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Artane (Trihexyphenidyl)

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Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.

Other names for this medication:

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Sinemet, Levodopa, Carbidopa, Selegiline, Kemadrin, Benadryl, Cogentin, Banophen, Akineton, Allermax


Also known as:  Trihexyphenidyl.


Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.

name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.

Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.

Brand name of Artane is Artane.


Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.

If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.


If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Artane are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.

Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.

Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.

artane 1 mg

This pilot study suggests a beneficial effect of amitriptyline on headache frequency and quality of life for patients with chronic drug-induced headache.

artane drug classification

Musicians' dystonia is a task-specific and painless loss of motor control in a previously well-executed task. It is increasingly recognized in the medical and musical community. Recent advances in neuroimaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation and novel techniques in electroencephalography have shed light on its underlying pathophysiology. To date, a deranged cortical plasticity leading to abnormal sensorimotor integration, combined with reduced inhibition across several levels of the motor pathway are likely mechanisms.This paper reviews the various phenomenology of musician's dystonia across keyboard, string, brass, flute and drum players. Treatment is often challenging. Medical therapies like botulinum toxin injection and rehabilitation method with sensorimotor training offer symptomatic relief and return to baseline performance to some musicians.

artane dosage

To study the influence of pharmacological pretreatment (PANPAL) and antidotal treatment (obidoxime plus atropine) on tabun-induced neurotoxicity, male albino rats were poisoned with a lethal dose of tabun (280 microg/kg i.m.; 100% of LD(50) value) and observed at 24 h and 7 days following tabun challenge. The neurotoxicity of tabun was evaluated using a functional observational battery (FOB) and an automatic measurement of motor activity. Pharmacological pretreatment as well as antidotal treatment were able to eliminate most of tabun-induced neurotoxic effects observed at 24 h following tabun poisoning. However, there was not significant difference between the efficacy of PANPAL and antidotal treatment to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The combination of PANPAL pretreatment and antidotal treatment seems to be slightly more effective in the elimination of tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats at 24 h following tabun challenge in comparison with the administration of PANPAL pretreatment or antidotal treatment alone. At 7 days following tabun poisoning, very few neurotoxic signs in tabun-poisoned rats were observed regardless of administration of pharmacological pretreatment or antidotal treatment. Thus, our findings confirm that the combination of pharmacological pretreatment and antidotal treatment is not only able to protect the experimental animals from the lethal effects of tabun but also to eliminate most of tabun-induced signs of neurotoxicity in tabun-poisoned rats.

artane generic name

Parkinson's disease can present as a progressive hemiparesis without tremor. The presence of mild cogwheel rigidity in a hemiparetic patient may suggest the diagnosis, as may the normal findings on brain scan and electroencephalogram in a patient with gradually evolving hemiparesis. The response to appropriate medication has been prompt and excellent. It is important that Parkinson's disease be considered in the differential diagnosis of a progressively evolving hemiparesis.

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Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Its primary clinical symptoms are akinesia, tremor, and rigidity, which usually start from one side, resembling the lateralization in hemiparkinsonian rats having 6-hydroxydopamine-induced unilateral lesion of the medial forebrain bundle. A novel exploratory Y-maze was designed to detect the lateralization of hemiparkinsonian rats in terms of biased turns in the maze. Dopamine agonists levodopa (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 10-30 mg/kg) and apomorphine (0.1-0.3 mg/kg), but not methamphetamine (0.5-2 mg/kg), improved the lateralization in the rat model. However, high doses of the dopamine agonists, 30 and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively, caused small movements in the arms that seemed to parallel the increase in counts per turn in the Y-maze. Interestingly, the muscarinic antagonists trihexyphenidyl and scopolamine improved lateralization moderately, while increasing total turns, an index of locomotive activity. (-)-5-Methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801) (0.3 mg/kg), an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, increased total counts, but did not alleviate the lateralization. The alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan (1 and 10 mg/kg) and 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline (1 and 3 mg/kg), a non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, did not affect any of the indices. These findings suggest that the clinical action of drugs on unbalanced movement in PD could be predicted by measuring their effects on lateralization of the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model in this exploratory Y-maze.

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92 PD outpatients were enrolled in, including 48 males and 44 females, from 43 to 86 years old (mean 65.6 +/- 17.1) with duration of the disease from 0.2 to 27.8 years (mean 4.4 +/- 9.4). The preference of the drug use from the patients were: 40 (43.5%) preferred taking levodopa, 25 (27.2%) with amantadine and/or trihexyphenidyl, 14 (15.2%) with levodopa and others, 4 (4.4%) with dopamine agonist and others, 2 (2.2%) with other drugs, 7 (7.6%) with no treatment. There were 69 (75.0%) patients onset with resting tremor, 15 (16.3%) with bradykinesia, 6 (6.5%) with rigidity, and 2 (2.2%) with unknown symptoms. There was no startically significant difference in anti-PD drugs among the patients onset with different symptoms (P > 0.05). 45 patients appeared the onset of disease before 65 years old and with no dementia, 47 onset after 65 with or without dementia. There was no significant difference of anti-PD drugs between the two groups (P > 0.05). Most patients initiated anti-PD treatment with levodopa but few of them chose dopamine agonist. According to the classification of Hoehn & Yahr, 25(27.2%)belonged to Grade I, 53 (57.6%) to Grade II, 8 (8.7%) to Grade III, 3 (3.3%) to Grade IV and 3 (3.3%) to Grade V. There was no significant differences of anti-PD drugs between different grades of the disease (P > 0.05). 55.3% of the patients changed their anti-PD drugs randomly during the therapy, but with no relation to their gender, age, educational level, dementia, the number of family members, course of diseases, or the degree of Hoehn & Yahr, frequency and categories of medicine.

artane drugs

Induction of bradykinesia by SM-9018, a novel 5-HT2 and D2 antagonist, was compared with that of other neuroleptics using the pole test in mice. Neuroleptics including SM-9018, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine dose dependently induced bradykinesia in the pole-descending behavior of mice with relative potencies consistent with those for catalepsy induction. SM-9018 was about 70 times weaker than haloperidol and twice as weak as thioridazine in inducing bradykinesia. Other CNS drugs such as barbiturates and antidepressants had no effects. Haloperidol-induced bradykinesia was significantly attenuated by a cholinergic muscarinic antagonist (i.e., trihexyphenidyl) and 5-HT2 antagonists (i.e., ritanserin and cyproheptadine) whereas that caused by SM-9018 was relatively resistant to the 5-HT2 antagonists. These findings suggest that SM-9018 is weaker than other neuroleptics in inducing extrapyramidal side effects and that the 5-HT2 blocking activity of SM-9018 may contribute to its atypical neuroleptic property.

artane medication classification

Antipsychotics are often used in conjunction with anti-Alzheimer drugs to treat the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Here, we examined the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), donepezil and galantamine, on antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) in mice. The effects of serotonergic agents on the EPS drug interaction were also evaluated. Donepezil (0.3-3 mg/kg) did not induce EPS signs by itself; however, it significantly potentiated bradykinesia induction with a low dose of haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg) in dose-dependent and synergistic manners. Galantamine (0.3-3 mg/kg) elicited mild bradykinesia at a high dose and dose-dependently augmented haloperidol-induced bradykinesia. The EPS potentiation by galantamine was blocked by trihexyphenidyl (a muscarinic antagonist), but not by mecamylamine (a nicotinic antagonist). In addition, the bradykinesia potentiation by galantamine was significantly reduced by (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (a 5-HT1A agonist), ritanserin (a 5-HT2 antagonist), and SB-258585 (a 5-HT6 antagonist). The present results give us a caution for the antipsychotics and ChEIs interaction in inducing EPS in the treatment of BPSD. In addition, second generation antipsychotics, which can stimulate 5-HT1A receptors or antagonize 5-HT2 and 5-HT6 receptors, seem to be favorable as an adjunctive therapy for BPSD.

artane pediatric dose

Clinical studies have shown an association between long-term anticholinergic (AC) drug exposure and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, which has been primarily investigated in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term AC exposure as a risk factor for developing neurodegenerative disorders and the exact mechanisms and potential for disease progression remain unclear. Here, we have addressed the issue using trihexyphenidyl (THP), a commonly used AC drug in PD patients, to determine if THP can accelerate AD-like neurodegenerative progression and study potential mechanisms involved.

artane 2mg tablet

The present study sought to determine if NDMC has discriminative stimulus properties similar to that of its parent drug CLZ.

parkinson drug artane

These findings show that a proportion of patients with apparent primary torsion dystonia and a good response to anticholinergic drugs have GCH1 mutations and therefore have a variant of dopa responsive dystonia. The difficulty in distinguishing clinically between patients with and without mutations underscores the importance of considering the diagnosis of a levodopa responsive dystonia in all such patients.

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Two siblings who exhibited hereditary parkinsonism with pyramidal signs and cerebellar ataxia are reported. Anticholinergics had a dramatic beneficial effect in both cases, but levodopa did not. This responsiveness, which is similar to that reported in patients with Joseph's disease, suggests dysfunction of an "indirect pathway" involving the globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus, in addition to that of the nigrostriatal system. We propose a new hereditary variant of early onset Parkinson's disease distinct from the levodopa sensitive forms of juvenile Parkinson's disease.

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1 The effect of pharmacological pretreatment (pyridostigmine, benactyzine and trihexyphenidyle), designated Panpal, and antidotal treatment (the oxime HI-6 plus benactyzine) in soman poisoning was investigated in a rat model with on-line monitoring of respiratory and circulatory parameters. 2 Soman poisoning caused a high decrease in respiratory rate as well as minute respiratory volume and an increase in mean arterial pressure from 30-120 min following soman challenge. Soman at sublethal dose also significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in diaphragm and various brain parts. 3 Panpal pretreatment as well as antidotal treatment were effective in improving the respiratory and circulatory function disturbed by soman without the ability to increase significantly soman-inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in all brain parts studied. 4 The efficacy of combined Panpal pretreatment and antidotal treatment against sublethal soman poisoning was not different from the efficacy of Panpal pretreatment or antidotal treatment alone. 5 The results of this investigation suggest that Panpal pretreatment as well as antidotal treatment are able to restore respiratory and circulatory function in soman-poisoned rats without significant reactivation of brain acetylcholinesterase.

artane 5 mg

In this study we evaluated a cohort of 47 patients affected by dyskinetic cerebral palsy and treated with anticholinergic drug (trihexyphenidyl) over one year in order to verify the responsiveness of the new scale.

artane drug action

In this 12-week study of anticholinergic discontinuation in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, gradual decrease and discontinuation of anticholinergics led to a positive effect on cognition. There were no adverse consequences on general psychopathology and no significant differences for 18 of 20 subjects on movement disorders.

artane drug class

The effects of chronic oral treatment with low doses of caffeine (1-3 mg/kg) and trihexyphenidyl (0.1-0.2 mg/kg) were tested on hemiparkinsonian rats, which received the following treatments in a counterbalanced order: vehicle, caffeine, trihexyphenidyl, and caffeine plus trihexyphenidyl. Three preclinical models were used: the stepping test, the cylinder test, and the staircase test. Compared to pre-lesion values, the forepaw contralateral to the dopamine-denervated side showed impaired stepping, fewer wall contacts in the cylinder test, and fewer pellets retrieved in the staircase test. In the stepping test both doses of caffeine produced a complete recovery of motor function (100%), whereas the effect of trihexyphenidyl was less intense (77-80%). In this same test the maximal effect of drugs did not develop tolerance during 2-3 weeks, and was completely reversible after drug cessation. In the cylinder test only the wall contacts performed simultaneously with both forepaws were significantly increased by caffeine (3 mg/kg) and trihexyphenidyl (0.2 mg/kg), and this effect was also reversible. In the staircase test none of the treatments improved food pellet retrieval with the contralateral forepaw. Altogether, these results show that chronic treatment with caffeine, at doses similar to daily human consumption, produces a sustained improvement in the use of the contralateral forelimb in unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine denervated rats, without the development of tolerance. Although the combined administration of caffeine plus trihexyphenidyl showed no synergism in these models, the results suggest that low doses of caffeine (1-3 mg/kg/day) could be of therapeutic value for the reversal of motor symptoms in parkinsonian patients.

artane drug information

Analysis of clinical database of patients with tic disorders.

artane medication

Six cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (1 stage I, 3 stage II, 2 stage III) were diagnosed at our institution in the last 10 years. Five patients were treated with isoprinosine and the antiepileptic drug valproic acid. Three patients presented with myoclonic seizures refractory to valproic acid and the usual antiepileptic therapy. They received trihexyphenidyl with good results. We suggest the use of trihexyphenidyl in combination with isoprinosine in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with myoclonic seizures refractory to valproic acid.

artane 2 mg

Application of the findings in this study to patient care may permit selection of an appropriate initial maintenance dosage to achieve target haloperidol serum concentrations, thus enabling the clinician to achieve the desired therapeutic effect.

artane medication dystonia

Segmental craniocervical dystonia is characterized by blephalospasm and oromandibular dystonia and is also called Meige syndrome. The current treatment strategy including botulinum toxin (BTX) injections has not yet attained an acceptable level. We describe a long-term favorable response of a novel combination therapy with aripiprazole (ARP), trihexyphenidyl (THP), and BTX in three patients with segmental craniocervical dystonia. The symptoms of three patients responded promptly to the combination therapy with ARP 3-6 mg daily, THP 2-8 mg daily, and BTX. Although the patients were required to receive a BTX 50-100 IU injection every 3-6 months, their symptoms were kept in a satisfactory condition for up to 2 years without any adverse effects. ARP possesses the potential for dramatically improving dystonia. THP has the possibility to enhance the efficacy of ARP and prolong the effective period of BTX. It may be an important requisite to give all three agents together for a successful treatment. The combination therapy with ARP, THP, and BTX was well-tolerated and useful in controlling the symptoms of segmental craniocervical dystonia, however, the reason why this combination therapy succeeded is unknown. A further long-term follow-up is required to monitor the delayed neurological adverse effects.

artane 20 mg

We studied 15 older adults before and after the oral administration of a single dose of 1 or 2 mg of the preferential M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist trihexyphenidyl (Artane™) or placebo in a double-blind randomized cross-over design. Hippocampus and basal forebrain volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging.

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artane drugs 2016-04-19

Quantitative assessment of selective blockade of M4-subtype muscarinic receptors was performed by the number of pilocarpine-induced movements of lower jaw in rats. Three antagonists (atropine, cyclodol, and glipin) were used in the experiments. Glipin produced the most potent blockade of M4 receptors in the whole organism compared to buy artane other test antagonist.

artane tablets 2015-12-12

This prospective observational study was conducted at an outpatient referral MD clinic of a tertiary buy artane care hospital for 1 year. The demographic data, drug intake, diagnosis, and ADRs experienced by the subjects were recorded. Causality assessment was done by Naranjo's scale.

artane 1 mg 2015-08-20

Levodopa remains the cornerstone for managing Parkinson's disease. Physician's preference usually determines the dopamine agonist chosen for the early phases of treatment. The concept of neuro-protection, however, remains buy artane unproven. A better understanding of the cause of the disease and treatment-related complications could make managing Parkinson's disease more rewarding.

artane reviews 2016-10-19

Randomised trials in adults after stroke where the intervention was specifically targeted at improving the eye movement disorder or improving the ability of the participant to cope with the eye movement disorder. The primary outcome was functional ability in activities of daily living. Secondary outcomes included functional ability in extended activities of daily living, eye movement measures, balance, buy artane falls, depression or anxiety, discharge destination or residence after stroke, quality of life and social isolation, adverse events, and death.

artane 20 mg 2017-08-25

We mainly found a flexion-extension tremor of the wrist with a frequency range of 4.7-6.7 Hz. There was no significant difference between the conditions. Mean onset age was 43±2.4 years. Medication included trihexyphenidyl, propranolol, primidone, and botulinum toxin. We found a positive family buy artane history in two patients and an injury prior to symptom onset in another two patients. Comparison of onset age, frequency range, family history, and injuries prior to onset revealed that our findings are very similar to previous findings on primary bowing tremor and primary writing tremor.

artane tab 2016-01-20

Drugs that act at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex have the ability to terminate nerve agent-induced seizures and modulate the neuropathologic consequences of agent exposure. Drugs with mixed anticholinergic and anti-NMDA properties potentially provide an ideal class of compounds for development as anticonvulsant treatments for nerve agent casualties. The present experiment evaluated the potential NMDA antagonist activity of 11 anticholinergic drugs by determining whether pretreatment with the compound was capable of protecting mice from the lethal effects of NMDA. The following anticholinergic drugs antagonized NMDA lethality and are ranked according to their potency: mecamylamine > procyclidine = benactyzine > biperiden > trihexyphenidyl. The anticholinergics atropine, aprophen, azaprophen, benztropine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), and scopolamine failed to show NMDA antagonist properties. In addition, and unexpectedly, diazepam, ethanol, and pentobarbital were also shown to be capable of antagonizing NMDA lethality over a certain range of doses. The advantages and limitations of using antagonism of NMDA lethality in mice as a bioassay buy artane for determining the NMDA antagonist properties of drugs are also discussed.

artane pills 2017-12-23

Experiments were carried out in mice to investigate the influence of diazepam (DZP) on dexamphetamine, parachloro-N-methylamphetamine (pCMA), cocaine, morphine, trihexyphenidyl or (in MAOIs pretreated) reserpine induced motor hyperactivity. The interaction of DZP with these hyperactivities in which probably different biochemical central mechanisms are involved allows to construct a profile of action of DZP and to approach its mechanism of action. The locomotor hyperactivities induced by dexamphetamine, pCMA, morphine, cocaine were not reduced by DZP even by doses which decrease spontaneous locomotor activity; low doses of DZP enhance the hyperactivity induced by these compounds. Those induced by trihexyphenidyle or by reserpine (after MAOI) were reduced by DZP at doses which produce no decrease in spontaneous motor activity. Inasmuch as DZP at low doses potentiates the effects of 4 different substances, the results can hardly be satisfactorily explained neither by an interference of the benzodiazepine on the metabolism of the drugs or by a depression of the anxiogenic action of dexamphetamine. Even though it may be difficult to relate the antagonism of DZP on trihexyphenidyl- or on reserpine- (after MAOI) induced motor hyperactivity to the suggested anticholinergic and dopaminergic actions of DZP, these effects may partly be buy artane involved in the increase in locomotor hyperactivity induced by dexamphetamine, morphine, or cocaine. The observed effect of DZP on pCMA induced locomotor hyperactivity does not support a possible antiserotonine action often suggested to explain the effects of benzodiazepines in conflict situations.

artane 6 mg 2017-12-13

During the summer of 2004, a 48-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus and schizophrenia was twice admitted to the hospital because of heat-related illnesses. On both occasions, he had been working under the sun in an open car park. His medications included benzhexol 2 mg twice daily, chlorpromazine 650 mg at bedtime, and zuclopenthixol decanoate intramuscular injection 600 buy artane mg every 4 weeks. In the first admission, the clinical diagnosis was heat stroke. He was discharged home on day 14, with precautionary advice against heat stroke. In the second admission, the clinical diagnosis was heat exhaustion. He was discharged home on day 4 and reminded of the precautions against heat stroke. An objective causality assessment revealed that the adverse event was possibly drug related in the first admission and probably drug related in the second admission.

artane 2mg tab 2016-01-05

Appetitive instrumental conditioned reflexes on light (CS+) were formed in six cats by the method of "active choice" of quality of reinforcement; bread-meat mixture was given after short-delay conditioned bar-press responses, and the delayed responses were rewarded by meat. The animals differed in choice behavior strategy: "self-control", "ambivalent", "impulsive". The multiunit activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus (CA3) was recorded. Cross-correlation analysis was used for estimation of correlation of activities in neuronal pairs in the frontal cortex and hippocampus (distributed frontal-hippocampal networks) and pairs within the same structure (frontal and hippocampal local neuronal networks). It was shown that the number of cross-correlations between the discharges of neurons both in the local and distributed networks was significantly higher in "self-control" cats. Under conditions of systemic administration of antagonists of muscarinic central cholinoreceptors (trihexyphenidyl and scopolamine), the bar-press conditioning impaired, the number of direct interneuronal connections decreased, and the buy artane number of externally synchronized correlations ("common input") significantly increased. The results suggest that the local and distributed neural networks of the frontal cortex and hippocampus are involved in the system of brain structures that determine the behavioral strategy of "self control".

artane windows reviews 2015-01-01

The influence of taurine on cataleptogenic effect of neuroleptics was investigated in male Wistar rats. It was found that taurine 900 micrograms/rat icv reduced significantly haloperidol or fluphenazine-induced catalepsy. In rats receiving taurine in a dose of 450 micrograms, not influencing catalepsy, with low doses of anticholinergic antiparkinsonian agents (trihexyphenidyl and buy artane pridinol) strong anticataleptic effect was observed. The results suggest that taurine facilitates neurotransmission in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

artane pediatric dose 2017-10-15

It was shown previously that peripherally administered antagonists of the central 1 M-cholinoreceptors led to a selective impairment of bar-pressing response in a food-reinforced operant conditioned task but did not alter contextual behavior and functions such as motivation, perception, and locomotion. To obtain information about the central mechanisms of the conditioning impairment, we recorded simultaneously the extracellular multiunit activity from the frontal and motor neocortical areas of five cats trained to acquisition criteria in a food-reinforced operant conditioning task. Multiunit recordings were performed drur 1) normal conditioning; 2) conditioning during subcutaneous administration of muscarinic antagonists scopolamine (0.03 mg/kg), trihexyphenidyl (1 mg/kg), and methylscopolamine (0.03 mg/kg). Autocorrelation analysis showed that buy artane scopolamine and trihexyphenidyl but not methylscopolamine led to a significant increase in the tendency of cortical cells to fire in a cyclic way (i.e., the shift of the firing pattern from a single-spike discharge to burst, rhythmic, or rhythmic-burst discharge) both in the motor and frontal areas. Cross-correlation analysis showed that the bursting and rhythmic-bursting cells synchronized their activity within and (in a number of cases) between the cortical areas. These changes in the neuronal activity within the motor cortex and frontal cortex were accompanied by a significant decrease in the functional connectivity both inside and between the cortical areas in parallel with selective impairment of the conditioned response.

artane drug wikipedia 2016-09-27

Risperidone was compared in 2 buy artane double blind studies with haloperidol and perphenazine in schizophrenic psychoses. According to the maximal daily dose achieved the risperidone group was divided in 4 subgroups and the risperidone efficacy and tolerability in these groups were compared both mutually and in relation to the baseline. With all doses a good global antipsychotic efficacy has been observed. There were no statistically significant differences in influencing of productive or negative symptoms with exception of significantly more pronounced reduction of productive catatonic symptoms with 2 < max < or = 5 mg in comparison with doses higher than 15 mg daily. Extrapyramidal symptoms were less frequent with lower doses: with 2 < max < or = 5 mg significantly lower occurrence of increased muscle tonus and tremor was found than with higher doses. With maximal daily doses above 10 mg antiparkinson drugs had to be applied in more patients and in the case of trihexyphenidyl this difference reached a statistically significant level.

parkinson drug artane 2016-08-23

Chemical pretreatment is effective against a 2 LD50 challenge of soman, sarin or VX or a 5 LD50 challenge of tabun. Chemical pretreatment followed by post challenge therapy should be effective against greater levels of agent. Such tests in guinea pigs are reported here; pretreatment regimens (PRGs) consisted of physostigmine (0.15 mg/kg, im) and an adjunct. The adjuncts [mg/kg, im] used were aprophen [8], atropine (AT)[16], azaprophen (AZA)[5], benactyzine [1.25], benztropine (BT) [4], scopolamine [0.08] and trihexyphenidyl [2]. Pretreatment was given 30 min before, and atropine (16 mg/kg, im) and 2-PAM (25 mg/kg, im) therapy (T) at one min after, 5 LD50s of agent. Results indicate that, all of the PRG+T regimens, except BT-not tested with T, prevent lethality by soman; trihexyphenidyl and scopolamine (the only adjuncts used therein) regimens each prevent lethality by sarin and VX. Against soman, all PRG+T regimens (vs PRG only) may shorten the median recovery time to 2 hrs or less. Even buy artane without therapy, the PRGs containing AT, AZA or BT prevent lethality by 5 LD50s of soman; however, used alone, only the PRG containing AZA reduces the incidence of convulsions at this level of soman.

artane 2mg tablet 2017-03-15

Pretreatment of nonhuman primates with physostigmine (Phy) and scopolamine or physostigmine and trihexyphenidyl 25 min before exposure to 2 LD50 soman im resulted in complete survival without convulsions or loss of consciousness. When identically pretreated animals were challenged with 5 LD50s of soman followed by atropine and 2-PAM therapy 1 min later, all animals experienced a loss of consciousness for approximately 10 min followed by functional recovery within an additional buy artane 20 min. These findings indicated that a pretreatment regimen composed of Phy and cholinolytic is capable of protecting primates from an absolute lethal dose of soman with rapid recovery from incapacitation.

artane maximum dose 2016-01-21

We report a 67-year-old female with orthostatic and voice tremor. Her orthostatic tremor mainly affected her lower extremities, alternating between antagonist muscle groups at a frequency of 4.4-4.8 Hz. The voice tremor ranged between 4.8 and 8.8 Hz. In this case, the frequency of voice tremor was same as that of orthostatic tremor, suggesting a common origin from a tremor-generating mechanism. These tremors were diagnosed as 'forme fruste' Avapro 75mg Generic of the essential tremor, not the incipient stage of Parkinson's disease. Medications including clonazepam, perphenazine, Dopa and trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride had no effect on both the orthostatic and voice tremors, but propranolol was somewhat beneficial on voice tremor.

artane drug action 2016-08-09

We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, surgical treatments, and physical treatments for focal Strattera Reviews Adults and generalised dystonia? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

artane medication trihexyphenidyl 2015-09-25

Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist clonidine and related drugs can offer significant protection against both the acute and chronic toxicity to soman administration in rats and mice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether addition of clonidine to a standard pretreatment protective regimen against soman toxicity could offer added protection or benefit. The standard regimen employed was a mixture of physostigmine salicylate (150 micrograms/kg) and artane (trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride 2 mg/kg). Rats were randomly assigned to one of 4 experimental groups: (1) those receiving i.m. sterile saline injection followed 30 min later by s.c. saline injection (normal controls); (2) saline, i.m. followed 30 min later by one of several doses (60-110 micrograms/kg of soman, s.c.; (3) saline, i.m., followed 10 min later by the standard pretreatment regimen i.m., followed by one of several Bystolic Cost Help doses of soman (160-300 micrograms/kg), s.c.; and (4) clonidine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg) i.m., followed 10 min later by the pretreatment regimen, followed 30 min later by soman. All animals were examined acutely and survivors were examined over a 3-week period following soman administration. The following observations were made: (1) Addition of clonidine to the standard pretreatment regimen did not enhance survival rate over the standard regimen alone (unless the clonidine was administered after the regimen). (2) Of the acutely toxic behavioral signs promoted by soman, clonidine addition to the standard regimen was of benefit only in reducing soman-induced tremor. (3) Addition of clonidine to the standard regimen appeared to hasten the return to normal motor behavior after soman; however, all groups exhibited normal motor behavior in 9 days. (4) Despite apparent normal motor behavior, soman-treated animals exhibited a marked performance deficit in the passive avoidance parameter 3 weeks after injection. The standard regimen partially preserved this effect; addition of clonidine to the standard regimen completely reversed the effect. These results indicate that clonidine provides a measure of protection against chronic behavioral deficits caused by soman intoxication.

artane medication dystonia 2016-06-08

Abnormal dopamine neurotransmission is associated with many different genetic and acquired dystonic disorders. For instance, mutations in genes critical for the synthesis of dopamine, including GCH1 and TH cause l-DOPA-responsive dystonia. Despite evidence that implicates abnormal dopamine neurotransmission in dystonia, the precise nature of the pre- and postsynaptic defects that result in dystonia are not known. To better understand these defects, we generated a knock-in mouse model of l-DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD) mice that recapitulates the human p.381Q>K TH mutation (c.1141C>A). Mice homozygous for this mutation displayed the core Aricept Dose features of the human disorder, including reduced TH activity, dystonia that worsened throughout the course of the active phase, and improvement in the dystonia in response to both l-DOPA and trihexyphenidyl. Although the gross anatomy of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons was normal in DRD mice, the microstructure of striatal synapses was affected whereby the ratio of axo-spinous to axo-dendritic corticostriatal synaptic contacts was reduced. Microinjection of l-DOPA directly into the striatum ameliorated the dystonic movements but cerebellar microinjections of l-DOPA had no effect. Surprisingly, the striatal dopamine concentration was reduced to ∼1% of normal, a concentration more typically associated with akinesia, suggesting that (mal)adaptive postsynaptic responses may also play a role in the development of dystonia. Administration of D1- or D2-like dopamine receptor agonists to enhance dopamine signalling reduced the dystonic movements, whereas administration of D1- or D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists to further reduce dopamine signalling worsened the dystonia, suggesting that both receptors mediate the abnormal movements. Further, D1-dopamine receptors were supersensitive; adenylate cyclase activity, locomotor activity and stereotypy were exaggerated in DRD mice in response to the D1-dopamine receptor agonist SKF 81297. D2-dopamine receptors exhibited a change in the valence in DRD mice with an increase in adenylate cyclase activity and blunted behavioural responses after challenge with the D2-dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole. Together, our findings suggest that the development of dystonia may depend on a reduction in dopamine in combination with specific abnormal receptor responses.

artane drug classification 2016-10-23

The investigation of the metabolism of the antiparkinson drugs trihexyphenidyl (1), pridinol (2) and biperiden (3) revealed a graduate tendency for hydroxylation in the different structural elements: If alicyclic, saturated heterocyclic and aromatic ring systems are present in one compound like in 1, the alicyclic ring system is attacked predominately. The amount of metabolites with hydroxy-groups in the saturated heterocyclic ring is much lower, and no hydroxylation Reglan Cost takes place in the aromatic ring. In drugs without alicyclic ring systems like 2 the saturated heterocyclus is attacked preferentially, but also some phenolic metabolites are formed. Consequently the following arrangement of falling hydroxylation-tendency can be established: Formula: see text. Probably this arrangement is of common validity and therefore a prediction on the hydroxylation-tendency of other compounds seems to be possible.

artane medication class 2017-05-21

In order to analyse the subtype of muscarinic receptors involved in the methacholine-induced contraction of the rabbit iris sphincter we have determined equilibrium dissociation constants (KB) of various antagonists in the sphincter muscle. The values were compared with those observed at M1 (rabbit vas deferens), M2 (heteroreceptors in rat iris) and M3 receptors (guinea-pig ileum), or at the muscarinic receptors in the guinea-pig uterus. The methacholine-induced contraction of the uterus from immature guinea-pigs was competitively antagonized by pirenzepine (6.64, -log KB), 4-DAMP (8.39), hexahydrodifenidol (HHD; 7.00 for the (R)- and 5.40 for the (S)-enantiomer), p-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol (p-F-HHSiD; 6.25) and valethamate bromide (8.04). The affinity of the antagonists is consistent with the presence of an M2 receptor. The -log KB values of the antagonists in the rabbit iris sphincter (6.43, p-F-HHSiD; 6.22, AQ-RA 741; 7.23 and Prograf Dosing 5.34, (R)- and (S)-trihexyphenidyl) were lower than, or within the lowest range of, estimates in the other experimental models, irrespective of the subtype selectivity of the antagonist. This excludes the presence of an M1, M2, M3 or M4 receptor in this smooth muscle. The affinity of UH-AH 37 in the iris was intermediate between that for M1 or M3, and M2 receptors. The low affinity of AQ-RA 741 and the low enantiomeric ratio of trihexyphenidyl (THP) in the iris (77.6) would be compatible with a presumed M5 receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

artane pill sizes 2017-05-01

A double-blind study of 42 psychotic patients treated with neuroleptics evaluated the need for prophylactic use of antiparkinsonian medication. The patients assigned to placebo (N = 27) presented significantly more severe extrapyramidal Requip Xl Generic symptomatology, particularly dystonias, than those given trihexyphenidyl (N = 15), indicating a need for the prophylactic use of antiparkinsonian medication during treatment with neuroleptics.

artane generic 2016-01-19

In this study we evaluated a cohort of 47 patients affected by dyskinetic cerebral palsy and treated with anticholinergic drug (trihexyphenidyl) over one year in order to verify the responsiveness of the new Antabuse Type Drugs scale.

artane 2 mg 2017-03-03

To examine whether acute dystonia is induced by neuroleptic treatment, common marmosets were treated with haloperidol orally twice a week over 25 weeks until dystonic behavior was elicited. Movement disorders such as acute dystonia were observed 6 weeks after the initial treatment, and had appeared in all treated animals by 25 weeks. Once these movement disorders were induced, they consistently reappeared after further treatment with haloperidol, and once haloperidol dosing was discontinued, the episodes vanished. Then, various neuroleptic drugs (bromperidol, chlorpromazine, risperidone thioridazine, sulpiride, tiapride, and clozapine) or a nonneuroleptic drug (diazepam) were administered orally instead of haloperidol in the above animals. All the neuroleptic drugs except for clozapine elicited similar abnormal behavior, while diazepam failed to induce any dystonia. An anticholinergic drug, trihexyphenidyl, which is known to reduce Cymbalta Prices Generic acute dystonia in patients, was also given orally to the above haloperidol-sensitized animals, followed by further treatment with haloperidol 30 min later. This clearly suppressed the induction of dystonia by haloperidol. The similarity between these findings for haloperidol-pretreated common marmosets and clinical findings suggests that the present model is useful for predicting the potential of antipsychotics to induce acute dystonia in humans.

artane brand name 2017-04-09

Significant differences were found between time points (T1 vs T0, T2 vs. T0 and T2 vs. T1) in both scales for all indexes with the exception for T2 vs. T1 for Index II in both scales and for T2 vs. T1 for the Global Index in the older age group. There was not significant correlation between observed changes in the scores and age of children, either for MD-CRS 0-3 or MD-CRS 4-18.

artane cost 2017-03-16

Immature female rats (21 days of age) were chronically intraperitoneally treated with guanethidine or muscarinic agents. The effects on the timing of puberty and ovarian wet weight, protein and total RNA and DNA contents were studied. While guanethidine (20.0 mg/kg/day) was ineffective, trihexyphenidyl and especially propantheline (15.0 mg/kg/day) delayed vaginal opening (by 23%) and the first vaginal oestrus (by 28%), and lowered ovarian weight (by 37%) and other ovarian growth parameters. Carbachol (0.2 mg/kg/day) reversed the effects of propantheline. Thus, in contrast to the adrenergic system, the cholinergic system appears to substantially contribute to the accurate onset of female puberty and ovarian growth in the rat.

artane medication 2016-04-16

Following single or repeated treatment with the irreversible anticholinesterase, DFP or, during infusion of the muscarinic receptor agonist, oxotremorine, and the reversible anticholinesterase physostigmine, effects of challenges with muscarinic antagonists were studied in rats. The antagonists, atropine, scopolamine, benztropine, orphenadrine and trihexyphenidyl induced, to a low degree, limb-shakes (myoclonus) and stereotyped behaviors in normal rats. However, within 24-72 hr after the above pretreatments, this myoclonus was significantly enhanced. The anticholinergic-stereotypies were also increased but only by severe cholinergic pretreatment and at a time later than that for the myoclonus. Myoclonus and stereotypies are known to be produced by treatments which directly enhance serotonergic and dopaminergic activities, respectively. It is suggested that during prolonged cholinergic stimulation, the cholinergic-monoaminergic balance in the brain can be altered depending upon the degree of stimulation. This could be responsible for the observed differential onset of changes in the anticholinergic-behavioral responses, which could, in turn, be mediated by different monoaminergic (serotonin and dopamine) systems.

artane dosage 2016-04-14

The authors report a patient with dystonia secondary to bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia, who improved dramatically with levodopa. The patient presented at the age of 4 years with progressive dystonia of the lower extremities and right upper extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed bilateral hyperintensities of the globus pallidus that remained stable over the years. Despite extensive investigations, the etiology of her basal ganglia lesions remained nebulous. The patient's dystonia responded to Trihexyphenidyl and to tetrabenazine, but these medications needed to be stopped because of side effects. At the age of 12 years, small doses of levodopa-carbidopa were tried and resulted in dramatic improvement of her dystonia. The authors believe that in the pediatric population with secondary dystonias other than Segawa disease, even though this has been reported only rarely to be effective, a therapeutic trial with levodopa should be considered in some instances.

artane pediatric dosage 2016-07-19

Sarin, a potent cholinesterase inhibitor, induces an array of toxic effects including convulsions and behavioral impairments. We report here on the protection provided by post-exposure antidotal treatments against a lethal dose of sarin (1.2xLD50) by scopolamine, benactyzine, trihexyphenidyl or caramiphen, administered 5, 10 or 20 min after the initiation of convulsions. A mixture of the oxime TMB4 and atropine (TA) was injected 1 min following poisoning a paradigm that may represent a scenario reminiscent of a terror incident. Surviving TA-treated rats exhibited marked tonic-clonic convulsions, weight loss, poor clinical status and abnormal cognitive performance as assessed by the Morris water maze. Additionally, a dramatic increase in the density of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs), a faithful marker for neuronal damage, was noted. Animals treated 5 min after the development of toxic signs with benactyzine, trihexyphenidyl or caramiphen demonstrated control levels of PBR values, whereas scopolamine produced binding densities significantly above basal levels. Examined at the 10-min time point, scopolamine and trihexyphenidyl afforded no protection against brain damage and did not differ from TA-injected rats. All four drugs failed to significantly prevent the alterations when applied 20 min after onset of convulsions. Assessment of learning processes yielded similar results, where caramiphen exibited some protection at the 20-min time point. Our results show that caramiphen and benactyzine, agents with combined anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic pharmacological profiles, offer considerable shielding against sarin, even when their administration is delayed.

artane drug class 2017-02-11

Twenty-one chronic schizophrenics were stabilized with chlorpromazine therapy at their therapeutic dosage for one month. Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride or identical placebo was then added according to a double-blind, split crossover design. The duration of each half of the crossover was 15 days. Steady state blood samples were drawn three times weekly during the experimental period and the amount of chlorpromazine was determined. The results indicated there were no differences in the levels obtained between the trihexyphenidyl and the placebo phases. A two-hour postdrug blood sample was also drawn at the end of each phase and again, there were no differences between the two conditions. The importance of these results is discussed.