suggest that mesalamine is superior to placebo for treating active UC. Five-ASA products appear to be as effective as sulfasalazine, but available data do not suggest a difference in efficacy between any of the 5-ASA preparations.

azulfidine y alcohol 2016-02-19

Massive gastrointestinal bleeding is a very rare manifestation of gastrointestinal Behçet's disease, mainly from the gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. We report herein the case of a 50-year-old man with intestinal Behçet's disease who suffered massive hemorrhage from ruptured arterial aneurysm. Colonoscopy demonstrated large amount of fresh blood in the entire colon, but we were not able to localize bleeding focus anywhere in the colon. Angiography was performed and it revealed that buy azulfidine a small aneurysm on the right ileocolic artery with apparent extravasation of contrast material. A guiding catheter was inserted to a right ileocolic artery and superselective arterial embolization using microcoils was successful. Following this procedure, the gastrointestinal bleeding gradually subsided and completely stopped within a few days. He is now treating with prednisolone and sulfasalazine without recurrent bleeding until now.

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A 46-year-old Indian female with rheumatoid arthritis demonstrated distinct adverse reactions to buy azulfidine all commercially available anti-tumor necrosis factor therapies, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine. Over a 4-year period her disease remained active during therapy with methotrexate and prednisone. Biologics were added sequentially, with development of intolerable reactions, first to infliximab (urticarial rash, infusion reactions) after 3 doses, and then to etanercept (autoantibodies, worsening Raynaud's phenomenon, digital microinfarcts) after 1 year. Following 2 months of daily injections of anakinra, she experienced an immediate immunoglobulin E-mediated anaphylactic reaction within 20 minutes of an injection, as evidenced by positive testing to both anakinra and histamine with the skin prick method. The patient subsequently started adalimumab therapy, which was discontinued after the fourth dose due to the development of generalized hives.

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MTX use and higher concentrations of erythrocyte MTXGlu are associated with decreased levels of HbA1c in RA patients. Triple DMARD therapy and HCQ treatment resulted in reduced HbA1c levels, and glucocorticoid treatment buy azulfidine resulted in increased levels of HbA1c .

azulfidine drug classification 2017-08-12

Here, we report 2 cases of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) caused by salazosulfapyridine and allopurinol during tuberculosis treatment. Both patients also developed multiple drug hypersensitivity (MDH) to several antituberculosis drugs that were used at around the period of DIHS onset, and thus, the treatment could not be successfully completed. Our cases show that MDH can easily occur after development of DIHS. Considering that treatment for tuberculosis requires long-term management with several drugs, it is important to refrain from administering drugs that can cause DIHS during tuberculosis buy azulfidine treatment.

azulfidine 1000 mg 2015-11-09

At baseline the 28 joint disease activity scores (DAS28) of the patients positive for TNFa2, a13 or b1 microsatellite markers were significantly higher than in the other patients. In the SINGLE patients the DAS28 improved comparably in patients with (n = 31) or without (n = 53) the TNFb1 marker (NS), while the DAS28 of the TNFb1-positive COMBI patients (n = 22) improved significantly more than that of the TNFb1-negative cases (n = 57) (p = 0.014). Respective 31.8% (7/22) and 28.1% (16/57) of the COMBI patients with or without TNFb1 allele achieved remission at one year. The corresponding figure in SINGLE patients were 0% (0/31) and 20.8% (11/53) (p = 0.006). At two years the remission frequencies in the TNFb1+/TNFb1- patients in the COMBI and SINGLE were 50.0%/38.6% and 9.7%/22. buy azulfidine 6%, respectively.

azulfidine drug interactions 2016-01-14

The effect of pretreatment with topical prostaglandin E2, prednisolone and sulphasalazine in experimental colitis has been buy azulfidine examined in the rat colon. Only prostaglandin E2 treatment significantly reduced mucosal ulceration. Long-term exposure of the rat colon to topical ethanol produced some of the histological changes seen in human colitis.

azulfidine dosing 2016-11-20

DSS can break the balance of Th1/Th2 expression in the colon. Jiechangning enema can ameliorate DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in rats by decreasing IFN-γ level and increasing IL-10 level both in the serum and the colon mucosa tissues to regulate the Th1 Trandate 20 Mg /Th2 balance and improve immunity.

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Colectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the operation of choice in patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis. However, aggressive or prolonged Imodium Dosing medical treatment may result in the patient's needing an urgent operation in which a staged subtotal colectomy is necessary.

azulfidine drug class 2017-01-12

Traditionally, contiguous distribution of inflammation (endoscopic and histological) with rectal involvement is thought to be important in distinguishing ulcerative colitis (UC) from Crohn's Lipitor Cost disease of the colon. Little long-term data are available that prove whether this rule holds during the course of disease as it is modified by time and treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of endoscopic and histological patchiness and rectal sparing in treated UC over time and to correlate these findings with treatment at the time of endoscopy.

dosage of azulfidine 2016-04-03

Salicylazosulfapyridine has been used for a number of years as therapy for ulcerative colitis. Reported toxicities are usually minor. This case report represents an acute allergic reaction to the drug. Characterized by fever, rash, eosinophilia, nephritis, and hepatitis. Resolution occurred with discontinuation of salicylazosulfapyridine. Although similar reactions have been reported with the antimicrobial sulfonamides, none Mysoline Suspension has been fully described with salicylazosulfapyridine, a combination of a sulfonamide and salicylate.

azulfidine tab 2017-03-31

In this study, serum antioxidant and oxygen derived free radical status of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was investigated and compared with that of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The relationship of these parameters to disease activity indices was also examined. Thirty patients with AS not currently under disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) treatment (e.g., sulfasalazine or methotrexate) (15 active and 15 inactive) and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Catalase (EC, total (Cu-Zn and Mn) superoxide dismutase (SOD) (EC activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite (NO(2)(-)), and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) levels as indices of nitric oxide (NO) production were evaluated using appropriate methods. There was no statistically significant difference found in SOD activity or NO and MDA levels between active and inactive patients. Inactive patients showed no significant difference in all the measured oxidant/antioxidant parameters when compared to healthy controls. Active patients had significantly higher levels of MDA and catalase enzyme activity ( P=0.002 and P=0.007, respectively). There was no significant correlation between oxidant/antioxidant parameters and disease activity, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, or Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (CRP, ESR, or BASDAI) in either group, except catalase enzyme activity, which had a significant correlation with CRP and ESR levels in active patients ( r=0.69 and P=0.004, r=0.52 and P=0.04, respectively). Our results indicate that oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are accelerated in untreated Lopressor 15 Mg patients with active AS. Serum catalase activity may be closely related to disease activity. In this regard, we underscore the likely benefit of some therapeutic interventions including high-potential antioxidants that will potentiate the antioxidant defense mechanism and reduce peroxidation in the management of AS.

azulfidine reviews 2017-12-05

As three studies on the associations between genomic variations and adverse events or efficacy of two different disease- Coumadin 5 Pill modifying antirheumatic drugs were replicated, the usefulness of the tests is worth being tested in clinical practice.

azulfidine drug 2015-07-02

Cancer development is often preceded by the appearance of preneoplastic lesions. In gastric carcinogenesis, chronic inflammation and histopathologic progression of the stomach epithelium lead to the development of metaplasia and eventually adenocarcinoma. The cell surface protein CD44, especially its variant isoforms (CD44v), has been implicated in metaplasia-carcinoma sequence progression in the stomach. We recently found that CD44v interacts with and stabilizes xCT, a subunit of the cystine transporter system xc(-), in cancer cells and thereby increases cystine uptake and confers resistance to various types of cellular stress in vivo. The functional relevance of CD44v and xCT in the development of preneoplastic lesions, however, has remained unknown. We have now examined the role of the CD44v-xCT system in the development of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis. CD44v was found to be expressed de novo in SPEM, and CD44v(+) metaplastic cells manifested upregulation of xCT expression compared with CD44v(-) cells. Genetic Aldactone And Alcohol ablation of CD44 or treatment with sulfasalazine, an inhibitor of xCT-dependent cystine transport, suppressed the development of SPEM and subsequent gastric tumor growth. Therapy targeted to CD44v-xCT could thus prove effective for prevention or attenuation of the CD44v-dependent development of preneoplastic lesions and cancer.

azulfidine generic 2017-10-08

Since metronidazole (M) was found to be effective in Crohn's disease, we evaluated its efficacy in the treatment Prevacid Dose of active ulcerative colitis (UC). Forty-six outpatients with acute, nonsevere UC were studied. Forty-two concluded the trial. Twenty-three received M 1.35 g/day and 19 received sulfasalazine (S) 4.5 g/day for 28 days in a randomized double-blind study. Six of 23 receiving M improved (26%) as against 13 of 19 patients receiving S (68%) (p less than 0.01). No significant side effects were noted. We conclude that M is ineffective in the therapy of an acute attack of UC.

azulfidine en generic 2017-04-10

Patients treated with SSZ as first DMARD were more often RF negative and had lower baseline disease activity. Drug survival was superior for MTX, and effectiveness was greater with MTX than with SSZ although the difference was reduced when adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics.

azulfidine 10 mg 2017-06-20

The aim was to evaluate the usefulness of SASP for refractory-UC patients.

azulfidine buy online 2015-04-18

The fine structure of intestinal lymphatics in four patients with Crohn's disease and in two control subjects is described. Although obstructed lacteals are considered to be of major importance in the pathogenesis of regional enteritis, no detailed electron microscopic studies of lymphatic capillaries in this disease could be found. Even though both open and closed intercellular junctions were observed in the normal intestinal lymphatics, only closed junctions were noted in the mucosal and submucosal lymphatic capillaries in patients with regional enteritis. A heavy accumulation of protein rich lymph at the abluminal surface of lymphatic capillaries was consistently seen. None of the control lymphatics showed a similar alteration. The described fine structural changes indicate a decreased permeability of the lymphatic wall. Reduced lymphatic permeability could be a contributing element in the development of submucosal edema, a major microscopic feature of Crohn's disease.

azulfidine and alcohol 2016-05-12

BQG has satisfactory efficacy, good safety and compliance, and is convenient for administering, therefore, it has broad applying prospect with high exploiting value.