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Thirty-six subjects (17 men and 19 women) aged 67.8 +/- 11.3 years with an average insulin dose of 0.46 +/- 0.17 U/kg bodyweight, a duration of insulin therapy of 6.1 +/- 8.2 years and an average hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 6.8 +/- 1.3% were switched from insulin injection therapy to pioglitazone, glimepiride and voglibose combination therapy.
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In older patients with type 2 diabetes, life expectancy and the presence of microvascular complications determine the appropriate intensity of glucose control. The available antidiabetic agents offer many options for achieving glycemic targets, based on the needs of the individual patient. New stimulators of insulin secretion include glimepiride (a sulfonylurea) and repaglinide (a meglitinide). The biguanide metformin is especially useful in obese, insulin-resistant patients. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors such as acarbose and miglitol act locally in the GI tract to reduce postprandial excursion in glucose levels. The insulin-sensitizing drug troglitazone enhances insulin-mediated glucose disposal. When troglitazone is used, careful monitoring of patients' liver function is required.
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Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are not able to maintain adequate HbA(1c) control (<7.0%), even at maximal dosage levels of one or two oral agents, and are at increased risk for diabetes-related complications.
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Hypoglycaemia from antihyperglycaemic drugs may have a significant impact on patients' health-related quality of life. Combination use of metformin and a sulphonylurea has become increasingly common; yet, the impact of hypoglycaemia on quality of life in these patients is not well documented.
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This was an observational study and as such subjects were not randomised to treatments. While baseline measures appeared comparable, it is possible that differences in measured and unmeasured patient characteristics (e.g., measures of glycaemic control) could partially explain these results. Lastly, no inferential testing was performed on the comparisons between sulphonylurea types and/or countries.
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Patients were randomly assigned to receive either pioglitazone or rosiglitazone in addition to glimepiride in an open-labelled study. Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting lipid profile and blood pressure were recorded at baseline and at various intervals until the end of the study period at 12 weeks.
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Our previous studies demonstrated that glimepiride enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and led to activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Recent genetic evidence shows that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in bone homeostasis. In this study, we further elucidated the roles of eNOS, PI3K and Akt in bone formation by osteoblasts induced by glimepiride in a high glucose microenvironment. We demonstrated that high glucose (16.5 mM) inhibits the osteogenic differentiation potential and proliferation of rat osteoblasts. Glimepiride activated eNOS expression in rat osteoblasts cultured with two different concentrations of glucose. High glucose-induced osteogenic differentiation was significantly enhanced by glimepiride. Down-regulation of PI3K P85 levels by treatment with LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) led to suppression of P-eNOS and P-AKT expression levels, which in turn resulted in inhibition of RUNX2, OCN and ALP mRNA expression in osteoblasts induced by glimepiride at both glucose concentrations. ALP activity was partially inhibited by 10 µM LY294002. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glimepiride-induced osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts occurs via eNOS activation and is dependent on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in a high glucose microenvironment.
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Canagliflozin is a newly approved drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This agent lowers blood glucose mainly by increasing urinary glucose excretion through inhibition of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) in the kidneys. Data derived from randomized clinical trials lasting up to 52 weeks suggest that canagliflozin is generally well tolerated. The most common adverse effects are genital mycotic infections occurring in 11-15% of women exposed to canagliflozin versus 2-4% of those randomized to glimepiride or sitagliptin. In men, corresponding proportions are 8-9% versus 0.5-1%. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are slightly increased (5-7%) with the use of canagliflozin compared with placebo (4%). The risk of hypoglycemia associated with canagliflozin is marginally higher than placebo, but markedly increases when the drug is used in conjunction of insulin or sulfonylureas (SU), in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and in the elderly. Worsening renal function and hyperkalemia may occur in patients using canagliflozin, particularly in patients with underlying CKD. Mild weight loss (mean 2-4 kg) and lowering of blood pressure represent 2 advantages of canagliflozin owing to its osmotic diuretic effect. However, the latter action may lead to postural hypotension and dizziness in susceptible subjects. Another concerning adverse effect of canagliflozin is an average 8% increase in plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared with placebo. Overall, canagliflozin is a useful addition for treatment of type 2 diabetes, but its safety needs to be established in long-term clinical trials.
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Sulfonylureas may stimulate glucose metabolism by protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Because interaction of insulin receptors with PKC plays an important role in controlling the intracellular sorting of the insulin-receptor complex, we investigated the possibility that the sulfonylurea glimepiride may influence intracellular routing of insulin and its receptor through a mechanism involving PKC, and that changes in these processes may be associated with improved insulin action. Using human hepatoma Hep-G2 cells, we found that glimepiride did not affect insulin binding, insulin receptor isoform expression, and insulin-induced receptor internalization. By contrast, glimepiride significantly increased intracellular dissociation of the insulin-receptor complex, degradation of insulin, recycling of internalized insulin receptors, release of internalized radioactivity, and prevented insulin-induced receptor down-regulation. Association of PKC-betaII and -epsilon with insulin receptors was increased in glimepiride-treated cells. Selective depletion of cellular PKC-betaII and -epsilon by exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or treatment of cells with PKC-betaII inhibitor G06976 reversed the effect of glimepiride on intracellular insulin-receptor processing. Glimepiride increased the effects of insulin on glucose incorporation into glycogen by enhancing both sensitivity and maximal efficacy of insulin. Exposing cells to TPA or G06976 inhibitor reversed these effects. Results indicate that glimepiride increases intracellular sorting of the insulin-receptor complex toward the degradative route, which is associated with both an increased association of the insulin receptor with PKCs and improved insulin action. These data suggest a novel mechanism of action of sulfonylurea, which may have a therapeutic impact on the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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In Chinese T2DM patients, liraglutide treatment led to increased adiponectin and decreased resistin levels compared to glimepiride-treated subjects, while inducing similar glycemic changes.
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To examine the release of counterregulatory hormones and consecutive glimepiride serum concentrations during severe hypoglycaemia (SH) associated with glimepiride therapy.
An analytical method based on isocratic reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography was developed and validated for the separation and quantification of eight antidiabetic drugs: rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, glipizide, gliclazide, repaglinide, nateglinide, glibenclamide, and glimepiride for their application in human plasma assay. Metformin is used as internal standard. Analysis was done on Onyx monolithic C(18) column (100 × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm) using a mixture of 0.05% formic acid in water and methanol in the ratio of 42 : 58 (v/v) fixed at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and they were monitored at 234 nm. Separation was achieved in less than 20 min. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 50-2000 ng/mL. The method was validated for its recovery, intra- and interday precision, stability, specificity, and selectivity. Plasma samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction of analytes. Hence, the developed method was found to be suitable for the routine analysis of selected antidiabetic drugs in biological matrices.
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Activation of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1; also known as G-protein-coupled receptor 40) by fatty acids stimulated glucose-dependent β-cell insulin secretion in preclinical models. We aimed to assess whether selective pharmacological activation of this receptor by TAK-875 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus improved glycaemic control without hypoglycaemia risk.
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Estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized rats caused increased bone remodeling, with an intensification of bone resorption and formation, and mineralization impairment. Glimepiride in ovariectomized rats inhibited the development of changes in the skeletal system caused by estrogen deficiency, intensifying bone formation. In the presence of estrogens (in non-ovariectomized rats), glimepiride also intensified bone formation, but to a lesser extent.
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Type 2 diabetes patients (aged ≥18 years) were randomized to Sita/Met or glimepiride for 30 weeks after a wash-off run-in period. The primary endpoint was change from baseline (CFB) in HbA1c. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of patients achieving target goal (HbA1c < 7.0 % [53 mmol/mol]) and CFB in fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Safety assessments comprised weight gain from baseline and the incidence of adverse events (AEs).
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A total of 136 (34%) patients reported experiencing hypoglycaemia, of whom 78 (58%) experienced mild, 40 (30%) experienced moderate and 16 (12%) experienced severe or very severe symptoms. Mean score on the HFS-II Worry scale was higher for patients who reported having hypoglycaemia than for those who did not (19.0 vs. 10.2; p < 0.0001) and increased with severity of hypoglycaemic symptoms. In linear regression analyses, more severe symptoms of hypoglycaemia were significantly associated with higher scores on the HFS-II Worry scale (p = 0.0162) among patients with hypoglycaemic symptoms. Summary scores on the EQ-5D were lower for patients who reported hypoglycaemia than for those who did not (p = 0.0001) and, in multivariate analysis, the experience of hypoglycaemia was negatively associated with the EQ-5D summary score (p < 0.0001).
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GRADE will compare the long-term effectiveness of major glycemia-lowering medications and provide guidance to clinicians about the most appropriate medications to treat T2DM. GRADE begins recruitment at 37 centers in the U.S. in 2013.
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The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two insulin therapies with respect to long-term complications in type 2 diabetes patients using the Diabetes Mellitus Model (DMM). The therapies under investigation were insulin glargine combined with the oral antidiabetic agents, glimepiride and metformin, (BOT = basal supported oral treatment) and premixed insulin (CT = conventional therapy).
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Canagliflozin led to improvements in reducing glycated hemoglobin A1c levels and body weight with low risk of hypoglycemia in patients with T2DM. Common adverse effects including genital tract infections and osmotic diuresis-related AEs were identified and reviewed. Risks of cardiovascular events are even less certain, and more data on long-term effects are needed.
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The aim of this study was to examine the influence of weight change experiences over time on motivation to perform diabetes self-care behaviors using data from a study of canagliflozin (an agent that inhibits sodium glucose co-transporter 2) versus glimepiride in dual therapy with metformin and background diet/exercise.
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We conducted CYP2C9 genotyping for 29 healthy volunteers who had participated in our previous pharmacokinetic studies on glyburide or glimepiride.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an academic health centre enterprise-wide electronic health record (EHR) system to identify 23 915 patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated monotherapy with metformin (N = 12774), glipizide (N = 4325), glyburide (N = 4279) or glimepiride (N = 2537), ≥ 18 years of age, with and without a history of CAD, and not on insulin or a non-insulin injectable at baseline. The patients were followed for mortality by documentation in the EHR and Social Security Death Index. Multivariable Cox models with propensity analysis were used to compare cohorts.
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Glimepiride 4 mg or placebo was added in randomised order for three months with a washout period of 6 weeks. All insulin regimens were allowed. Insulin doses were reduced if considered necessary. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed at the end of each period.
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The three dual therapies using a combination of metformin and either sulfonylurea, pioglitazone, or sitagliptin showed similar glycemic effectiveness among drug-naïve Korean T2D patients. In addition, these regimens were similarly effective across a wide range of baseline HbA1c levels.
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We did a meta-analysis of eight phase 3 trials and one phase 2b trial in which patients were randomly assigned to albiglutide, placebo, or active comparators (glimepiride, insulin glargine, insulin lispro, liraglutide, pioglitazone, or sitagliptin). The safety population included 5107 patients, of whom 2524 took albiglutide (4870 person-years) and 2583 took comparators (5213 person-years). Possible major cardiovascular events were recorded prospectively and adjudicated by an independent endpoint committee masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was a composite of first occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (ie, cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke) or hospital admission for unstable angina. Secondary endpoints were major adverse cardiovascular events alone, all-cause mortality, silent myocardial infarction, hospital admission for heart failure, chest pain, other angina, and subdural or extradural haemorrhage. The occurrence of all other adverse events classified by the investigators as cardiovascular events were documented, but these were not adjudicated.
This study was designed to test the efficacy and safety of low-dose rosiglitazone, a potent, insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinedione, in combination with sulphonylurea in Type 2 diabetic patients.
The aim of this work was to compare treatment intensification strategies based on orally administered vs injectable incretin-based antihyperglycaemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on metformin monotherapy.
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We evaluated the effect of glimepiride plus metformin and rosiglitazone plus metformin on glucose, and on cardiovascular risk parameters such as lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) and homocysteine (HCT) in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Ninety-nine patients in the multicentre, randomized, double-blind study took metformin (1500 mg/day) plus glimepiride (2 mg/day) or rosiglitazone (4 mg/day) for 12 months. Changes in body mass index, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), Lp(a) and HCT were primary efficacy variables. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG) and homeostasis model assessment index were also used to assess efficacy. On average, HbA1c decreased by 9.1% and 8.1%, FPG decreased by 7.3% and 10.9%, and PPG decreased by 7.6% and 10.5%, respectively, in the glimepiride and rosiglitazone groups after 12 months. Patients receiving rosiglitazone experienced more rapid improvement in glycaemic control than those on glimepiride, and showed a significant improvement in insulin resistance-related parameters. There was a statistically significant decrease in basal homocysteinaemia in glimepiride-treated patients (-27.3%), but not in rosiglitazone-treated patients. Rosiglitazone plus metformin significantly improved long-term control of insulin resistance-related parameters compared with glimepiride plus metformin, although glimepiride treatment was associated with a slight improvement in cholesterolaemia, not observed in the rosiglitazone-treated patients, and with significant improvements in non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as basal homocysteinaemia and plasma Lp(a) levels.