Generic Albenza is a medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of certain tapeworm infections. Generic Albenza is acting by killing sensitive parasites. It is an anthelmintic.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Albendazole.
The target of Generic Albenza is struggle against certain tapeworm infections. Generic Albenza is acting by killing sensitive parasites. It is an anthelmintic.
Generic name of Generic Albenza is Albendazole.
Albenza is also known as Albendazol, Albex, Alminth, Helmidazole, Eskazole, Zentel.
Brand name of Generic Albenza is Albenza.
If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.
Take Generic Albenza tablets orally with food.
Take Generic Albenza at the same time with water.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Albenza suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Albenza and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Albenza are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Albenza if you are allergic to Generic Albenza components.
Try to be careful with Generic Albenza if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Albenza can harm your baby.
Generic Albenza may rarely lower the ability of your body to fight infection.
You must use an effective form of birth control while you take Generic Albenza and for at least 1 month after you stop taking it. .
Generic Albenza should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 1 year old.
Avoid alcohol if you want to achieve most effective results.
It can be dangerous to stop Generic Albenza taking suddenly.
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In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF). The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission.
Quinine, albendazole and primaquine induce CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 at the transcriptional level. Considering the plasma concentrations (C(max)) achieved in vivo after administration of a therapeutic dose, induction by quinine and albendazole might be of clinical significance. The induction by primaquine, however, may not be of pharmacological or toxicological significance as concentrations at which it occurs are much higher than those attained in vivo.
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It is difficult to completely eradicate strongyloidiasis, a human intestinal nematode infection with Strongyloides stercoralis with drugs, especially in males. To find host factors involved in the response to treatment, patients infected with S. stercoralis were examined for S. stercoralis-specific antibody titers and the effect of treatment with albendazole on these titers were determined. The cure rate was slightly but not significantly lower in males than in females (P = 0.108). However, a significantly higher titer of S. stercoralis-specific IgG4 antibody was observed in males than in females (P = 0.0097), and the S. stercoralis-specific IgG4 antibody titer was significantly higher in the male non-cured group than in the cured group (P = 0.035). These results suggest that elevation of the S. stercoralis-specific IgG4 antibody titer is associated with resistance to treatment of S. stercoralis infection, especially in males.
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Few chemotherapeutic agents are available for the medical management of hydatid disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. In order to test the potential of oxfendazole for the treatment of infection with this parasite, nine infected goats and four sheep were given oxfendazole twice weekly at a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks and monitored by ultrasound for an additional 4 weeks. Efficacy was finally evaluated by postmortem examination, including determination of protoscolex viability and cyst wall histology. In treated animals, protoscolices were dead or absent in 97% of cysts from oxfendazole-treated animals compared to 28% of cysts from untreated control animals. On postmortem examination, 53% of cysts from treated animals were found to be grossly degenerate. A sample of those cysts that appeared potentially viable all demonstrated evidence of severe damage to the cyst wall. By light microscopy, cysts showed severe disorganization of the adventitial layer with invasion of inflammatory cells and in some cases frank necrosis with no apparent adventitial layer. The follow-up period for assessment of the drug's ability to cause complete degeneration and resorption of cysts was relatively short. This study, however, indicates that oxfendazole is at least as effective as and is easier to administer than albendazole for the treatment of hydatid disease.
Tabernaemontana citrifolia (Apocynaceae) is traditionally used as an anthelmintic preparation for ruminants in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of this plant against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of T. citrifolia fruit, leaf and root were tested on four developmental stages of the parasite, using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI), and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects were observed for the different parts of T. citrifolia but with differences depending on the parasitic stage; efficacies on the larval development of H. contortus from 88.9% to 99.8% for fruit, from 72.1% to 83.8% for root and from 33.5% to 85% for leaf with dose-dependent effect for the methanolic extract. The root gave the best result on EHA (22.7% efficacy for dichloromethane extract) and AWM (56% efficacy, with dose-dependent effect for dichloromethane extract) and the leaf on LMI (49.4% efficacy). These results suggest that T. citrifolia possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active ingredients responsible for the activity could be the alkaloid compounds present in the plant parts of the plant.
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The phytochemical evaluation was carried out by qualitative analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity of extract was studied using free radical scavenging assay, ability of reduction, total phenol and total flavonoid contents determination assays. The anthelmintic activity was determined using paralysis and death time of Pheretima posthuma (earthworm) and thrombolytic activity by clot disruption assay.
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Lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) is a global public health problem caused by the parasitic nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. We have previously reported anthraquinones from daylily roots with potent activity against pathogenic trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Here we report the synthesis of novel anthraquinones A-S and their antifilrarial activity. Anthraquinones A-S were synthesized by a single-step Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction between phthalic anhydrides and substituted benzenes. The antifilarial properties of these synthetic anthraquinones were tested against microfilaria as well as adult male and female worms of B. malayi. The most active anthraquinone was K, which showed 100% mortality within 1, 5, and 3 days, respectively, against microfilaria and adult male and female worms at 5 ppm concentration. Albendazole, an oral drug currently used to treat parasitic infections, was used as a positive control. Methylated products of anthraquinones did not affect the microfilaria. Histological examination of treated adult female parasites showed most of the anthraquinones caused marked effects on intrauterine embryos.
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Treatment of hepatic cysts should be considered only for those patients who are symptomatic. For simple cysts, percutaneous aspiration invariably leads to recurrence; laparoscopic deroofing is usually curative. Open deroofing (fenestration) should be reserved for cysts inaccessible by laparoscopy. Percutaneous instillation of sclerosing agents (ethanol, iophendylate, minocycline) into nonbiliary and nonparasitic cysts is an alternative therapeutic option in certain cases. Due to increased morbidity, hepatic resection should be reserved for polycystic liver disease, diffuse hepatic involvement, or recurrence after a deroofing procedure. Patients with congenital fibropolycystic disorders (eg, congenital hepatic fibrosis) with evidence of hepatic decompensation, should be considered for liver transplantation. For hepatic hydatid cysts, simple cystectomy or the PAIR (puncture, aspirate, inject, and reaspirate) technique with albendazole treatment have been shown to be equally successful. In the case of alveolar echinococcosis, hepatic resection and liver transplantation are the only effective modalities for localized and extensive hepatic disease, respectively.
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1. The comparative rates of oxidation of the benzimidazole anthelmintic, albendazole (ABZ), by sheep and cattle liver microsomes, and inhibition by the antithyroid compound methimazole (MTZ) were investigated. 2. ABZ was oxidized to its sulphoxide metabolite (ABZSO) in an NADPH concentration-dependent reaction. Heat inactivation of the microsomal flavin-containing mono-oxygenase system significantly decreased the NADPH consumption of microsomes in the presence of ABZ, MTZ and thiourea. 3. Oxidation of ABZ, MTZ and thiourea by sheep liver microsomes consumed significantly more NADPH than oxidation by cattle microsomes. 4. Neither the pro-ABZ drug, netobimin, nor the ABZ sulphone metabolite (ABZSO2) was modified by incubation with either sheep or cattle liver microsomes. 5. ABZSO was oxidized into ABZSO2 at a very slow rate and only when a high microsomal protein concentration was used. 6. MTZ was a potent inhibitor of ABZ sulphoxidation and the inhibition was significantly lower in cattle than in sheep microsomes.
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A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on STH reinfection. The effect of the supplement was assessed at 3 and 6 months after receiving interventions; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/daily of albendazole tablets.
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We describe the clinical features of nine children affected by toxocariasis admitted to our Infectious Diseases department from 2004 to 2006.
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Ascariasis is a helminthic infection of global distribution with more than 1.4 billion persons infected throughout the world. The majority of infections occur in the developing countries of Asia and Latin America. Of 4 million people infected in the United States, a large percentage are immigrants from developing countries. Ascaris-related clinical disease is restricted to subjects with heavy worm load, and an estimated 1.2 to 2 million such cases, with 20,000 deaths, occur in endemic areas per year. More often, recurring moderate infections cause stunting of linear growth, cause reduced cognitive function, and contribute to existing malnutrition in children in endemic areas. HPA is a frequent cause of biliary and pancreatic disease in endemic areas. It occurs in adult women and can cause biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, acute cholangitis, acute pancreatitis, and hepatic abscess. RPC causing hepatic duct calculi is possibly an aftermath of recurrent biliary invasion in such areas. Ultrasonography can detect worms in the biliary tract and pancreas and is a useful noninvasive technique for diagnosis and follow-up of such patients. ERCP can help diagnose biliary and pancreatic ascariasis, including ascaris in the duodenum. Also, ERCP can be used to extract worms from the biliary and pancreatic ducts when indicated. Pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole, albendazole and levamisole are effective drugs and can be used for mass therapy to control ascariasis in endemic areas.
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One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index.
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The lung is the most frequent location of hydatid cysts (HC). Cardiac and vascular HC are rare, and the primary location in the pulmonary artery is exceptional.
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The comparative efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole in the treatment of intestinal nematode infections were compared 3 weeks after treatment in a randomized trial among schoolchildren on Pemba Island, Tanzania. Egg counts were compared 3 weeks, 4 months and 6 months after treatment of 731 children seen on each occasion. Differences in the efficacies were apparent with some nematodes 21 d after treatment, but these were no longer apparent 4 months after treatment, and by 6 months intensities of infection were similar to pre-treatment levels. These findings suggest that treatment of schoolchildren every 4 months may be necessary in this highly endemic area in order to have an impact on the intensity of intestinal nematode infections sufficient to be likely to reduce morbidity.
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Netobimin was tested for efficacy against Haemonchus contortus using 7 groups of 5 parasite-free lambs of six months age. The lambs in group 1 and 2 were infected with 10,000 larvae of a benzimidazole susceptible strain and those in groups 3-7 with the same dose of a resistant strain. The following treatment scheme was applied 21 days after infection: lambs in groups 2 and 4-7.5 mg kg-1 netobimin, in group 5-20 mg kg-1 netobimin, in group 6-5 mg kg-1 oxfendazole and in group 7--3.8 mg kg-1 albendazole. The lambs in groups 1 and 3 remained untreated. All lambs were slaughtered 28 days after infection. Egg counts decreased in all lambs after treatment, but increased again in lambs in groups 4, 6 and 7. There was a slight increase in lambs in group 5, while those in group 2 remained negative. Post-mortem worm counts showed a reduction of 99.8 per cent in lambs in group 2 compared to those in group 1. In lambs in group 4-7 the reduction of worm counts was respectively 40.9, 89.5, 24.7 and 40.7 per cent compared to those in group 3. Egg development assays carried out 20 days after infection showed an average LD50 of 0.46 mg ml-1 thiabendazole for the resistant strain. After treatment (day 27) the LD50 was 0.53, 0.48, 0.58, 0.56 and 0.47 in lambs in the groups 3-7. It is concluded that netobimin and other (pro)-benzimidazoles should not be used in cases of benzimidazole resistance and that levamisole, pyrantel tartrate or ivermectin are preferable.
Studies coordinated by the World Health Organization were conducted in seven clinical centres on the chemotherapy of human echinococcosis with mebendazole, albendazole, and flubendazole. The first phase of these ended with the following conclusions.Treatment of 85 patients with mebendazole for cystic (Echinococcus granulosus) echinococcosis was successful in 8 patients and partially successful in 4 others. Flubendazole was effective in only one case of lung echinococcosis. Albendazole was successful in 5 of 30 patients treated and partially successful in 4 others. Further studies on new drugs or new formulations of existing benzimidazoles and on better forms of their application are needed. In the mean time, chemotherapy of human cystic echinococcosis should be restricted to inoperable cases.In 54 patients with E. multilocularis echinococcosis, it was confirmed that mebendazole therapy may arrest the development of the lesions. This treatment is therefore indicated in most cases of alveolar echinococcosis with or without surgery. However, further studies are needed to clarify the optimal regimen for mebendazole treatment and to explore the effectiveness of albendazole therapy.
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Glutathione transferases (GSTs) represent a large family of enzymes. In the high throughput sequencing of the cDNA library constructed from the adult stage of Clonorchis sinensis (Cs), we isolate another cDNA clone encoding a novel cytosolic GST enzyme. To discriminate with our former reported CsGST, we designated this GST as CsGST1. This new cDNA contains 744 bp with a putative open reading frame of 213 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits 88% identity to Opisthorchis viverrini 28GST (Ov28GST), 60 and 52% identity to C. sinensis cytosolic 28-kDa GST (Cs28GST) and CsGST, respectively. The CsGST1 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) as a His-tag fusion protein and was purified by Ni-NTA agarose. The recombinant CsGST1 showed moderate GST activity of 0.79 U mg(-1). The average K (m) of the CsGST1 for 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene is 150 microM. Cibacron blue F3GA and albendazole inhibited the CsGST1 activity with average IC(50) values of 9.1 and 265.4 muM, respectively. The nucleotide sequence reported in this paper was submitted to the GenBank Database with accession number DQ342327.
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Among children, infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) can cause anemia, impaired growth, and absence from school. Sustainable control of STH infection requires that appropriate latrines be integrated with health-promotion education. We report a pilot study of the effects of a combined latrine-education intervention in Central Java, Indonesia. The participants were 99 children (3-13 years old) in two villages (intervention and control) south of Semarang city. Stool samples were collected from the children and were examined for the presence of helminth eggs. After baseline data were collected, latrines were constructed and health education was given in the intervention village. Then, in both villages, all children who had STH infection at baseline were given 400 mg of albendazole. Eight months later, follow-up stool samples were collected and examined. In both villages, 20% of the children had STH infection at baseline. At follow-up, the incidence of STH infection was much lower in the intervention village than in the control village (4.0% vs. 20.4%; p<0.02). The results of this small pilot study give some confidence that a scaled-up study involving many more children and cluster-randomization of the intervention will be feasible and could provide more conclusive evidence of the intervention's effectiveness.
Iron deficiency, anemia and hookworm disease are important public health problems for women of reproductive age living in developing countries and affect the health of newborns and infants. Iron supplementation and deworming treatment are effective in addressing these problems in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Daily iron supplementation and deworming after the first trimester is recommended for pregnant women although these programs usually do not operate efficiently or effectively. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular deworming for non-pregnant women may be a viable approach for improving iron status and preventing anemia during the reproductive years. Addressing these diseases at a population level before women become pregnant could significantly improve women's health before and during pregnancy, as well as their infants' growth and development.
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Percutaneous drainage combined with albendazole therapy is an effective and safe method for managing hydatid cysts of the liver that requires a short hospital stay. Disappearance of the cysts depends on cyst size. Multivesicular cysts have a more complicated course, a slower disappearance, and a higher incidence of positive echinococcal-antibody titers. Abscess formed after the procedure can be treated successfully by percutaneous drainage.
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Mean values for the children at day 0 were as follows: hemoglobin 10.3 +/- 1.6 g/dL, retinol 19.1 +/- 6.0 microg/dL, C reactive protein 75 +/- 63 mg/L and ferritin 213 +/- 203 microg/L. On day 30 after treatment, hemoglobin and plasma retinol concentrations increased in 1.4 +/- 1.4 g/dL and 11.5 +/- 8.1 microg/dL, whereas the C reactive protein and ferritin concentrations decreased to 66 +/- 60 mg/L, and 184 +/- 203 microg/L, respectively. No statistically significant differences appeared among the groups. On day 8, significant differences between the groups were observed in hemoglobin concentrations Group MAP was higher when compared to other groups.
We studied 54 patients younger than 17 years of age with neurocysticercosis to determine the clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and prognostic factors of this condition.
Drenching strategies for lambs designed to slow the development of anthelmintic resistance, by increasing the pool of susceptible worms available to dilute resistant survivors after treatment, resulted in increased numbers of H. contortus and T. colubriformis but not other species of parasite on pasture. The increased parasite challenge to lambs in the autumn was associated with small production losses, which may be acceptable to farmers wishing to implement such strategies. It is clear that further work is required on the interaction between management practices and the population dynamics of parasites, especially with regard to creating pools of susceptible genotypes to slow the development of drench resistance.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus is a disease that affects both humans and animals. In humans the disease is treated by surgery with a supplementary option of chemotherapy with a benzimidazole compound. During the present study heat-shock protein 60 (HSP 60) was identified as one of the most frequently expressed biomolecules by E. granulosus after albendazole treatment. Data were correlated with 14-3-3 protein signature, and overexpression of this molecule after albendazole induction was an indicator of cell survival and signal transduction during in vitro maintenance of E. granulosus for up to 72 h. This observation was further correlated with a uniform expression pattern of a housekeeping gene (actin II). Out of three β-tubulin gene isoforms of E. granulosus, β-tubulin gene isoform 2 showed a conserved point mutation indicative of benzimidazole resistance.
Three experiments defined the resistance profile of a population of Haemonchus contortus, which was shown to express multiple resistances to the benzimidazole, levamisole, macrocyclic lactone and salicylanilide anthelmintic classes when given as a registered combination. Study 1 was a faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test and the efficacies for the anthelmintics were monepantel, 100%; abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole, 40.0%; and abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole+naphthalophos, 100%. No larvae were recovered from the post-treatment cultures for monepantel or the 4-way treatment, and for the 3-way treatment the culture was 100% Haemonchus spp. Efficacies in Study 2 were calculated from mean post-mortem nematode burdens of H. contortus and were levamisole+oxfendazole, 3.1%; abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole, 5.0%; ivermectin, 0.4%; moxidectin, 28.4% and closantel, 70.2%. Study 3 was also a FECR test that resulted in efficacies of 100% for monepantel and 83.0% for a formulated 4-way combination of abamectin+levamisole+albendazole+closantel. Larvae recovered from the post-treatment culture for the combination-treated sheep were all Haemonchus spp. Multi-resistant parasites such as examined in these studies are a continuing challenge to be managed by farmers and their advisors. Control programs must be planned and well-managed, and should include on-farm testing for anthelmintic resistance, monitoring of nematode burdens (by FEC and larval culture) to determine appropriate treatment times and the management of pastures to reduce the overall parasite challenge. This should be in balance with the generation, use and maintenance of drug-susceptible nematode populations in refugia.
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Cystic Echinococcosis is a disease of the middle aged. Ultrasonogram combined with a serological assay is the best diagnostic tool available for abdominal echinococcosis allowing diagnosis and staging, while chest X ray is the best screen for the pulmonary disease. The recommended treatment is endocystectomy with antihelmenthic therapy. But the problem of early detection of echinococcosis in endemic areas needs attention by workers as this approach can potentially prevent the devastating complications due to this disease.
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