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Celecoxib, a COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2)-selective inhibitor (coxib), is the only NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) that has been approved for adjuvant treatment of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. To investigate if the anti-proliferative effect of celecoxib extends to other coxibs, we compared the anti-proliferative potency of all coxibs currently available (celecoxib, rofecoxib, etoricoxib, valdecoxib, lumiracoxib). Additionally, we used methylcelecoxib (DMC), a close structural analogue of celecoxib lacking COX-2-inhibitory activity. Due to the fact that COX-2 inhibition is the main characteristic of these substances (with exception of methylcelecoxib), we conducted all experiments in COX-2-overexpressing (HCA-7) and COX-2-negative (HCT-116) human colon cancer cells, in order to elucidate whether the observed effects after coxib treatment depend on COX-2 inhibition. Cell survival was assessed using the WST proliferation assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined using flow cytometric and Western blot analysis. The in vitro results were confirmed in vivo using the nude mouse model. Among all coxibs tested, only celecoxib and methylcelecoxib decreased cell survival by induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and reduced the growth of tumor xenografts in nude mice. None of the other coxibs (rofecoxib, etoricoxib, valdecoxib, lumiracoxib) produced anti-proliferative effects, indicating the lack of a class effect and of a role for COX-2. Our data emphasize again the outstanding anti-proliferative activity of celecoxib and its close structural analogue methylcelecoxib in colon carcinoma models in vitro and in vivo.
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This study clearly demonstrates that NSAIDs can down-regulate the PA/plasmin system and gelatinases expression during the early stage of knee OA, thereby possibly affect the structural progression of the disease. This inhibition seems to be independent selection of COX-1 and COX-2.
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34 701 patients (24 913 with osteoarthritis and 9 787 with rheumatoid arthritis) were enrolled. Average treatment duration was 18 months (SD 11.8). 320 patients in the etoricoxib group and 323 in the diclofenac group had thrombotic cardiovascular events, yielding event rates of 1.24 and 1.30 per 100 patient-years and a hazard ratio of 0.95 (95% CI 0.81-1.11) for etoricoxib compared with diclofenac. Rates of upper gastrointestinal clinical events (perforation, bleeding, obstruction, ulcer) were lower with etoricoxib than with diclofenac (0.67 vs 0.97 per 100 patient-years; hazard ratio 0.69 [0.57-0.83]), but the rates of complicated upper gastrointestinal events were similar for etoricoxib (0.30) and diclofenac (0.32).
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This study investigated whether etoricoxib (COX-II blocker) has a superior efficacy of preventing heterotopic ossification (HO) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) compared to diclofenac (non-selective NSAID).
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Etoricoxib is a new COX-2 selective inhibitor under development for treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and acute pain. In this study, etoricoxib 120 mg provided rapid and long-lasting pain relief to patients with moderate-to-severe postdental surgery pain. Etoricoxib was generally well tolerated.
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Etoricoxib is a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor that selectively inhibits the COX-2 enzyme and decreases the incidences of side effects associated with these agents. It is commonly prescribed for acute pain, gouty arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Conventional tablets of etoricoxib are not capable of rapid action, which is required for faster drug effect onset and immediate relief from pain. Thus, the aim of the present investigation is to formulate orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of etoricoxib. A combination of the superdisintegrants with a sublimation technique was used to prepare the tablets. Tablets were prepared using a direct compression method employing superdisintegrants such as low substituted hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose (L-HPMC), low substituted hydroxyl-propyl cellulose (L-HPC), crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate. Tablets of etoricoxib prepared using L-HPC exhibited the least friability and disintegration time (approximately 65 s). To decrease the disintegration time further, a sublimation technique was used along with the superdisintegrants for the preparation of ODTs. The use of sublimating agents including camphor, menthol, and thymol was explored. The addition of camphor lowered the disintegration time (approximately 30 s) further, but the percent friability was increased. A 3(2) full factorial design was employed to study the joint influence of the amount of superdisintegrant (L-HPC) and the amount of sublimating agent (camphor) on the percent of friability and the disintegration time. The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that for obtaining an effective ODT of etoricoxib, higher percentages of L-HPC and camphor should be used. Checkpoint batches were prepared to validate the evolved mathematical model. A response surface plot is also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percent of friability and the disintegration time. The approach using the optimization technique helped to produce a detailed understanding of the effects of formulation parameters.
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The levels of pain during mobilization-both in the recovery unit and on the day after surgery-and consumption of opioids on the first postoperative day were similar in the 2 groups.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment will be necessary as part of our therapeutic armamentarium for many years to come. Therefore, safe prescription is mandatory in order to prevent adverse events. In the last two decades, new strategies and new drugs have been developed to reduce NSAID-associated upper gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events. Although the implementation of guidelines into clinical practice takes time, several studies have shown a recent and profound decrease in hospitalizations due to upper GI complications, which has been linked to widespread use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), better NSAID prescription, and decreased prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. This is encouraging.Safe NSAID prescription should be straightforward since the most relevant aspects are clinical in nature. Before issuing any prescription, three key questions should be considered:1) Is NSAID treatment necessary for this patient?2) What cardiovascular (CV) and GI risk factors does this patient have?3) What is the most suitable NSAID for this patient?GI and CV risk are easy to estimate, and we know that these risks are not the same for all NSAIDs. Selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, like celecoxib at usual doses, carry the lowest GI risk and are the best option in patients with moderate/high GI risk without high CV risk. Gastroprotective therapy (PPI as the drug of choice) should be considered if a non-selective NSAID is prescribed. For those at the highest risk, a combination of PPI plus a coxib is the best option. Also, eradication of H. pylori infection in patients with previous peptic ulcer or in NSAID-naïve users must be considered. Naproxen is the best option in patients with high CV risk and low/moderate GI risk.Patients taking aspirin represent a real challenge for treatment, since interaction with frequently prescribed NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofen/naproxen) may alter its antiplatelet effect, representing a potential clinical problem. Switching treatment (e.g. taking aspirin before NSAID dosing) may not be an alternative since interaction may persist, especially when taking enteric-coated aspirin. Changing NSAID treatment to diclofenac/celecoxib/etoricoxib may also not be an option in patients with high or previous CV event history. Under these circumstances, careful prescription should be considered at the individual patient level.When dyspepsia develops in an NSAID user, PPI co-therapy plus reduction of the NSAID dose or a change in the type of NSAID are valid alternatives, but clinical experience shows that, for some patients, stopping NSAID therapy may be the only option. After a bleeding episode, most patients can be managed with alternative therapy to NSAIDs, but if needed, a coxib plus a PPI and H. pylori eradication is a safe alternative.
Prostaglandins control osteoblastic and osteoclastic function under physiological or pathological conditions and are important modulators of the bone healing process. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and consequently prostaglandins synthesis. Experimental and clinical evidence has indicated a risk for reparative bone formation related to the use of non-selective (COX-1 and COX-2) and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Ketorolac is a non-selective NSAID which, at low doses, has a preferential COX-1 inhibitory effect and etoricoxib is a new selective COX-2 inhibitor. Although literature data have suggested that ketorolac can interfere negatively with long bone fracture healing, there seems to be no study associating etoricoxib with reparative bone formation. Paracetamol/acetaminophen, one of the first choices for pain control in clinical dentistry, has been considered a weak anti-inflammatory drug, although supposedly capable of inhibiting COX-2 activity in inflammatory sites.
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The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of two etoricoxib (CAS 202409-33-4) 60 mg formulations, namely Etocox-60 (test product) and reference product, and to evaluate whether these two formulations meet the FDA criteria to assume bioequivalence. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled into this randomized, single-dose, 2-way crossover, open-label pharmacokinetic study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive the test formulation followed by the reference formulation or vice versa as a single dose of 60 mg tablets after 12 h overnight fasting, with a washout period of two weeks. Following oral administration, blood samples were collected at 0 (baseline), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0, 12.0, 24.0, 48.0, 72.0, 96.0, and 120.0 h. Serum concentration of etoricoxib was assessed using a high performance liquid chromatographic-UV spectrometry procedure. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by the non-compartmental method. After administering a single dose of 60 mg of each etoricoxib formulation, the obtained mean (SD) values for the test and reference products were 1.26 (0.33) and 1.29 (0.35) microg/ml for Cmax; 3.25 (2.64) and 2.63 (1.40) h for t(max); 29.63 (8.31) and 30.40 (5.85) h x microg/ml for AUC0-120; and 31.84 (10.97) and 33.00 (8.10) h x microg/ml for AUC0-infinity, respectively. The mean t1/2 was found 27.99 (7.87) h and 29.84 (7.93) h for test and reference product respectively. From paired t-test, no significant differences were observed (p > 0.05) for any pharmacokinetic parameters. After analysis of variance, no period, sequence or formulation effects were observed for any pharmacokinetic property. The 90% confidence intervals of the test/reference mean ratios of the 1n-transformed AUC0-120, AUC0-infinity and Cmax mean values were 95.90% (85.37%-107.74 %), 94.69% (84.43%-106.20%) and 97.87% (85.54 %-111.98 %), respectively, which fell within the predetermined FDA bioequivalence range of 80%-125%. This single-dose study found that the test and reference formulations of etoricoxib met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence in terms of both rate and extent of absorption.
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Several tools are available to measure pain, functional limitation, and response to therapy for LBP. Studies have shown varying degrees of responsiveness and correlation.
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Patients with chronic urticaria frequently experience flares of hives following the ingestion of chemically unrelated nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The pathogenic mechanism of these reactions is based on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme inhibition. In most cases, nonselective NSAIDs, which inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2, are responsible for such adverse reactions; in contrast, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs exerting limited inhibition on COX-1 are generally better tolerated by these patients. This study aimed to detect tolerability of etoricoxib, a selective COX-2-inhibiting drug, in patients with chronic urticaria with a history of NSAID intolerance. Single-blind, placebo-controlled oral challenges with increasing doses of etoricoxib were carried out in 17 adult patients with chronic urticaria exacerbated by NSAID. All patients tolerated the drug at therapeutic doses. The study suggests that etoricoxib, with its favourable COX-1/COX-2 ratio, is well tolerated by patients with chronic urticaria exacerbated by NSAID intolerance.
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A prospective, hospital-based, observational cohort study was conducted in patients taking COX-2 inhibitors (celecoxib or etoricoxib) without comorbidity. COX-2 inhibitor prescription was conducted according to the guidelines issued by the Taiwan National Health Insurance and was identified by the computerized prescribing system of the Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Patients with cardiovascular disease, pulmonary, hepatic or renal insufficiency, or malignancy were excluded. Patients received regular follow-up once a month. Between visits, patients were asked to report to the outpatient clinic if they had persistent ulcer or GI symptoms (dyspepsia, vomiting, nausea, heartburn, or acid regurgitation) not relieved by antacids for 1 week, or to the emergency department if they had evidence of GI bleeding or ulcer complications (melena, hematemesis, hematochezia, or sudden onset of severe epigastric pain). Endoscopy was performed to document any gastroduodenal ulcers with or without ulcer complications. The primary end point was the annual incidence and the significant risk factors for clinical upper GI events (symptomatic ulcers and ulcer complications).
Fixed drug eruptions (FDE) are most commonly caused by antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The list of causative drugs changes with time and prescribing patterns but there has been no recent data on FDE seen in an outpatient setting in Singapore.
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Coxibs and common active internal controls showed larger effect sizes versus placebo in the rofecoxib/etoricoxib trials than in the celecoxib/valdecoxib trials. These findings suggest systematic differences among published coxib trials and emphasize the need for direct-comparison trials. In the absence of such trials, common internal controls should be assessed when performing indirect meta-analytic comparisons.
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COX-2 participates in the pathogenesis of IFS-induced HC and the treatment with COX and TNF-alpha inhibitors reduced COX-2 expression. The addition of COX-inhibitors to the last two doses of Mesna represents a new therapeutic strategy of preventing HC.
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Etoricoxib at doses of 90 mg and 120 mg demonstrated superior efficacy compared with placebo over 6 weeks, and compared with naproxen over 1 year. These study results demonstrate that etoricoxib is generally safe, well-tolerated, and efficacious for the treatment of AS.
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This was a pooled subgroup analysis of patients with chronic LBP from 2 identical studies comparing etoricoxib 60 mg, 90 mg, and placebo. LBP was assessed by the time-weighted average change from baseline over 12 weeks as measured by RMDQ, LBPI VAS, and PGART. Correlation was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient.
Both doses of etoricoxib were non-inferior to naproxen. All treatments were well tolerated. Etoricoxib 60 and 90 mg effectively control pain in patients with AS, with 60 mg once daily as the lowest effective dose for most patients.
A Markov model was used; it included different health states defined by gastrointestinal (GI) events: dyspepsia, symptomatic or complicated ulcer; or cardiovascular (CV) events: myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure. The model is similar to the one used by NICE in its NSAID evaluation of OA published in 2008. The total costs (€, 2012), including drug and event-related costs, and the health outcomes expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were estimated in patients with increased GI risk, aged 65 or over, for a 1-year time horizon and a 6-month treatment with celecoxib (200mg/day), celecoxib+PPI, diclofenac (150mg/day)+PPI, etoricoxib (60mg/day), etoricoxib+PPI, ibuprofen (1,800mg/day)+PPI, naproxen (1,000mg/day)+PPI or naproxen/esomeprazole (naproxen 1,000mg/esomeprazole 40mg/day). The selected PPI was omeprazole (20mg/day).